2011 Lab 5 - Abnormalities

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2011 Lab 5: Introduction | Trilaminar Embryo | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Quiz | Online Assessment

Atresia and Stenosis

The gastrointestinal tract can be considered as a simple tube or pipe, anything which blocks the tube (at different levels) can have different effects.

Gastrointestinal tract duplication sites based upon 78 clinical studies.[1]

There are two types of abnormalities that impact upon the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract lumen.

Atresia - interuption of the lumen (esophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, extrahepatic biliary atresia, anorectal atresia)

Stenosis - narrowing of the lumen (duodenal stenosis, pyloric stenosis)

Duplication - incomplete recanalization resulting in parallel lumens, this is really a specialized form of stenosis.

Persistent Vitelline Duct

Meckel's diverticulum 01.jpg Endoderm cartoon.jpg


Meckel's Diverticulum

Abnormal Gut Rotation

Intestinal malrotation.jpg Presents clinically in symptomatic malrotation as:

Neonates - bilious vomiting and bloody stools.

Newborn - bilious vomiting and failure to thrive.

Infants - recurrent abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, malabsorption/diarrhea, peritonitis/septic shock, solid food intolerance, common bile duct obstruction, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive.

Ladd's Bands - are a series of bands crossing the duodenum which can cause duodenal obstruction.

Midgut Volvulus, Situs Inversus

Links: Gastrointestinal Tract - Abnormalities

Organ Abnormalities

Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia, Accessory Pancreatic Tissue, Anular Pancreas, Accessory Spleen

Motility Disorders

Aganglionic colon (Hirschprung's disease) - abnormalities of neural crest migration.

Related Abnormalities

Abdominal Wall Defects

Gastroschisis 01.jpg

Gastroschisis is a developmental abnormality occurs due to an abdominal wall defect, that allows the evisceration of the intestine.


Clefting

Bilateral cleft palate

Cleft lip and palate can affect postnatal nutrition, due to the inability of the infant to form a liquid seal on the breast during feeding.


Links: Cleft Palate Foundation - feeding your baby

Cleft Lip

An abnormality of face development leading to an opening in the upper lip. Due to failure during the embryonic period of maxillary process fusion with the frontonasal prominence. Clefting of the lip and or palate occurs with 300+ different abnormalities. Depending on many factors, this cleft may extend further into the oral cavity leading to a cleft palate. In most cases clefting of the lip and palate can be repaired by surgery.

Cleft Palate

An abnormality of face development leading to an opening in the palate, the roof of the oral cavity between the mouth and the nose. If it occurs alone, due to failure during the early fetal period of palatal shelves. Clefting of the lip and or palate occurs with 300+ different abnormalities. In most cases clefting of the lip and palate can be repaired by surgery.

Galactosemia

A genetic enzyme deficiency disorder, the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase metabolizes galactose in milk sugar. The incidence is approximately 1 in 60,000 births among Caucasians and the rate is different for other groups.

Links: Normal Development - Milk | MedlinePlus - Galactosemia


Meconium Peritonitis

A condition caused by intra-uterine intestinal perforation leading to a sterile inflammatory reaction of the peritoneum.

Abnormalities and Development

  • How these abnormalities may be generated in development.
  • When they first occur.
  • How can we detect these abnormalites.
  • Do the abnormalites have a direct or indirect effect on the GIT.
  • How serious to the embryo, fetus, newborn, child and adult are these conditions.
  • What therapeutics are available for these conditions.


2011 Lab 5: Introduction | Trilaminar Embryo | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Quiz | Online Assessment

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, November 20) Embryology 2011 Lab 5 - Abnormalities. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2011_Lab_5_-_Abnormalities

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G
  1. <pubmed>718292</pubmed>