Difference between revisions of "2009 Lab 1"

From Embryology
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3a.htm Week 1 - Oogenesis] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1.htm Week 1 Notes])
 
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3a.htm Week 1 - Oogenesis] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1.htm Week 1 Notes])
  
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===Sertoli cells===
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The supporting cells in the testes (male gonad) that induce primordial germ cells to commit to sperm development. Support is nutritional and mechanical, as well as forming a blood-testis barrier. In development these cells secrete anti-Müllerian hormone, which causes the Müllerian (paramesonephric) duct to regress, and help to induce other somatic cells to differentiate into Leydig cells. The cells are named after Enrico Sertoli (1842 - 1910), and italian physiologist and histologist.
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/urogen.htm Urogenital Notes] | [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/556.html Enrico Sertoli] | [http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/MaleRepro/malerepro.htm UWA Blue Histology - Male Reproductive System])
 +
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===sperm===
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The male haploid reproductive cell, often used generically (and incorrectly) to describe these cells and the fluid of the ejaculate. Term is a shortened form of scientifically correct term [#spermatazoa spermatazoa].
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
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===spermatazoa===
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The male haploid reproductive cell, produced by meiosis in the testis (male gonad).
 +
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(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
 +
===spermatogenesis===
 +
 +
(Greek, ''genesis'' = origin, creation, generation) The term used to describe the process of diploid spermatagonia division and differentiation to form haploid spermatazoa within the testis (male gonad). The process includes the following cellular changes: meiosis, reoorganization of DNA, reduction in DNA content, reorganization of cellular organelles, morphological changes (cell shape). The final process of change in cell shape is also called [#spermiogenesis spermiogenesis].
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
 +
===spermiogenesis===
 +
 +
(Greek, ''genesis'' = origin, creation, generation) The maturation process of the already haploid spermatazoa into the mature sperm shape and organization. This process involves reorganization of cellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria), cytoskeletal changes (microtubule organization) and morphological changes (cell shape, acrosome and tail formation).
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
 +
===spermatogonia===
 +
 +
The cells located in the seminiferous tubule adjacent to the basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
 +
===spermatogonial stem cells===
 +
 +
The spermatagonia cells located beside the seminiferous tubule basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1_3b.htm Week 1 - Spermatogenesis])
 +
 +
===sry===
 +
 +
(Sry, human; Testis-Determining Factor, TDF; Testis-Determining Factor on Y, TDY ) Gene name ===s===ex-determining ===r===egion of ===Y===, the gene locus on the Y chromosome encoding the male "testis determining factor", a protein transcription factor and a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. See also the transcription factor SRY-related protein, SOX9 (SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9)
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/MolDev/MolDev.htm Molecular Notes] | [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1.htm Week 1 Notes] | [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=480000 OMIM])
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===stimulated cycle===
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An ART cycle in which a woman receives drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.
 +
 +
(More? [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/Notes/week1.htm Week 1 Notes])
 +
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===stroma===
 +
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(Greek, ''stroma'' = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Histological term used to describe supportive cells within an organ, tissue or structure. The term is often paired with [P.htm#parenchyma parenchyma], which describes the functional cells of an organ, tissue or structure. All organs can therefore be functionally divided into these 2 components, stromal/parenchymal.
 +
 +
===stromal cells===
 +
 +
(Greek, ''stroma'' = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Descriptive term in the ovary, for cells surrounding the developing follicle that form a connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi). This layer then differentiates into 2 layers (theca interna, theca externa). This region is vascularized and involved in hormone secretion.
  
 
===testes===  
 
===testes===  

Revision as of 16:05, 29 July 2009


Cell Division and Fertilization

Introduction

This laboratory will look at gametogenesis and fertilization. As this is your first laboratory, it will also introduce the online embryology learning materials that support your learning objectives.

The laboratory will also introduce individual progressive assessment and the group online assessment submission.

Objectives

  1. Identify the anatomical structure of the testes and the ovary.
  2. Identify the stages and differences between gamete development in the two gonads.
  3. Understand the endocrine regulation and changes associated with the menstrual cycle.
  4. Understand the process of fertilization.

UNSW Embryology Links

Terms

oocyte

(Greek, oo = egg, ovum) The term used to describe the haploid egg or ovum formed within the ovary (female gonad) and released to enter the uterine tube and be transported to the [U.htm#uterus uterus]. The mature oocyte is the cell released from the ovary during ovulation.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oogenesis

(Greek, oo = egg + genesis = origin, creation, generation) process of diploid oogonia division and differentiation into an haploid oocyte (egg) within the ovary (female gonad). Mammalian meiosis will only be completed within the oocyte if [F.htm#fertilization fertilization] occurs.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oogonia

(Greek, oo = egg) diploid germ cells within the ovary (female gonad) which provide the primary oocytes for oocyte (egg) formation. In humans, all oogonia form primary oocytes within the ovary before birth.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

oophorus

(Greek, oo = egg + phorus = carrying, egg-bearing) cumulus oophorus, used to describe the granulosa cells within the follicle that tether or link the oocyte to the wall of the follicle.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian factor

A cause of infertility due to problems with egg production by the ovaries.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

(OHSS) Condition associated with fertility drugs for in vitro fertilization and other reproductive abnormalities.

(More? Week 1 - In Vitro Fertilization | Medlineplus - OHSS)

ovarian monitoring

The use of ultrasound and/or blood or urine tests to monitor ovarian follicle development and hormone production.

(More? Week 1 Notes | Week 1 - Oogenesis)

ovarian stimulation

The use of drugs to stimulate the ovaries to develop follicles/eggs. (More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Human Menstrual Cycle)

ovary

The two female gonads where female germ cells (oocytes, eggs) are generated and also the source of estrogen and progesterone the female hormones regulating secondary sex characteristics and menstrual cycle uterine changes. The ovary is embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are lost in females.

(More? Week 1 Notes | Week 1 - Oogenesis | Human Menstrual Cycle)

oviduct

(uterine horn, fallopian tube, oviduct, salpinx) see [#uterine_tube uterine tube]. A pair of tubular structures designed to transport the oocyte (egg) from the ovary to the [U.htm#uterus uterus] body.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Week 1 Notes | Blue Histology - Female Reproductive System)

ovulation

The term used to describe the process of the mature follicle releasing the oocyte or ovum (and support cells) from the ovary surface into the peritoneal cavity. In humans, generally a single oocyte is released from a cohort of several maturing follicles. More than one follicle may be released (superovulation) following reproductive therapeutic treatment.

(More? Week 1 - Oogenesis | Week 1 Notes)

Sertoli cells

The supporting cells in the testes (male gonad) that induce primordial germ cells to commit to sperm development. Support is nutritional and mechanical, as well as forming a blood-testis barrier. In development these cells secrete anti-Müllerian hormone, which causes the Müllerian (paramesonephric) duct to regress, and help to induce other somatic cells to differentiate into Leydig cells. The cells are named after Enrico Sertoli (1842 - 1910), and italian physiologist and histologist.

(More? Urogenital Notes | Enrico Sertoli | UWA Blue Histology - Male Reproductive System)

sperm

The male haploid reproductive cell, often used generically (and incorrectly) to describe these cells and the fluid of the ejaculate. Term is a shortened form of scientifically correct term [#spermatazoa spermatazoa].

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatazoa

The male haploid reproductive cell, produced by meiosis in the testis (male gonad).

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogenesis

(Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The term used to describe the process of diploid spermatagonia division and differentiation to form haploid spermatazoa within the testis (male gonad). The process includes the following cellular changes: meiosis, reoorganization of DNA, reduction in DNA content, reorganization of cellular organelles, morphological changes (cell shape). The final process of change in cell shape is also called [#spermiogenesis spermiogenesis].

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermiogenesis

(Greek, genesis = origin, creation, generation) The maturation process of the already haploid spermatazoa into the mature sperm shape and organization. This process involves reorganization of cellular organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, mitochondria), cytoskeletal changes (microtubule organization) and morphological changes (cell shape, acrosome and tail formation).

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogonia

The cells located in the seminiferous tubule adjacent to the basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

spermatogonial stem cells

The spermatagonia cells located beside the seminiferous tubule basal membrane that either divide and separate to renew the stem cell population, or they divide and stay together as a pair (Apr spermatogonia) connected by an intercellular cytoplasmic bridge to differentiate and eventually form spermatazoa.

(More? Week 1 - Spermatogenesis)

sry

(Sry, human; Testis-Determining Factor, TDF; Testis-Determining Factor on Y, TDY ) Gene name ===s===ex-determining ===r===egion of ===Y===, the gene locus on the Y chromosome encoding the male "testis determining factor", a protein transcription factor and a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. See also the transcription factor SRY-related protein, SOX9 (SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9)

(More? Molecular Notes | Week 1 Notes | OMIM)

stimulated cycle

An ART cycle in which a woman receives drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.

(More? Week 1 Notes)

stroma

(Greek, stroma = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Histological term used to describe supportive cells within an organ, tissue or structure. The term is often paired with [P.htm#parenchyma parenchyma], which describes the functional cells of an organ, tissue or structure. All organs can therefore be functionally divided into these 2 components, stromal/parenchymal.

stromal cells

(Greek, stroma = "a cover, table-cloth, bedding") Descriptive term in the ovary, for cells surrounding the developing follicle that form a connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi). This layer then differentiates into 2 layers (theca interna, theca externa). This region is vascularized and involved in hormone secretion.

testes

(Latin testis = "witness") The two male gonads (singular testis) where male germ cells (spermatozoa) are generated and also the source of testosterone (male hormone). Embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are preserved in male gonad development and lost in females.

(More? Genital System - Male)

testis

(Latin testis = "witness", plural testes) The male gonad where male germ cells (spermatozoa) are generated and also the source of testosterone (male hormone). Embryonically formed from primordial germ cells entering region of the paired mesonephric ducts (Wolffian ducts) which are preserved in male gonad development and lost in females.

(More? Genital System - Male)

testis-determining factor

(TDF, Sry, Testis-Determining Factor on Y, TDY ) Protein name for the protein transcription factor product of the Sry gene on the Y chromosome responsible for maleness. This protein is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA binding proteins. See also the transcription factor SRY-related protein, SOX9 (SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) box 9)

(More? Molecular Notes | Week 1 Notes | OMIM)

Next Lecture

Lecture 3 | Course Timetable

Dr Mark Hill 2009 UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G