Difference between revisions of "2014 Group Project 1"

From Embryology
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*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16651329 The epidemiology of meconium aspiration syndrome: incidence, risk factors, therapies, and outcome.]
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16651329 The epidemiology of meconium aspiration syndrome: incidence, risk factors, therapies, and outcome.]
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11686862 Antenatal infection/inflammation and postnatal lung maturation and injury.]
*[http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11686862 Antenatal infection/inflammation and postnatal lung maturation and injury.]

Revision as of 22:20, 2 September 2014

2014 Student Projects
2014 Student Projects: Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7 | Group 8
The Group assessment for 2014 will be an online project on Fetal Development of a specific System.

This page is an undergraduate science embryology student and may contain inaccuracies in either description or acknowledgements.



Airway and blood vessel interaction during lung development.

A retinoic acid–dependent network in the foregut controls formation of the mouse lung primordium.

Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation.

The lungs intake oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body. This process is owing to the respiratory system. The development of the respiratory system commences during the embroynic and fetal stages. The embryonic stage is the first 1-8 weeks and anything after that till about week 37 or birth is the fetal stage. The fetal stage of the development of the respiratory system is what we aim to explain.

The respiratory system consist of the Conducting zone and the Respiratory zone lets look at this further.

Conducting zone

Nasal Cavity

Oral Cavity





Respiratory zone

Terminal Bronchioles

Alveolar ducts


5 stages of take place when the lungs develop;

Embryonic stage - week 4-5

Pseudoglandular stage - week 5-17

Canalicular stage - week 16-25

Saccular stage - week 24-40

Alveolar stage- late fetal to 8 years of age

After birth

Current Research, Models and Findings

Physiological factors in fetal lung growth


This article looks at the current findings of different physiological factors that affect normal neonatal, functioning lungs upon during fetal development. The size of the paired organ to be able to exchange carbon dioxide with oxygen for the very first time at birth, is crucial to be able to withstand that pressure. As we know surfactant, is a lipid-protein composite. It is crucial to the function of the neonatal lung because:

A. Its high viscosity and low surface tension stabilize the diameter of the alveoli and prevent their collapse after each expiration.

B. Because the alveoli remain partially open, they are expanded on inspiration with much less expenditure of energy. [ANAT 2241 LEC 11-Respriation]

However, current research suggests that the production of surfactant which is reliant on hormonal factors, have little influence on fetal lung growth. In contrast, the following physiological lung growth factors were found to permit the lungs to express their inherent growth potential.

[this will be looked at further as the research project progresses]

Lung morphogenesis revisited: old facts, current ideas


Classical ideas -4 basic rules vs their review

Genetic control of lung development


Current concepts of lung development

Effects of hormones on fetal lung development


The fetal respiratory system as target for antenatal therapy


Historic findings

1. <pubmed>23431607</pubmed> Comparison between historical and current literature in regards to the development of the respiratory system

2. Developmental Biology, 6th edition By Scott F Gilbert. Swarthmore College Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. ISBN-10: 0-87893-243-7

Links: | Developmental Biology

Comparative embryology with detail on historical understandings of early respiratory development observed in various species. Accessible through PubMed.

3. Human Embryology and Morphology, 1902 By Arthur Keith London: Edward Arnold.

Links: | Human Embryology and Morphology

Historical images of past understandings on respiratory development

4. YouTube Video explaining early respiratory development


<pubmed>22151899</pubmed> <pubmed>22214468</pubmed> <pubmed>12547712</pubmed>

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

Laryngo-tracheo-oesophageal clefts