Difference between revisions of "2010 BGD Practical 3 - Gastrulation"

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==Introduction==
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===Practical Audio===
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| [[File:Mark_Hill.jpg|60px|left]]
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BGD Cycle A 2010 Audio - Dr Mark Hill Monday 12th May 2010 12-2pm G2G4.
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:Note - this is a live unedited recording from the practical and may contain errors in either descriptions or content.
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[[Media:BGD2010-Embryo Lab 120510-308.mp3|listen Part 8]] | [[:File:BGD2010-Embryo Lab 120510-308.mp3|download]] (1 Mb MP3 8:21)
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{| class="prettytable"
 
{| class="prettytable"
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| [[File:Human_embryo_day_18.jpg|300px]]
 
| Gastrulation means "gut forming" and converts the inner cell mass which then formed the bilaminar embryo (epiblast, hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm).  
 
| Gastrulation means "gut forming" and converts the inner cell mass which then formed the bilaminar embryo (epiblast, hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm).  
  
 
The process involves the migration of cells from the epiblast layer through the primitive streak to form first the endoderm layer and then a second intermediate layer the mesoderm layer. Once all cells have left the epiblast layer it now becomes the ectoderm layer.  
 
The process involves the migration of cells from the epiblast layer through the primitive streak to form first the endoderm layer and then a second intermediate layer the mesoderm layer. Once all cells have left the epiblast layer it now becomes the ectoderm layer.  
  
These three germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) will form in a layer specific manner all the future tissues of the developing embryo.  
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These three germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) will form in a layer specific manner all the future tissues of the developing embryo.
| [[Image:streak.jpg]]
 
  
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|  
 
|  
 
  
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== Gastrulation ==
 
Carnegie Stage 7 and 8, gastrulation, migration of cells through the primitive streak to form endoderm and mesodermal layers of embryo.
 
  
 
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'''Approximate cross-section of an 18 day human conceptus.'''
  
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Identify the 3 layers of the trilaminar embryo: ectoderm (columnar cells), intraembryonic mesoderm (mesenchymal cells, endodermal cells (cuboidal single layer). Identify primitive groove with dense cluster of primitive streak cells below it.
  
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| '''Trilaminar Embryo Formation '''
 
  
Scanning electron micrograph through the streak region showing the early forming 3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.  
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(Image: Nishimura etal., 1977)
 
 
(from Embryo Images by Dr K.K. Sulik & P. Bream, diagram from Langman's Medical Embryology by T.W. Sadler [http://www.med.unc.edu/embryo_images/unit-bdyfm/bdyfm_htms/bdyfm003.htm Embryo Images]).
 
| [[Image:streak.jpg]]
 
  
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== Stage 7 ==
 
== Stage 7 ==
  
{| class="prettytable"
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{|
| [[Image:Stage7n3.jpg]]  
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| == Carnegie Stages 7 ==
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| [[File:Stage7-sem2.jpg|300px]]
'''Features:''' embryonic disc, primitive node, primative streak, primitive groove, yolk sac
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| [[File:Stage7_features.jpg]]
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|-
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| '''Features:''' embryonic disc, primitive node, primative streak, primitive groove, yolk sac
  
 
'''Facts:''' Week 3, 15 - 17 days, 0.4 mm
 
'''Facts:''' Week 3, 15 - 17 days, 0.4 mm
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Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract.
 
Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract.
  
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| '''Gastrulation:''' Through the '''primitive streak '''cells migrate continuously through week 3 into week 4. Initial cells replace hypoblast as an epithelial layer the '''endoderm'''. Later migrating cells spread between the two epithelial layers to form '''mesoderm'''.
 
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| [[Image:Stage7n2.jpg]]
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| [[File:Stage7_primitive_streak_labelled.jpg]]
| '''Axes:'''
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| [[File:Stage7 axes.jpg]]
 
 
embryonic disc is shown rostral (head) to top and caudal (tail) to bottom.  
 
 
 
Left and right are the lateral margins of the disc as shown.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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| [[Image:Stage7n4.jpg]]
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| '''Axes:''' embryonic disc is shown rostral (head) to top and caudal (tail) to bottom. Left and right are the lateral margins of the disc as shown.  
| '''Folding:'''
 
 
 
all edges of the embryonic disc will fold ventrally, forming a rostro-caudal "C" shaped tube.  
 
 
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Image:Stage7n5.jpg]]
 
| '''Gastrulation:'''
 
 
Through the '''primitive streak '''cells migrate continuously through week 3 into week 4. Initial cells replace hypoblast as an epithelial layer the '''endoderm'''. Later migrating cells spread between the two epithelial layers to form '''mesoderm'''.
 
 
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
  
== Next ==
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== Gastrulation ==
[[Image:rabbit.gif]]
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Carnegie Stage 7 and 8, gastrulation, migration of cells through the primitive streak to form endoderm and mesodermal layers of embryo.
  
Link to next page in this Practical 3 - [BGDlabfertilization10.htm Notochord]
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[[File:Chicken-gastrulation3.jpg]]
  
== Glossary ==
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[[File:Trilaminar_embryo.jpg]]
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Scanning electron micrograph showing the early forming 3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
  
{| class="prettytable"
 
| [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=A A] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=B B] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=C C] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=D D] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=E E] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=F F] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=G G] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=H H] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=I I] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=J J] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=K K] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=L L] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=M M] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=N N] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=O O] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=P P] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Q Q] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=R R] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=S S] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=T T] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=U U] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=V V] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=W W] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=X X] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Y Y] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Z Z] | [http://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Numbers Numbers]
 
 
  
|}
 
 
 
  
== Terms ==
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[[File:Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg|200px|link=Development_Animation_-_Mesoderm]]
* '''bilaminar'''- having 2 layers
 
* '''blastocyst-''' the developmental stage following morula, as this stage matures, the zona pellucia is lost allowing the conceptus to adplant and then implant into the uterine wall.
 
* '''blastomeres'''-the cells resulting from the initial rounds of mitotic division of the zygote. These cells become smaller (in cytoplasmic volume) with each division.
 
* '''corona radiata'''- Layer of follicle cells of cumulus oophorus remaining attached to zona pellucida of oocyte after ovulation.
 
* '''inner cell mass'''- the clump of cells found inside the blastocyst. These cells will go in to form the embryo, these are the "stem cells" (we here about in the media) that are totipotential, they can form any tissue in the embryo. Mature oocyte-the female germ cell released at ovulation from the ovary.
 
* '''morula''' (L. morus = mulberry) early stage of development (12-15 cells) Followed by formation of a cavity in the mass (blastocyst stage). (More? Week 1 Notes)
 
* '''parental genomes'''- the male (sperm) and female (oocyte) DNA which contributes to the embryo's cells.
 
* '''polar bodies'''- 3 exclusion bodies which contain the DNA not used by the embryo. Contributed to initially by the meiotic division of the oocyte.
 
* '''pronuclei'''- the male (sperm) and female (oocyte) nuclei within the fertilized oocyte, prior to their combination to form the new embryo's nuclei.
 
* '''trilaminar embryonic disc'''- the 3 layered embryo stage.  
 
* '''Trophoblasts'''- (Gr. trophe = nutrition) outer layer of cells on blastocyst that will generate the embryonic part of the placenta.
 
* '''zona pellucida'''- glycoprotein shell that surrounds the oocyte through to blastula stage of development.
 
* '''Zygote'''- The first cell stage following fertilization of the oocyte by the sperm. This is the first cell of the conceptus which will divide into blastomeres.
 
  
== Online Resources ==
 
  
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{{Template:Glossary}}
 
  
{{Template:Footer}}
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{{Template:BGDFooter2010}}

Latest revision as of 20:42, 12 May 2010

BGDsmall.jpg

Practical 3: Oogenesis and Ovulation | Gametogenesis | Fertilization | Early Cell Division | Week 1 | Implantation | Week 2 | Extraembryonic Spaces | Gastrulation | Notochord | Week 3 | Quiz


Introduction

Practical Audio

Mark Hill.jpg

BGD Cycle A 2010 Audio - Dr Mark Hill Monday 12th May 2010 12-2pm G2G4.

Note - this is a live unedited recording from the practical and may contain errors in either descriptions or content.

listen Part 8 | download (1 Mb MP3 8:21)

Human embryo day 18.jpg Gastrulation means "gut forming" and converts the inner cell mass which then formed the bilaminar embryo (epiblast, hypoblast) into the trilaminar embryo (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm).

The process involves the migration of cells from the epiblast layer through the primitive streak to form first the endoderm layer and then a second intermediate layer the mesoderm layer. Once all cells have left the epiblast layer it now becomes the ectoderm layer.

These three germ cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) will form in a layer specific manner all the future tissues of the developing embryo.


Approximate cross-section of an 18 day human conceptus.

Identify the 3 layers of the trilaminar embryo: ectoderm (columnar cells), intraembryonic mesoderm (mesenchymal cells, endodermal cells (cuboidal single layer). Identify primitive groove with dense cluster of primitive streak cells below it.


(Image: Nishimura etal., 1977)

 

Stage 7

Stage7-sem2.jpg Stage7 features.jpg
Features: embryonic disc, primitive node, primative streak, primitive groove, yolk sac

Facts: Week 3, 15 - 17 days, 0.4 mm

View 1: embryonic disc, showing the epiblast viewed from the amniotic (dorsal) side.

Events: Gastrulation is continuing as cells migrate from the epiblast, continuing to form mesoderm.

Mesoderm lies between the ectoderm and endoderm as a continuous sheet except at the buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes. These membranes have ectoderm and endoderm only and will lie at the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) of the gastrointestinal tract.


Gastrulation: Through the primitive streak cells migrate continuously through week 3 into week 4. Initial cells replace hypoblast as an epithelial layer the endoderm. Later migrating cells spread between the two epithelial layers to form mesoderm.
Stage7 primitive streak labelled.jpg Stage7 axes.jpg
Axes: embryonic disc is shown rostral (head) to top and caudal (tail) to bottom. Left and right are the lateral margins of the disc as shown.

Gastrulation

Carnegie Stage 7 and 8, gastrulation, migration of cells through the primitive streak to form endoderm and mesodermal layers of embryo.

Chicken-gastrulation3.jpg

Trilaminar embryo.jpg Scanning electron micrograph showing the early forming 3 layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.


Mesoderm 001 icon.jpg


BGDsmall.jpg

Practical 3: Oogenesis and Ovulation | Gametogenesis | Fertilization | Early Cell Division | Week 1 | Implantation | Week 2 | Extraembryonic Spaces | Gastrulation | Notochord | Week 3 | Quiz



Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link
2010 BGD: Lecture 1 | Lecture 2 | Practical 3 | Practical 6 | Practical 12

Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2021, July 24) Embryology 2010 BGD Practical 3 - Gastrulation. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2010_BGD_Practical_3_-_Gastrulation

What Links Here?
© Dr Mark Hill 2021, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G