Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus

From Embryology
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Human Immunodeficiency Virus, transmission electron micrograph (Image: CDC USA)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maternal transmission of HIV can occur perinatally in utero, during labour and delivery, or postnatally through breastfeeding and can be reduced by the use of antiretroviral treatment and avoidance of breastfeeding.

Neonatal infection diagnosis can be made by PCR from 6-12 week.

UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, estimated that 38.6 million people had HIV (2005), 17.3 million were women. About 3.28 million pregnant women infected with HIV give birth each year (the majority in sub-Saharan Africa) leading to 700,000 new infections of HIV in children each year. (text modified from Gray and McIntyre, BMJ 2007;334:950-953)

Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | West Nile virus | varicella virus | vaccination | zoonotic infection | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Some Recent Findings

  • Prenatal diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: a new screening program for chromosomal anomalies[1] "This study was undertaken to describe a new prenatal diagnosis program among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, and the perinatal outcome of this program's application over a more than 2-year period. From June 2000 to December 2003, all HIV-infected women who were booked into the antenatal clinic before 20 weeks were offered a screening for chromosomal anomalies, with midtrimester amniocentesis in the tests that were positive. A total of 116 pregnancies (including 3 sets of twins) were seen: 96 women were offered and accepted screening for chromosomal anomalies. Thirteen pregnancies had a positive screening test and amniocentesis was performed in 10 at median 16.5 gestational weeks: a trisomy 21 and a monosomy X were diagnosed. No vertical transmissions were documented by age 6 months in the 6 liveborn infants who underwent amniocentesis."



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Search Pubmed: Human Immunodeficiency Virus | embryo infection | fetal infection |neonatal infection

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, February 28) Embryology Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G