Abnormal Development - Cytomegalovirus
|Embryology - 12 Jun 2021 Expand to Translate|
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KA62.3 Congenital cytomegalovirus infection
ICD-11: "A condition affecting neonates, caused by an infection with cytomegalovirus in utero. This condition is characterized by jaundice, low birth weight, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, or pneumonia if symptoms develop shortly after birth, or may be asymptomatic. This condition commonly present later in life with loss of hearing, loss of vision, or developmental disabilities. Transmission is by vertical transmission. Confirmation is by detection of cytomegalovirus in neonatal urine, saliva, blood, or other body tissues within 2-3 weeks of birth."
- ICD-10 P35.1 Congenital cytomegalovirus infection | International Classification of Diseases: P35 Congenital viral diseases | XVI Perinatal Period
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, Greek, cyto = "cell", megalo = "large") or Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5) is a member of the herpes virus family. A viral infection that causes systemic infection and extensive brain damage and cell death by necrosis. Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital viral infection, with a range of incidence between 0·5–3% of live births worldwide. Approximately 30% of maternal infections during pregnancy can result in congenital infection. Neonates with congenital or perinatal cytomegalovirus infection can be asymptomatic and infection can also be transmitted postnatally from mother to infant by breastfeeding.
HCMV infection is ranked as one of the most common infections in adults, with the seropositive rates ranging from 60–99% globally. In Western countries, adults with advanced AIDS prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) this virus also a cause of blindness (CMV retinitis) and death in patients.
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is also a cause of non-hereditary congenital sensorineural hearing loss.
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
This table allows an automated computer search of the external PubMed database using the listed "Search term" text link.
Search term: Abnormal Development Cytomegalovirus
<pubmed limit=5>Abnormal Development Cytomegalovirus</pubmed>
- double-stranded linear DNA virus
- 235 Kb in size
Cytomegalovirus infected spermatozoa nucleus
|Full and empty viral capsids||HCMV virions|
Image shows human embryonic lung infected by cytomegalovirus demonstrated by an immunofluorescent technique. Viral infection causes systemic infection and extensive brain damage and cell death by necrosis.
A combination of tests has been used for prenatal diagnosis and there are some less reliable sonographic features to the infection.
- maternal serum - specific immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies
- amniotic fluid - viral culture and PCR amplification of CMV DNA.
- 1921 - first to suggest that the "cytomegalia" could be due to a viral agent.
- 1950 - demonstrated that infection may occur in utero.
- 1956-57 - several groups independently isolate human CMV strains.
- 1960 - the term "cytomegalovirus" introduced.
|A mouse model of effects of cytomegalovirus infection on development has shown induction of micrognathia and other musculoskeletal abnormalities by impacting on signalling pathways, involving FN, NF-kappaB2, RelA, RelB, and Shh and Smad7 proteins.||
Cytomegalovirus induced micrognathia and abnormal skeletogenesis in mouse model.
Clinical term for the cytomegalovirus infection of the placenta.
A earlier histological study identified fixed connective tissue cells predominantly infected cell type in placental tissue. In addition, endothelial cells, macrophages and in some cases trophoblast infection. While a more recent in vitro study suggests that all villi cell types are likely to be infected.
- Naumenko VA, Tyulenev YA, Yakovenko SA, Kurilo LF, Shileyko LV, Segal AS, Zavalishina LE, Klimova RR, Tsibizov AS, Alkhovskii SV & Kushch AA. (2011). Detection of human cytomegalovirus in motile spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells in testis organotypic culture. Herpesviridae , 2, 7. PMID: 21711549 DOI.
- Teissier N, Delezoide AL, Mas AE, Khung-Savatovsky S, Bessières B, Nardelli J, Vauloup-Fellous C, Picone O, Houhou N, Oury JF, Van Den Abbeele T, Gressens P & Adle-Biassette H. (2011). Inner ear lesions in congenital cytomegalovirus infection of human fetuses. Acta Neuropathol. , 122, 763-74. PMID: 22033878 DOI.
- Angelova M, Zwezdaryk K, Ferris M, Shan B, Morris CA & Sullivan DE. (2012). Human cytomegalovirus infection dysregulates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PLoS Pathog. , 8, e1002959. PMID: 23071438 DOI.
- Pass RF & Arav-Boger R. (2018). Maternal and fetal cytomegalovirus infection: diagnosis, management, and prevention. F1000Res , 7, 255. PMID: 29560263 DOI.
- Gunkel J, van der Knoop BJ, Nijman J, de Vries LS, Manten GTR, Nikkels PGJ, Murk JL, de Vries JIP & Wolfs TFW. (2017). Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Absence of Maternal Cytomegalovirus-IgM Antibodies. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. , 42, 144-149. PMID: 28259882 DOI.
- Almishaal AA, Mathur PD, Hillas E, Chen L, Zhang A, Yang J, Wang Y, Yokoyama WM, Firpo MA & Park AH. (2017). Natural killer cells attenuate cytomegalovirus-induced hearing loss in mice. PLoS Pathog. , 13, e1006599. PMID: 28859161 DOI.
- Enders M, Daiminger A, Exler S, Ertan K, Enders G & Bald R. (2017). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in 115 cases: a 5 years' single center experience. Prenat. Diagn. , 37, 389-398. PMID: 28207161 DOI.
- Bilavsky E, Pardo J, Attias J, Levy I, Magny JF, Ville Y, Leruez-Ville M & Amir J. (2016). Clinical Implications for Children Born With Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Following a Negative Amniocentesis. Clin. Infect. Dis. , 63, 33-8. PMID: 27114380 DOI.
- Oosterom N, Nijman J, Gunkel J, Wolfs TF, Groenendaal F, Verboon-Maciolek MA & de Vries LS. (2015). Neuro-imaging findings in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: relation to trimester of infection. Neonatology , 107, 289-96. PMID: 25790782 DOI.
- Gabrielli L, Bonasoni MP, Santini D, Piccirilli G, Chiereghin A, Guerra B, Landini MP, Capretti MG, Lanari M & Lazzarotto T. (2013). Human fetal inner ear involvement in congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Acta Neuropathol Commun , 1, 63. PMID: 24252374 DOI.
- Polilli E, Parruti G, D'Arcangelo F, Tracanna E, Clerico L, Savini V, D'Antonio F, Rosati M, Manzoli L, D'Antonio D & Nigro G. (2012). Preliminary evaluation of the safety and efficacy of standard intravenous immunoglobulins in pregnant women with primary cytomegalovirus infection. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. , 19, 1991-3. PMID: 23100477 DOI.
- Lazzarotto T, Guerra B, Gabrielli L, Lanari M & Landini MP. (2011). Update on the prevention, diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. , 17, 1285-93. PMID: 21631642 DOI.
- Jaskoll T, Abichaker G, Sedghizadeh PP, Bringas P & Melnick M. (2008). Cytomegalovirus induces abnormal chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during embryonic mandibular development. BMC Dev. Biol. , 8, 33. PMID: 18371224 DOI.
- Sinzger C, Müntefering H, Löning T, Stöss H, Plachter B & Jahn G. (1993). Cell types infected in human cytomegalovirus placentitis identified by immunohistochemical double staining. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol , 423, 249-56. PMID: 8236822
- Tao L, Suhua C, Juanjuan C, Zongzhi Y, Juan X & Dandan Z. (2011). In vitro study on human cytomegalovirus affecting early pregnancy villous EVT's invasion function. Virol. J. , 8, 114. PMID: 21392403 DOI.
- Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7627/ Medical Microbiology- Cytomegalovirus | Search Medical Microbiology "Cytomegalovirus"
- Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21054/ Viruses Exploit Host Cell Machinery for All Aspects of Their Multiplication
- Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd edition. Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., editors. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006. Chapter 20Vaccine-preventable Diseases
Carlson A, Norwitz ER & Stiller RJ. (2010). Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: should all women be screened?. Rev Obstet Gynecol , 3, 172-9. PMID: 21364849
Mosca F & Pugni L. (2007). Cytomegalovirus infection: the state of the art. J Chemother , 19 Suppl 2, 46-8. PMID: 18073181
Revello MG & Gerna G. (2002). Diagnosis and management of human cytomegalovirus infection in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. , 15, 680-715. PMID: 12364375
Nyholm JL & Schleiss MR. (2010). Prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection: current status and future prospects. Int J Womens Health , 2, 23-35. PMID: 21072294
Boppana SB, Ross SA, Novak Z, Shimamura M, Tolan RW, Palmer AL, Ahmed A, Michaels MG, Sánchez PJ, Bernstein DI, Britt WJ & Fowler KB. (2010). Dried blood spot real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. JAMA , 303, 1375-82. PMID: 20388893 DOI.
Riley HD. (1997). History of the cytomegalovirus. South. Med. J. , 90, 184-90. PMID: 9042169
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- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection | testing-diagnosis | The Congenital Disease Mothers Don't Know About
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, June 12) Embryology Abnormal Development - Cytomegalovirus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Cytomegalovirus
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