Abnormal Development - Genetic

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Introduction

Chromosomes in trisomy 21

This page gives a general introduction to information about genetic abnormalities their relationship to age, ethnicity and prenatal testing. In developed countries with increasing maternal age comes the increased risk of age related genetic abnormalities, such as trisomy 21.

In order to detect some genetic abnormalities many countries offer genetic screening programs that include both Maternal serum screening (MSS, for detection of Down's syndrome and neural tube defects), Embryonic and Newborn screening (for phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis and metabolic disorders).

In terms of maternal/paternal family history, some ethnic backgrounds have been shown to have disease-associated genetic variants, though most common genetic diseases are consistent across ethnic boundaries. For example: Caucasians of northern European ancestry and cystic fibrosis (CTFR gene), Mediterranean, Asian and Far Eastern ancestry with beta-thalassaemia. (More? Genetic Abnormalities - Ethnic)

Note that the development of in vitro fertilization techniques now allows cells from early stage blastocysts to be removed and genetically analysed prior to implantation. This has raised some ethical issues relating to what parameters will be in future used in blastocyst selection.

Genetic Links: genetic abnormalities | maternal age | Trisomy 21 | Trisomy 18 | Trisomy 13 | Trisomy X | trisomy mosaicism | Monosomy | Fragile X | Williams | Alagille | Philadelphia chromosome | mitochondria | VACTERL | hydatidiform mole | epigenetics | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | meiosis | mitosis | International Classification of Diseases | genetics

| Cell Division - Meiosis | Cell Division - Mitosis

Abnormality Links: abnormal development | abnormal genetic | abnormal environmental | Unknown | teratogens | ectopic pregnancy | cardiovascular abnormalities | coelom abnormalities | endocrine abnormalities | gastrointestinal abnormalities | genital abnormalities | head abnormalities | integumentary abnormalities | musculoskeletal abnormalities | limb abnormalities | neural abnormalities | neural crest abnormalities | placenta abnormalities | renal abnormalities | respiratory abnormalities | hearing abnormalities | vision abnormalities | twinning | Developmental Origins of Health and Disease |  ICD-11
Historic Embryology  
1915 Congenital Cardiac Disease | 1917 Frequency of Anomalies in Human Embryos | 1920 Hydatiform Degeneration Tubal Pregnancy | 1921 Anencephalic Embryo | 1921 Rat and Man | 1966 Congenital Malformations

Some Recent Findings

Genetic Inheritance

Inheritance Pattern images: Genetic Abnormalities | autosomal dominant | autosomal recessive | X-linked dominant (affected father) | X-Linked dominant (affected mother) | X-Linked recessive (affected father) | X-Linked recessive (carrier mother) | mitochondrial inheritance | Codominant inheritance | Genogram symbols | Genetics

References


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Terms

  • anaphase - (Greek, ana = up, again) Cell division term referring to the fourth mitotic stage, where the paired chromatids now separate and migrate to spindle poles. This is followed by telophase.
Mitosis Phases: prophase - prometaphase - metaphase - anaphase - telophase
  • anaphase B - Cell division term referring to the part of anaphase during which the poles of the mitotic spindle move apart. (More? Cell Division - Mitosis)
  • aneuploidy - Genetic term used to describe an abnormal number of chromosomes mainly (90%) due to chromosome malsegregation mechanisms in maternal meiosis I.
  • disomy - Genetic term referring to the presence of two chromosomes of a homologous pair in a cell, as in diploid. See chromosomal number genetic disorders uniparental disomy and aneuploidy. Humans have pairs usually formed by one chromosome from each parent.
  • meiosis I (MI) The first part of meiosis resulting in separation of homologous chromosomes, in humans producing two haploid cells (N chromosomes, 23), a reductional division.
Meiosis I: Prophase I - Metaphase I - Anaphase I - Telophase I
  • meiosis II - (MII) The second part of meiosis. In male human spermatogenesis, producing of four haploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N) from the two haploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N), each of the chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids produced in meiosis I. In female human oogenesis, only a single haploid cell (23 chromosomes, 1N) is produced.
Meiosis II: Prophase II - Metaphase II - Anaphase II - Telophase II
  • prometaphase - (Greek, pro = before) Cell division term referring to the second mitotic stage, when the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles. Microtubules then extend from the centrosomes at the spindle poles (ends) and reach the chromosomes. This is followed by metaphase.
  • Philadelphia chromosome - (Philadelphia translocation) Genetic term referring to a chromosomal abnormality resulting from a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 (t(9;22)(q34;q11)). This is associated with the disease chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
  • prophase - (Greek, pro = before) Cell division term referring to the first mitotic stage, when the diffusely stained chromatin resolves into discrete chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids joined together at the centromere.
  • telophase - Cell division term referring to the fifth mitotic stage, where the vesicles of the nuclear envelope reform around the daughter cells, the nucleoli reappear and the chromosomes unfold to allow gene expression to begin. This phase overlaps with cytokinesis, the division of the cell cytoplasm.
  • uniparental disomy - Genetic term referring to cells containing both copies of a homologous pair of chromosomes from one parent and none from the other parent.


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, August 3) Embryology Abnormal Development - Genetic. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Genetic

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© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G