Abnormal Development - Congenital Hydrocephalus
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Q03 Congenital hydrocephalus
International Classification of Diseases
Incl.: hydrocephalus in newborn Excl.: Arnold-Chiari syndrome (Q07.0) hydrocephalus: acquired (G91.-) due to congenital toxoplasmosis (P37.1) with spina bifida (Q05.0-Q05.4)
- Q03.0 Malformations of aqueduct of Sylvius Aqueduct of Sylvius: anomaly obstruction, congenital stenosis
- Q03.1 Atresia of foramina of Magendie and Luschka Dandy-Walker syndrome
- Q03.8 Other congenital hydrocephalus
- Q03.9 Congenital hydrocephalus, unspecified
This is a defect of cerebrospinal fliud (CSF) flow, excess fluid production or impaired fluid absorption and can be congenital or acquired. Estimated incidence of 1 in 1000 live births the condition leads to enlarged ventricles and head, separated skull cranial sutures and fontanelles. Obstruction of CSF flow can occur at any time (prenatally or postnatally) and leads to accumulation of within the ventricles. The time of onset will have different effects and should be compared to the equilivant neurological events that are occuring.
Ventricular obstruction usually occurs at the level of the cerebral aqueduct (narrowest site), but can occur elsewhere, and can be caused by viral infection or zoonotic disease.
Some Recent Findings
ICD - Q07 Other congenital malformations of nervous system - Q07.0 Arnold-Chiari syndrome
Magnetic Resonance Image Sagittal T1-weighted image showing Chiari II malformation.
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is a surgical procedure that commenced in the 1960's to treat hydrocephalus and relieve increased pressure inside the skull due to excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on the brain. A catheter is placed inside of the brain ventricle, the catheter is then tunneled under the skin from the scalp down into the abdominal cavity, where the other end opens into the peritoneal cavity. The catheter contains a valve (located in the skin behind the ear) that opens when pressure builds up around the brain. Complication can include: infections (8-10%), catheter blockage, over-drainage and movement of the catheter.
- Links: Medline Plus article
An endoscopic surgical technique where a small perforation is made in the thinned floor of the third ventricle, allowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) out of the blocked ventricular system and into the interpeduncular cistern 9 (Cisterna interpeduncularis) that is also a normal CSF space. This was an early surgical technique, reported as early as 1922, that has revived with modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical endoscopic techniques that result in less damage. Due to the location of the surgery complications can include: bleeding, endocrine disfunction, and diabetes insipidus.
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Note - This sub-heading shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term. References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing. Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance. In comparison, references listed on the content page and discussion page (under the publication year sub-headings) do include editorial selection based upon relevance and availability. (More? Pubmed Most Recent)
<pubmed limit=10>Congenital Hydrocephalus</pubmed>
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, December 1) Embryology Abnormal Development - Congenital Hydrocephalus. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Congenital_Hydrocephalus
- © Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G