Difference between revisions of "2017 Group Project 6"
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=Developmental signalling processes=
=Developmental signalling processes=
Mechanical Movement of Neurones from Metencephalon
Differentiation of Specific Neurones
Revision as of 16:49, 7 September 2017
|2017 Student Projects|
Basic anatomy of the Cerebellum
(z5114433) will fix referencing stuff later #ceebsrn
Neural development is one of the earliest systems to begin and the last to be completed after birth due to its highly complex structure. The first step in neural development occurs at the end of week 3 and involves the neural groove fusing to form the neural tube, which then folds to form the cranial and caudal region of the embryo, and ultimately form the cerebellum (https://discovery.lifemapsc.com/library/review-of-medical-embryology/chapter-26-embryonic-folding-and-flexion-of-the-embryo) . There is a high chance of neural dysfunction and defects during the fetal neural development particularly due to the long development time frame and the need of certain nutrients such as folic acid to successfully close the tubes. Neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida and anencephaly can arise if the tubes do not close effectively.
Discovered by Jan Evangelista Purkinje in 1837, purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons found in the outside layer of the cerebellum. They receive signals from the granule cell parallel fibers and the superior olive and send inhibitory signals to the deep nuclei in the white matter region via GABA signaling. Purkinje cells have a large branching network of dendrites which allows them to be identified by their morphology. z5177699 - Cortical Layers - deep nuclei - granule cells - other cerebellar cells
Early Brain Structure
z5114433 - primary - secondary - ventricles
(find images of the visualiation of the foetal cerebellum)
z5076158 The development of the cerebellum begins between days 40 and 45 and it arises mostly from the metencephalon however the rhombic lips also contributes. The roof plate which is derived from the dorsal part of the alar plate thickens during development to become the cerebellum. The primary fissure deepens by the end of the third month and divides the vermis, which is the midline portion of the alar plate??, and two lateral bulges are separated into the cranial anterior lob and caudal middle lobe. As the lobes divide further into lobules, fissures are formed and this continues throughout embryonic, fetal and postnatal life, thus increasing the surface area of the cerebellar cortex. The most primitive part of the cerebellum to form is the flocculonodular lobe, which is derived from separation of the first transverse fissure and this functions to keep connections with the vestibular system and it is also concerned with subconsciously controlling equilibrium.
The two fundamental parts of the cerebellum are the flocculonodular lobe and the corpus cerebelli and these are separated by the posterolateral fissure.
The nuclei from the cerebellum are formed by a complex process of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. There are two types of grey matter in the cerebellum, the deep cerebellar nuclei and an external cerebellar cortex. There are 4 deep nuclei formed and the output of the cerebellar cortex are relayed through these nuclei, the ventricular layer produces 4 types of neurons that migrate to the cortex. The adjacent rhombic lips gives rise to cerebellar granule cells.  
z5018156 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21295689
Cerebellum Development Stages
Embryonic Cerebellum Development
==Fetal Cerebellum Development
Developmental signalling processes
- Mechanical Movement of Neurones from Metencephalon
- Number of Divisions Determines Cell Type
- Differentiation of Specific Neurones
z5076158 could be a good article to use - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22108217
- Schoenwolf, G.C., Bleyl, S.B., Brauer, P.R. and Francis-West, P.H., 2014. Larsen's Human Embryology E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.