Difference between revisions of "Abnormal Development - Genetic"
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[[File:Chromosome-_trisomy.jpg|thumb|Chromosomes in trisomy 21]]
[[File:Chromosome-_trisomy.jpg|thumb|Chromosomes in trisomy 21]]
Revision as of 12:57, 29 April 2011
|Educational Use Only - Embryology is an educational resource for learning concepts in embryological development, no clinical information is provided and content should not be used for any other purpose.|
This page gives a general introduction to information about genetic abnormalities their relationship to age, ethnicity and prenatal testing. Use the listed links for more information about specific abnormalities. In developed countries with increasing maternal age comes the increased risk of age related genetic abnormalities, such as trisomy 21.
In order to detect some genetic abnormalities many countries offer genetic screening programs that include maternal serum screening (MSS, for detection of Down's syndrome and neural tube defects), embryonic and newborn screening (for phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis and metabolic disorders).
In terms of maternal/paternal family history, some ethnic backgrounds have been shown to have disease-associated genetic variants, though most common genetic diseases are consistent across ethnic boundaries. For example: Caucasians of northern European ancestry and cystic fibrosis (CTFR gene), Mediterranean, Asian and Far Eastern ancestry with beta-thalassaemia.
Note that the development of in vitro fertilization techniques now allows cells from early stage blastocysts to be removed and genetically analysed prior to implantation. This has raised some ethical issues relating to what parameters will be in future used in blastocyst selection.
Some Recent Findings
Human Oocyte Aneuploidy
- Frequency and distribution of chromosome abnormalities in human oocytes "It was previously shown that more than half of the human oocytes obtained from IVF patients of advanced reproductive age are aneuploid, due to meiosis I and meiosis II errors. The present paper further confirms that 61.8% of the oocytes tested by fluorescent probes specific for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22 are abnormal, representing predominantly chromatid errors, which are the major source of aneuploidy in the resulting embryos. Almost half of the oocytes with meiosis I errors (49.3%) are prone to sequential meiosis II errors, which may lead to aneuploidy rescue in 30.8% of the cases. Half of the detected aneuploidies (49.8%) are of complex nature with involvement of two or more chromosomes, or the same chromosome in both meiotic divisions. The aneuploidy rates for individual chromosomes are different, with a higher prevalence of chromosome 21 and 22 errors. The origin of aneuploidy for the individual chromosomes is also not random, with chromosome 16 and 22 errors originating more frequently in meiosis II, and chromosome 18, 13 and 21 errors in meiosis I. There is an age dependence not only for the overall frequency of aneuploidies, but also for each chromosome error, aneuploidies originating from meiosis I, meiosis II, and both meiosis I and meiosis II errors, as well as for different types of aneuploidies. The data further suggest the practical relevance of oocyte aneuploidy testing for detection and avoidance from transfer of the embryos deriving from aneuploid oocytes, which should contribute significantly to the pregnancy outcomes of IVF patients of advanced reproduction age."
The figures below show the pattern of inheritance of a range of genetic disorders. In addition to these patterns are the known effects of increased maternal age and the effects of genetic mutations in the embryo and newborn.
- Inheritance Pattern images: Genetic Abnormalities | autosomal dominant | autosomal recessive | X-linked dominant (affected father) | X-Linked dominant (affected mother) | X-Linked recessive (affected father) | X-Linked recessive (carrier mother) | mitochondrial inheritance | Codominant inheritance | Genogram symbols | Genetics
Genome-wide association study
The National Human Genome Research Institute (USA) lists publications as part of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) in an attempt to assay at least 100,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the initial stage.
- <pubmed>20466091</pubmed>| DOI
Search Pubmed: genetic developmental abnormality
- anaphase - (Greek, ana = up, again) Cell division term referring to the fourth mitotic stage, where the paired chromatids now separate and migrate to spindle poles. This is followed by telophase.
- anaphase B - Cell division term referring to the part of anaphase during which the poles of the mitotic spindle move apart. (More? Cell Division - Mitosis)
- aneuploidy - Genetic term used to describe an abnormal number of chromosomes mainly (90%) due to chromosome malsegregation mechanisms in maternal meiosis I.
- disomy - Genetic term referring to the presence of two chromosomes of a homologous pair in a cell, as in diploid. See chromosomal number genetic disorders uniparental disomy and aneuploidy. Humans have pairs usually formed by one chromosome from each parent.
- meiosis I (MI) The first part of meiosis resulting in separation of homologous chromosomes, in humans producing two haploid cells (N chromosomes, 23), a reductional division.
- Meiosis I: Prophase I - Metaphase I - Anaphase I - Telophase I
- meiosis II - (MII) The second part of meiosis. In male human spermatogenesis, producing of four haploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N) from the two haploid cells (23 chromosomes, 1N), each of the chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids produced in meiosis I. In female human oogenesis, only a single haploid cell (23 chromosomes, 1N) is produced.
- Meiosis II: Prophase II - Metaphase II - Anaphase II - Telophase II
- prometaphase - (Greek, pro = before) Cell division term referring to the second mitotic stage, when the nuclear envelope breaks down into vesicles. Microtubules then extend from the centrosomes at the spindle poles (ends) and reach the chromosomes. This is followed by metaphase.
- Philadelphia chromosome - (Philadelphia translocation) Genetic term referring to a chromosomal abnormality resulting from a reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22 (t(9;22)(q34;q11)). This is associated with the disease chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).
- prophase - (Greek, pro = before) Cell division term referring to the first mitotic stage, when the diffusely stained chromatin resolves into discrete chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids joined together at the centromere.
- telophase - Cell division term referring to the fifth mitotic stage, where the vesicles of the nuclear envelope reform around the daughter cells, the nucleoli reappear and the chromosomes unfold to allow gene expression to begin. This phase overlaps with cytokinesis, the division of the cell cytoplasm.
- uniparental disomy - Genetic term referring to cells containing both copies of a homologous pair of chromosomes from one parent and none from the other parent.
External Links Notice - The dynamic nature of the internet may mean that some of these listed links may no longer function. If the link no longer works search the web with the link text or name. Links to any external commercial sites are provided for information purposes only and should never be considered an endorsement. UNSW Embryology is provided as an educational resource with no clinical information or commercial affiliation.
- Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
- NHGRI Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies | PDF
- Genome-Wide Associations (GWA) Karyogram
- Idiogram Album David Adler
- NSW Centre for Genetics Education - Fact Sheets
- Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, September 21) Embryology Abnormal Development - Genetic. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Genetic
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G