Abnormal Development - Air Pollution

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Introduction

Metal contamination.jpg

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Air pollution has recently been identified through statistical studies to be involved with abnormal development (See also smoking). With industrialisation and vehicle produced air pollution, it can consist of particulate matter, heavy metals and a range of Template:Chemical.


In addition to their direct toxic effects, the potential reduction in fetal growth and long-term effects should also be considered. Much of the basic research relies on studies in various animal models of development and we should also consider the ongoing development of new industrial products in the environment with unknown or untested effects upon development.


Environmental Links: Introduction | low folic acid | iodine deficiency | Nutrition | Drugs | Australian Drug Categories | USA Drug Categories | thalidomide | herbal drugs | Illegal Drugs | smoking | Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | TORCH | viral infection | bacterial infection | fungal infection | zoonotic infection | toxoplasmosis | Malaria | maternal diabetes | maternal hypertension | maternal hyperthermia | Maternal Inflammation | Maternal Obesity | hypoxia | biological toxins | chemicals | heavy metals | air pollution | radiation | Prenatal Diagnosis | Neonatal Diagnosis | International Classification of Diseases | Fetal Origins Hypothesis

Some Recent Findings

More recent papers  
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Search term: Air Pollution Teratology

Older Papers  
These papers originally appeared in the Some Recent Findings table, but as that list grew in length have now been shuffled down to this collapsible table.

See also the Discussion Page for other references listed by year and References on this current page.


Metal Toxicity

Heavy metals toxicity.gif
Heavy Metals Toxicity (Table: U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CIRCULAR 1133, 1995)

In another recent study using the sea urchin embryo, Japanese researchers have identified a hierarchy of toxic effects from different heavy metals.

"Interactive toxic effects between heavy metals were investigated using a sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) bioassay. An effluent from an abandoned mine showed significant inhibitory effects on embryo development as well as producing specific malformations. The effects on the embryos were reproduced by synthetic polluted seawater consisting of eight metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, iron, and copper) at the concentrations detected in the mine effluent. This indicated that the heavy metals were responsible for the effects observed. Five heavy metals were ranked in decreasing order of toxicity as follows: Cu > Zn > Pb > Fe > Mn. Among these, zinc and manganese could cause malformation of the embryos. From bioassay results using 27 combinations of heavy metals, 16 combinations including zinc could produce specific malformations, such as radialized, exo-gastrulal, and spaceship Apollo-like gastrulal embryos. Zinc was one of the elements responsible for causing malformations and its effects were intensified by the presence of the other metals, such as manganese, lead, iron, and copper." Naomasa Kobayashia and Hideo Okamurab.

Metal in Water

A major dilemma is the biological difficulty of clearing heavy metals and the subsequent accumulation of these metals in the food chain mainly from the hydrologic environment.

Heavy metals water.gif

Lead

Lead pipe
CDC - Screening young children for lead poisoning

Lead in the environment is postnatally toxic and prenatally teratogenic.[1] Lead exposure can occur in industrial and mining and can also be derived from leaded petrol, old lead piping, historic paints, and other environmental sources).

For children aged less than 6 years of age the CDC (USA) has defined an elevated blood lead level (BLL) as >10 µg/dL, but also indicated that evidence exists for subtle effects at lower levels. (Links: CDC - Lead Poisoning Prevention Program | Blood Lead Levels in Young Children - United States and Selected States 1996-1999)

  • Lead crosses the placental barrier readily.
  • Fetal blood levels are directly proportional to maternal levels.
  • Lead poisoning affects virtually every system in the body, and often occurs with no distinctive symptoms.
  • Lead in our diet is mainly found in osseous (bone) structures.
  • Lead can damage a child's central nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive system and, at higher levels, can cause coma, convulsions, and death.
  • Even low levels of lead are harmful and are associated with decreased intelligence, impaired neurobehavioral development, decreased stature and growth, and impaired hearing acuity.
  • CDC has established a national surveillance system for children with elevated blood lead levels.
  • CDC helped to initiate federal activities to reduce lead in gasoline, which brought about declines in average blood lead levels in the U.S. population. Data from the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that the percentage of U.S. children with elevated blood lead levels has dropped from 88.2% in the late 1970s to 4.4% in the early 1990s. (NHANES Chart)

Related References

  • Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women[2]
  • Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age[3]


Links: Normal Development - Milk | CDC - Childhood Lead Poisoning Publications | Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint

Mercury

Mercury

Used traditionally in the felting of hats, hence "mad hatters", a more recent example of mercury's toxicity was shown in Japan.

Minamata disease map.gif
Japan Minamata disease map

Japan had industrial mercury poisoning of waterways by methyl mercury causing Minamata disease, which had substantial neurological effects similar to Hunter Russell syndrome. For more information on mercury the chemical, see Mercury MSDS. There has also been a movie available "Medical Study of Minamata Disease".

Australia - Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ)

"FSANZ’s Chief Scientist, Dr Marion Healy, said ‘Our investigations show that the level of mercury in most fish caught and sold in Australia is low."

"The Australian Dietary Guidelines advise eating one or two fish meals per week for good health. The good news is that FSANZ has found it is safe for all population groups to eat 2-3 serves per week of most types of fish. There are only a few types of fish, which FSANZ recommends limiting in the diet – these are billfish (swordfish / broadbill and marlin ), shark/flake, orange roughy and catfish." FSANZ updates advice on mercury in fish (Australia only) 18 March 2004 see also 2 June 2011.


Links: Diplomatic Conference for the Minamata Convention on Mercury 2013 | Minamata Convention on MercuryAustralia - food standards | NSW Food Authority | USA - federal register proposal 2011

Chromium

Chromium

Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is used in more than 50 industries and is an important heavy metal pollutant. A recent study (2005) in monkeys (Macaca radiata) has demonstrated an effect on testicular spermatogenesis, possibly by inducing free radical toxicity. If these effects also occur in humans, then spermatazoa development could also be affected, the study further suggested a supplementation of antioxidant vitamins may be beneficial to the affected subjects.[4]


Links: Related References

Cadmium

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal pollutant produced during the smelting of other metals. It has many industrial and domestic uses (some paints, plastics, fertilisers, metal plating) and is founds use in the environment cadmium is in nickel-cadmium (NiCad) rechargeable batteries used in many portable devices as well as being present in cigarette smoke.

An animal study has shown that cadmium can induce retinoic acid signaling by regulating retinoic acid metabolic gene expression,[5] suggesting that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to altering levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. Developmental Signals - Retinoid acid

A recent human study of coastal populations of South Africa[6] has identified associations between prenatal Cd exposure and birth anthropometry in female neonates but not in male neonates, suggesting a potential sex difference in the toxico-kinetics and toxico-dynamics of Cd.


Links: Retinoic acid

Lithium

Lithium

Lithium (Li, atomic number 3) is a soft alkali metal found in the natural environment, in industrial products (lithium batteries, some glass and ceramic products) and also is used to treat people with bipolar disorder. Lithium used as a drug, in a salt form, acts on the central nervous system as an antimanic agent to treat episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) associated with bipolar disorders. Lithium has been associated with fetal cardiac teratogenicity possibly by affecting Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.[7]


Links: Abnormal Development - Drugs | MedlinePlus - Lithium | MedlinePlus - Lithium Toxicity | OTIS - Lithium and Pregnancy PDF

Yttrium-90

Yttrium

A therapeutic radioactive form of yttrium used in microspheres for the internal treatment of various liver cancers. As such it would be unlikely to be found in a human development situation.

Indium

Indium

A rare, malleable and easily fusible post-transition metal that is chemically similar to gallium and thallium, and also shows properties intermediate between these two elements. Currently used industrially in liquid crystal displays and touchscreens, and historically in thin-films to form lubricated layers. Medically used in a radioactive form (indium-111) in nuclear medicine tests and as a radio-tracker. Indium is not known to be used by any biological organism. There are some animal teratogenic studies that have looked at the effect of indium salts (indium chloride).

Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of indium chloride in rats and rabbits[8] "Indium was found to cross the placenta and appeared in fetal blood in proportion to the metal concentration of the maternal blood. In the amniotic fluid, indium concentrations remained below the detection limit. ...In rats, the effects of indium chloride causing fetal retardation was found to be independent of exposure time. The teratogenic effects were the highest on d 11 and 12 of gestation, when indium chloride caused gross external malformations. Data suggest that the teratogenic effects of indium chloride can be attributed primarily to a direct cytotoxic action of indium resulting from placental transfer, but the effect is not a selective one, as it appears only in the presence of maternal toxic effects."

References

  1. Cunningham G. (2007). Lead--toxicology and assessment in general practice. Aust Fam Physician , 36, 1011-3. PMID: 18075625
  2. Chuang HY, Schwartz J, Gonzales-Cossio T, Lugo MC, Palazuelos E, Aro A, Hu H & Hernandez-Avila M. (2001). Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women. Environ. Health Perspect. , 109, 527-32. PMID: 11401766
  3. Ettinger AS, Téllez-Rojo MM, Amarasiriwardena C, Bellinger D, Peterson K, Schwartz J, Hu H & Hernández-Avila M. (2004). Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age. Environ. Health Perspect. , 112, 1381-5. PMID: 15471729
  4. Aruldhas MM, Subramanian S, Sekar P, Vengatesh G, Chandrahasan G, Govindarajulu P & Akbarsha MA. (2005). Chronic chromium exposure-induced changes in testicular histoarchitecture are associated with oxidative stress: study in a non-human primate (Macaca radiata Geoffroy). Hum. Reprod. , 20, 2801-13. PMID: 15980013 DOI.
  5. Cui Y & Freedman JH. (2009). Cadmium induces retinoic acid signaling by regulating retinoic acid metabolic gene expression. J. Biol. Chem. , 284, 24925-32. PMID: 19556237 DOI.
  6. Röllin HB, Kootbodien T, Channa K & Odland JØ. (2015). Prenatal Exposure to Cadmium, Placental Permeability and Birth Outcomes in Coastal Populations of South Africa. PLoS ONE , 10, e0142455. PMID: 26544567 DOI.
  7. Chen J, Han M, Manisastry SM, Trotta P, Serrano MC, Huhta JC & Linask KK. (2008). Molecular effects of lithium exposure during mouse and chick gastrulation and subsequent valve dysmorphogenesis. Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol. , 82, 508-18. PMID: 18418887 DOI.
  8. Ungváry G, Szakmáry E, Tátrai E, Hudák A, Náray M & Morvai V. (2000). Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of indium chloride in rats and rabbits. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A , 59, 27-42. PMID: 10681097

Reviews

Articles

Weinberg ED. (2010). Can iron be teratogenic?. Biometals , 23, 181-4. PMID: 20024603 DOI.

Chen H, Ke Q, Kluz T, Yan Y & Costa M. (2006). Nickel ions increase histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation and induce transgene silencing. Mol. Cell. Biol. , 26, 3728-37. PMID: 16648469 DOI.

Hindin R, Brugge D & Panikkar B. (2005). Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: a review from an epidemiological perspective. Environ Health , 4, 17. PMID: 16124873 DOI.

Gulbis B, Jauniaux E, Decuyper J, Thiry P, Jurkovic D & Campbell S. (1994). Distribution of iron and iron-binding proteins in first-trimester human pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol , 84, 289-93. PMID: 8041549

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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 20) Embryology Abnormal Development - Air Pollution. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Abnormal_Development_-_Air_Pollution

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