2009 Lecture 1

From Embryology
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A Course Introduction

BrauneB1.jpg

Anatomical image of late pregnancy by Wilhelm Braune (1831-1892): Topographisch-anatomischer Atlas : nach Durchschnitten an gefrornen Cadavern, Leipzig: Verlag von Veit & Comp., 1867-1872. (Topographic-anatomical Atlas) Wilhelm Braune (1831-1892)

This first lecture will be a general introduction to the course and the subject of Embryology.

Firstly, an introduction to the course, its content and assessment and an opportunity to ask questions.
Secondly, some historic background to the subject and related current Australian trends.


MH - I do not expect you to remember specific historic dates or statistical data, this is provided as an introduction to the topic.

Lectopia Lecture Audio Lecture Date: 27-07-2009 Lecture Time: 12:00 Venue: CLB 5 Speaker: Mark Hill Course Introduction

ANAT2341 Course Background 2009

I will spend the first half going through the current course design, online support and assessment criteria. This is an opportunity to ask the course coordinator questions about the course.

Links: Course Homepage | UNSW Embryology

History

Long Ago

19th Century

  • 1824 - Rolando cut chemically hardened (fixed) pieces of brain tissues into thin sections for microscopical examination
  • 1859 - Darwin - On the Origin of Species Evolution Darwin
  • 1880 - image excerpts from a historic study of German embryologist Wilhelm His (1831-1904) Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen (1880).
  • 1889 - Camille Golgi discovered a method of silver staining hardened brain tissues Brain and Mind Brain Structure

Early 20th Century

Development in the early 20th century can also be seen in some Historic Movies 1920-1960.

Late 20th Century

There are too many embryological breakthroughs in the late 20th century to briefly list here. Some key women in development 1953 Virginia Apgar, Rita Levi-Montalcini and 1965 Le Douarin.

Nobel Prizes

Much of the modern history of Medicine/Embryology is documented in the Nobel Prizes for Medicine. Remember that these award dates reflect findings that have proven to be scientific key breakthroughs from earlier dates.

21st Century

Australian Statistics

The data below are highlights from the AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit recent annual publication: "Australia's mothers and babies 2005"

267,793 women gave birth to 272,419 babies, 15,214 more births (5.9%) than reported in Australia for 2004.

Mothers

  • 29.8 years was the mean maternal age, continuing an upward trend. (More? Australian Statistics | Australian Maternal Statistics)
  • 9,867 were of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin, making up 3.7% of all mothers.
  • 17.4% reported smoking at all during pregnancy. (More? Smoking)
  • 58.5% had a spontaneous vaginal birth (0.4% vaginal breech birth, 3.5% forceps and 7.2% vacuum extractions). (More? Birth Overview)
  • 30.3% gave birth by caesarean section (19.5% in 1996) (More? Caesarean Delivery)
  • 83.2% had previously had a caesarean section
  • 1.7% had a multiple pregnancy (More? Twinning)
  • 3.0 days median length of stay in hospital (caesarean section 5.0 days)

Babies

  • 8.1% were preterm (less than 37 weeks gestation) (More? [../Child/birthpremature.htm Premature Birth] | [../Child/birthweight.htm Low Birth Weight])
  • 6.4% of liveborn babies were of low birthweight (less than 2,500 grams) (More? [../Child/birthweight.htm Low Birth Weight] | [../Defect/page10.htm Fetal Origins Hypothesis])
  • 105.5 male / 100 female live births
  • 15.5% of liveborn babies admitted to a special care nursery or neonatal intensive care unit.
  • 6,044 were admitted to level III neonatal intensive care units in Australia and met ANZNN‚Äôs high risk criteria, of which 78.0% were preterm.
  • 7.3 /1,000 births fetal death rate (More? [../Child/birth7.htm Stillbirth and Perinatal Death])
  • 3.2 /1,000 neonatal death rate / live births
  • 10.5 /1,000 perinatal death rate / births

Assisted Reproduction Technology

Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) may include more techniques than, but is sometimes also used to identify, In vitro Fertilization (IVF) (More? [../Notes/week1_5b.htm In Vitro Fertilization]).

  • 51,017 treatment cycles reported to ANZARD in Australia and New Zealand in 2005.
    • 91.1% were from Australian fertility and 8.9% from New Zealand centres (an increase of 13.7% of ART treatment cycles from 2004).
  • 35.5 years average age of women (35.2 years in 2002).
  • Women aged older than 40 years has increased from 14.3% in 2002 to 15.3% in 2005.

Single Embryo Transfers (SET)

  • Significant increase in the number of SET embryos transfer cycles: 2002 28.4%; 2005 48.3%
  • increase of SET cycles resulted more singleton deliveries (singleton deliveries 2005 was 85.9%)
  • Single-embryo transfer babies had better outcomes compared to babies born to women who had a double-embryo transfer (DET).
  • Singletons babies 96.1% SET, 61.6% DET
  • Preterm babies, 11.7% SET, 30.6% DET
  • Low birthweight liveborn babies, 8.0% SET, 25.0% DET

(Reference: AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit Assisted Reproduction Technology in Australia and New Zealand 2005)

Australian Developmental Abnormalities

Ten most frequently reported birth defects in Victoria between 2003-2004 (More? Australian Statistics - Victoria)

  1. Hypospadias (More? Genital Abnormalities - Hypospadia)
  2. Obstructive Defects of the Renal Pelvis (More? Urogenital Abnormalities)
  3. Ventricular Septal Defect (More? Cardiovascular Abnormalities - Ventricular Septal Defect)
  4. Congenital Dislocated Hip (More? Musculoskelal Abnormalities - Congenital Dislocation of the Hip (CDH))
  5. Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome - (More? Abnormal Development - Trisomy 21)
  6. Hydrocephalus (More? Neural Abnormalities - Hydrocephalus)
  7. Cleft Palate (More? Head Abnormalities)
  8. Trisomy 18 or Edward Syndrome - multiple abnormalities of the heart, diaphragm, lungs, kidneys, ureters and palate 86% discontinued (More? Abnormal Development - Trisomy 18)
  9. Renal Agenesis/Dysgenesis - reduction in neonatal death and stillbirth since 1993 may be due to the more severe cases being identified in utero and being represented amongst the increased proportion of terminations (approximately 31%). (More? Kidney Abnormalities - Renal Agenesis)
  10. Cleft Lip and Palate - occur with another defect in 33.7% of cases. (More? Head Abnormalities)


Links: Historical Embryology | The History of Childbirth | Classic Papers in Neonatal Medicine | Australian Data

UNSW Embryology Links


Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

Course Content 2009

Embryology Introduction | Cell Division/Fertilization | Cell Division/Fertilization | Week 1&2 Development | Week 3 Development | Lab 2 | Mesoderm Development | Ectoderm, Early Neural, Neural Crest | Lab 3 | Early Vascular Development | Placenta | Lab 4 | Endoderm, Early Gastrointestinal | Respiratory Development | Lab 5 | Head Development | Neural Crest Development | Lab 6 | Musculoskeletal Development | Limb Development | Lab 7 | Kidney | Genital | Lab 8 | Sensory - Ear | Integumentary | Lab 9 | Sensory - Eye | Endocrine | Lab 10 | Late Vascular Development | Fetal | Lab 11 | Birth, Postnatal | Revision | Lab 12 | Lecture Audio | Course Timetable


Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2020, September 25) Embryology 2009 Lecture 1. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/2009_Lecture_1

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© Dr Mark Hill 2020, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G