Difference between revisions of "2009 Lab 1"

From Embryology
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/urogen.htm Urogenital Notes])
 
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/urogen.htm Urogenital Notes])
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===Call-Exner bodies===
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A feature seen in the developing ovarian follicle granulosa layer of some species, including human. Appears as a spherical space staining as an eosinophilic region and contains basal lamina components (type IV collagen and laminin) similar to thiose of the follicular basal lamina.
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3a.htm Week 1 - Oogenesis])
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===centriole===
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A pair of small cylindrical structures each about 0.2 micron in diameter and 0.4 micron long, that lie at right angles to one another; present at each pole of the mitotic spindle in animal cells and in some other eukaryotes.
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===ciliated epithelium===
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(Latin, ''cilium'' = eyelid) An epithelium named on the basis of the cells having surface hair-like appearance of a cilium; singular, cilium. In many tissues, cilia are found as epithelial cell apical surface motile specializations. In the uterine tube epithelium, after ovulation used to move the unfertilized egg, then the fertilized zygote, then blastocyst during the first week of development.
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===clomiphene citrate===
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(CC) A fertility drug taken orally to promote the process of follicle/egg maturation in superovulation therapy. (CC) an anti-estrogen (MRL-41) therapy for WHO group II (eu-oestrogenic) infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Used for more than 40 years it is a simple, cheap treatment, with low side effects and yields a 25% live birth rate. Alternative therapeutics being considered are metformin, aromatase inhibitors and low-dose FSH.
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(More? [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=13901503&dopt=Abstract Greenblatt RB, Barfield WE, Jungck EC, Ray AW.] Induction of ovulation with MRL/41. Preliminary report. JAMA. 1961 Oct 14;178:101-4. | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15878925&dopt=Abstract Homburg R.] Clomiphene citrate--end of an era? A mini-review. Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2043-51.) | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3a.htm Notes - Ovary] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_5a.htm Week 1 - In Vivo Fertilization] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_5b.htm Week 1 - In Vitro Fertilization] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_2.htm Week 1 - Abnormalities])
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===cumulus oophorus===
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(Latin ''cumulus'' = a little mound G. ''oon'' = egg + ''phorus'' = bearing) The granulosa cells that form a column of cells that attaches the oocyte to the antral follicle wall within follicles of the ovary. This column of cells is broken or separates during ovulation to release the oocyte from its follicle attachment. Other granulosa cells within the follicle include: membrana granulosa and [#corona_radiata corona radiata].
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3a.htm Week 1 - Oogenesis])
  
 
====male factor====  
 
====male factor====  

Revision as of 17:26, 29 July 2009


Cell Division and Fertilization

Introduction

This laboratory will look at gametogenesis and fertilization. As this is your first laboratory, it will also introduce the online embryology learning materials that support your learning objectives.

The laboratory will also introduce individual progressive assessment and the group online assessment submission.

Objectives

  1. Identify the anatomical structure of the testes and the ovary.
  2. Identify the stages and differences between gamete development in the two gonads.
  3. Understand the endocrine regulation and changes associated with the menstrual cycle.
  4. Understand the process of fertilization.

UNSW Embryology Links

Terms

acroplaxome

The sperm structure which forms the acrosome plate with intermediate filament bundles of the marginal ring at the leading edge of the acrosome.

(More? Spermatogenesis | Fertilization)

acrosin

A spermatazoa acrosomal protein has a role in [F.htm#fertilization fertilization] including that of lysis of the zona pellucida (a serine protease) and in secondary zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Stored in mature spermatazoa as proacrosin.

(More? Spermatogenesis | Fertilization | OMIM Entry)

acrosome

The spermatazoa cellular structure containing a packet of enzymes located that allows it to dissolve a hole in the specialized extracellular matrix ([Z.htm#zona_pellucida zona pellucida], egg coat) surrounding the oocyte (egg). This enzymic digestion then allows the spermatazoa to penetrate and fertilize the egg. This structure is formed from the normal cellular organelle the [G.htm#golgi Golgi apparatus].

(More? Spermatogenesis | Fertilization)

acrosome reaction

The chemical change that enables release of acrosomal contents and allow a sperm to penetrate an egg.

(More? Spermatogenesis | Fertilization)

adnexa

(Latin, adnexae = appendages) Term used to describe any anatomical appendage (accessory structure, extension or outgrowth from the body). In reproductive anatomy used to describe appendages of the [U.htm#uterus uterus] "body"; ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus supporting ligaments.

Artificial Insemination

(AI) Fertility treatment, using placement of a sperm sample inside the female reproductive tract that can be carried out by a number of different techniques: intracervical insemination, intrauterine insemination, intratubal insemination.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

amenorrhea

The absence of a menstrual period, it can be either primary (not yet had a period by age 16) or secondary (regular period that has now stopped for 3 months).

(More? Human Menstrual Cycle)

androgens

The male sex hormones, eg testosterone.

(More? Genital System - Male)

aneuploidy

Term used to describe an abnormal number of chromosomes mainly (90%) due to chromosome malsegregation mechanisms in maternal meiosis I.

(More? Trisomy 21 | Meiosis)

antral follicle

(secondary follicle) Term used to describe the developmental stage of ovarian follicle development following preantral (primary) in describing the sequence (primordial, preantral, antral) of follicle development within the ovary. In humans, a number of primordial follicles will begin to develop into primary follicles, some of which will then form antral follicles (secondary), with only a single antral follicle developing into the ovulating follicle (Graafian) each menstrual cycle.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

antrum

(Latin from Greek, antron = a cave, cavity; a nearly-closed cavity or bulge). Identified anatomically in many structures (ovarian follicle, bone, cardiac, gastric). In the ovary this refers to the follicular fluid-filled space within the follicle.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ART

acronym for Assisted Reproductive Technology. All treatments or procedures that involve the handling of human eggs and sperm for the purpose of helping a woman become pregnant. Types of ART include in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, zygote intrafallopian transfer, embryo cryopreservation, egg or embryo donation, and surrogate birth.

(More? Week 1 - In Vitro Fertilization)

ART cycle

A process in which 1) an ART procedure is carried out, 2) a woman has undergone ovarian stimulation or monitoring with the intent of having an ART procedure, or 3) in the case of frozen embryos, embryos have been thawed with the intent of transferring them to a woman. A cycle begins when a woman begins taking fertility drugs or having her ovaries monitored.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

atresia

(Greek, a = without + tresis = perforation) Term used for anatomical closing or absence of a cavity or opening that should exist. Used as an antomical, pathological and clinical term: esophageal atresia, biliary atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunal atresia, choanal atresia, vaginal atresia, urethral atresia, pulmonary atresia, bronchial atresia, tricuspid atresia.

(More? see [#atretic_follicle atretic follicle])

atretic follicle

An ovarian follicle that fails to mature and degenerates. Also called "atresia" referring to the process of degeneration of the ovarian follicle. At any one time the majority of follicles are destined not to complete maturation and degeneration can occur at any stage (from type 4-7).

(More? Week 1 Notes | Ovary Notes)

Balbiani body

(mitochondrial cloud) A collection of cell organelles (mitochondria, ER, and granulofibrillar material) asymmetrically located beside the nucleus in very young oocytes in some species. Appears similar to germinal granule precursors seen some species that contain a definitive germ plasm (flies, worms, and frogs).

(More? PNAS - Mouse oocytes within germ cell cysts and primordial follicles contain a Balbiani body)

Bulbourethral Gland

(= Cowper's Gland) A male genital tract gland which secretes a small amount of a thick clear mucous fluid prior to ejaculation, the alkaline content apparently buffers acidity of the urethra. The equivalent female gland are Bartholin's glands.

(More? Urogenital Notes)

Call-Exner bodies

A feature seen in the developing ovarian follicle granulosa layer of some species, including human. Appears as a spherical space staining as an eosinophilic region and contains basal lamina components (type IV collagen and laminin) similar to thiose of the follicular basal lamina.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

centriole

A pair of small cylindrical structures each about 0.2 micron in diameter and 0.4 micron long, that lie at right angles to one another; present at each pole of the mitotic spindle in animal cells and in some other eukaryotes.

ciliated epithelium

(Latin, cilium = eyelid) An epithelium named on the basis of the cells having surface hair-like appearance of a cilium; singular, cilium. In many tissues, cilia are found as epithelial cell apical surface motile specializations. In the uterine tube epithelium, after ovulation used to move the unfertilized egg, then the fertilized zygote, then blastocyst during the first week of development.

clomiphene citrate

(CC) A fertility drug taken orally to promote the process of follicle/egg maturation in superovulation therapy. (CC) an anti-estrogen (MRL-41) therapy for WHO group II (eu-oestrogenic) infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Used for more than 40 years it is a simple, cheap treatment, with low side effects and yields a 25% live birth rate. Alternative therapeutics being considered are metformin, aromatase inhibitors and low-dose FSH.

(More? Greenblatt RB, Barfield WE, Jungck EC, Ray AW. Induction of ovulation with MRL/41. Preliminary report. JAMA. 1961 Oct 14;178:101-4. | Homburg R. Clomiphene citrate--end of an era? A mini-review. Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2043-51.) | Notes - Ovary | Week 1 - In Vivo Fertilization | Week 1 - In Vitro Fertilization | Week 1 - Abnormalities)

cumulus oophorus

(Latin cumulus = a little mound G. oon = egg + phorus = bearing) The granulosa cells that form a column of cells that attaches the oocyte to the antral follicle wall within follicles of the ovary. This column of cells is broken or separates during ovulation to release the oocyte from its follicle attachment. Other granulosa cells within the follicle include: membrana granulosa and [#corona_radiata corona radiata].

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

male factor

Any cause of infertility due to deficiencies in sperm quantity, function, or motility (ability to move) that make it difficult for a sperm to fertilize an egg under normal conditions.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

manchette

A transient microtubule structure formed in spermatids involved in the process of assembly of the mammalian sperm tail and mechanical shaping and condensation of the sperm nucleus.

(More? Spermatogenesis | Fertilization)

mediastinum testis

(Latin, medialis = middle) A single conical mass of connective tissue within the testis (male gonad) which extends from the tunica albuginea (cortical thick capsule surrounding the testis) into the seminiferous tubule region (medullary). Embedded within this connective tissue are the rete testis component of the duct conduction system for spermatazoa (Spermatozoa Duct Pathway: seminiferous tubule ‚ straight tubule ‚ rete testis ‚ ductuli efferentes ‚ ductus epididymidis ‚ ductus deferens)

(More? Spermatogenesis)

medullary

(Latin, medialis = in the middle) Term relating to the medulla; pith, marrow, inner portion of an organ. Usually combined with cortex (cortical) meaning the outer layer.

meiosis

The cell division that occurs only in production of germ cells where there is a reduction in the number of chromosomes (diploid to haploid) which is the basis of sexual reproduction. Note all other non-germ cells divide by mitosis.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

meiotic sex chromosome inactivation

(MSCI) The process of transcriptional silencing of the X and Y chromosomes that occurs only during male meiotic spermatogenesis. This is a specialised form of [#MSUC meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin]. This specific silencing has also be called the second form of X chromosome inactivation, the first form occurs in all female embryo cells.

(More? Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Turner JM. Development. 2007 May;134(10):1823-3

membrana granulosa

The granulosa cells that line the developing follicles of the ovary. These cells proliferate to form the stratum granulosa and other granulosa cells are given specific names based upon their position within the follicle. In the antral follicle, membrana granulosa sits on the follicular basal lamina and lines the antrum as a stratified epithelium. The [C.htm#cumulus_oophorus cumulus oophorus] is a column of granulosa cells that attaches the oocyte to the follicle wall. The [C.htm#corona_radiata corona radiata] are the granulosa cells that directly surround the oocyte, and are released along with it at ovulation. Following ovulation the corona radiata provide physical protection to the oocyte and granulosa cells within the ovulating follicle contribute to [C.htm#corpus_luteum corpus luteum].

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

menopause

(Greek, mene = moon, men = month, pause = end or cessation) The decrease in ovarian production of estrogen and progesterone leading to cessation of menstrual cycles, decrease in fertility, and end of female reproductive life. Usually occurs in the mid-40's, the term was first used by the French physician, de Gardanne in 1812.

(More? Human Menstrual Cycle | Medline Plus - Menopause)

menorrhagia

Term used to describe heavy menstrual bleeding, is common in women of reproductive age (WHO data, affects 1011 out of 5322 women).

(More? Human Menstrual Cycle)

menstrual age

The gestation time calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) prior to [F.htm#fertilization fertilization]. In humans, this differs from embryonic age by approximately two weeks.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

menstrual cycle

The human reproductive cycle, an endocrine regulated change in female anatomy and physiology that occur over 28 days (4 weeks, a lunar month) during reproductive life (between puberty and menopause). This cycle ceases during pregnancy and differs from other non-primate vertebrates (eg rats, mice, horses, pig) females that have a reproductive cycle called the estrous cycle (oestrous, British spelling).

(More? Human Menstrual Cycle | Estrous Cycle)

mitosis

The normal division of all cells, except germ cells, where chromosome number is maintained. Note germ cell division (egg, sperm) is reductive meiotic division.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance

(MIS, Anti-Mullerian Hormone, AMH, Mullerian inhibiting hormone, MIH). A sertoli cell secreted glycoprotein (transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta superfamily) that regulates gonadal and genital tract development. The main role is to inhibit paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct development in males. Postnatally, after puberty it is also expressed in females by ovarian granulosa cells and has a role in follicle development.

(More? Male | OMIM - AMH)


oocyte

(Greek, oo = egg, ovum) The term used to describe the haploid egg or ovum formed within the ovary (female gonad) and released to enter the uterine tube and be transported to the [U.htm#uterus uterus]. The mature oocyte is the cell released from the ovary during ovulation.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oogenesis

(Greek, oo = egg + genesis = origin, creation, generation) process of diploid oogonia division and differentiation into an haploid oocyte (egg) within the ovary (female gonad). Mammalian meiosis will only be completed within the oocyte if [F.htm#fertilization fertilization] occurs.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oogonia

(Greek, oo = egg) diploid germ cells within the ovary (female gonad) which provide the primary oocytes for oocyte (egg) formation. In humans, all oogonia form primary oocytes within the ovary before birth.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oophorus

(Greek, oo = egg + phorus = carrying, egg-bearing) cumulus oophorus, used to describe the granulosa cells within the follicle that tether or link the oocyte to the wall of the follicle.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian factor

A cause of infertility due to problems with egg production by the ovaries.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

(OHSS) Condition associated with fertility drugs for in vitro fertilization and other reproductive abnormalities.

(More? Week 1 - In Vitro Fertilization | Medlineplus - OHSS)

ovarian monitoring

The use of ultrasound and/or blood or urine tests to monitor ovarian follicle development and hormone production.

(More? Week 1 Notes | Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian stimulation

The use of drugs to stimulate the ovaries to develop follicles/eggs. (More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Human Menstrual Cycle)

ovary

The two female gonads where female germ cells (oocytes, eggs) are generated and also the source of estrogen and progesterone the female hormones regulating secondary sex characteristics and menstrual cycle uterine changes. The ovary is embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are lost in females.

(More? Week 1 Notes | Week 1 - Oogenesis | Human Menstrual Cycle)

oviduct

(uterine horn, fallopian tube, oviduct, salpinx) see [#uterine_tube uterine tube]. A pair of tubular structures designed to transport the oocyte (egg) from the ovary to the [U.htm#uterus uterus] body.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Week 1 Notes | Blue Histology - Female Reproductive System)

ovulation

The term used to describe the process of the mature follicle releasing the oocyte or ovum (and support cells) from the ovary surface into the peritoneal cavity. In humans, generally a single oocyte is released from a cohort of several maturing follicles. More than one follicle may be released (superovulation) following reproductive therapeutic treatment.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Week 1 Notes)

Sertoli cells

The supporting cells in the testes (male gonad) that induce primordial germ cells to commit to sperm development. Support is nutritional and mechanical, as well as forming a blood-testis barrier. In development these cells secrete anti-Müllerian hormone, which causes the Müllerian (paramesonephric) duct to regress, and help to induce other somatic cells to differentiate into Leydig cells. The cells are named after Enrico Sertoli (1842 - 1910), and italian physiologist and histologist.

(More? Urogenital Notes | Enrico Sertoli | UWA Blue Histology - Male Reproductive System)

sperm

The male haploid reproductive cell, often used generically (and incorrectly) to describe these cells and the fluid of the ejaculate. Term is a shortened form of scientifically correct term #spermatazoa spermatazoa.

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatazoa

The male haploid reproductive cell, produced by meiosis in the testis (male gonad).

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogenesis

(Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The term used to describe the process of diploid spermatagonia division and differentiation to form haploid spermatazoa within the testis (male gonad). The process includes the following cellular changes: meiosis, reoorganization of DNA, reduction in DNA content, reorganization of cellular organelles, morphological changes (cell shape). The final process of change in cell shape is also called [#spermiogenesis spermiogenesis].

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermiogenesis

(Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The maturation process of the already haploid spermatazoa into the mature sperm shape and organization. This process involves reorganization of cellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria), cytoskeletal changes (microtubule organization) and morphological changes (cell shape, acrosome and tail formation).

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogonia

The cells located in the seminiferous tubule adjacent to the basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogonial stem cells

The spermatagonia cells located beside the seminiferous tubule basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

sry

(Sry, human; Testis-Determining Factor, TDF; Testis-Determining Factor on Y, TDY ) Gene name ====s====ex-determining ====r====egion of ====Y====, the gene locus on the Y chromosome encoding the male "testis determining factor", a protein transcription factor and a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. See also the transcription factor SRY-related protein, SOX9 (SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9)

(More? Molecular Notes | Week 1 Notes | OMIM)

stimulated cycle

An ART cycle in which a woman receives drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

stroma

(Greek, stroma = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Histological term used to describe supportive cells within an organ, tissue or structure. The term is often paired with [P.htm#parenchyma parenchyma], which describes the functional cells of an organ, tissue or structure. All organs can therefore be functionally divided into these 2 components, stromal/parenchymal.

stromal cells

(Greek, stroma = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Descriptive term in the ovary, for cells surrounding the developing follicle that form a connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi). This layer then differentiates into 2 layers (theca interna, theca externa). This region is vascularized and involved in hormone secretion.

testes

(Latin testis = "witness") The two male gonads (singular testis) where male germ cells (spermatozoa) are generated and also the source of testosterone (male hormone). Embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are preserved in male gonad development and lost in females.

(More? Genital System - Male)

testis

(Latin testis = "witness", plural testes) The male gonad where male germ cells (spermatozoa) are generated and also the source of testosterone (male hormone). Embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are preserved in male gonad development and lost in females.

(More? Genital System - Male)

testis-determining factor

(TDF, Sry, Testis-Determining Factor on Y, TDY ) Protein name for the protein transcription factor product of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome responsible for maleness. This protein is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. See also the transcription factor SRY-related protein, SOX9 (SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9)

(More? Molecular Notes | Week 1 Notes | OMIM)

Next Lecture

Lecture 3 | Course Timetable

Dr Mark Hill 2009 UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G