Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus, transmission electron micrograph (Image: CDC USA)

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Maternal transmission of HIV can occur perinatally in utero, during labour and delivery, or postnatally through breastfeeding and can be reduced by the use of antiretroviral treatment and avoidance of breastfeeding.

Neonatal infection diagnosis can be made by PCR from 6-12 week.

UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, estimated that 38.6 million people had HIV (2005), 17.3 million were women. About 3.28 million pregnant women infected with HIV give birth each year (the majority in sub-Saharan Africa) leading to 700,000 new infections of HIV in children each year. (text modified from Gray and McIntyre, BMJ 2007;334:950-953)

Viral Links: viral infection | TORCH | cytomegalovirus | hepatitis | HIV | parvovirus | polio | rubella virus | chickenpox | Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus | Zika virus | human papillomavirus | rotavirus | West Nile virus | varicella virus | vaccination | zoonotic infection | environment
Historic Embryology - Viral 
1941 Rubella Cataracts | 1944 Rubella Defects

Some Recent Findings



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British HIV Association Guidelines for management of HIV and hepatitis C coinfection in adults | Guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, 2005 | Guidelines for management of HIV and hepatitis B coinfection in adults | World Health Organization HIV-infected women and their families: psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review. 2003

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, March 9) Embryology Abnormal Development - Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Human_Immunodeficiency_Virus

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G