User talk:Z3330539

From Embryology

==Lab 1 Assessment==

  ===Task 1===

Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 Nobel Prize winner associated with this technique and add a correctly formatted link to the Nobel page.

-In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technology is the combining/fusion of the males sperm and females egg/s outside the body, then later implanting this fertilized oocyte into the female uterus. This technique involves the regulation of the female cycle and monitoring of ovulation. This in vitro technique/concept has been present and studied for many years, with earliest recordings of such scientific research/findings; such test tube babies; occurring as early as 1950’s. The scientist who won the Nobel Prize in 2010, for his efforts and involvement in the discovery implementation of IVF techniques was the physiologist Robert Edwards. This was an honor given in the current medicine. Edwards with a fellow associate were the first recorded successful pregnancy and birth of the first and second IVF babies to be delivered in the late 1970’s and the 1980’s. Following this successful implantation, development and implantation other countries including Australia began to use this technique, for situations and individuals with fertility problems. Recent developments in this field of medicine and physiology have been on hormones involved in oocyte maturation, ovarian cycles such as follicle stimulating hormone, as well as the way in which sperm is administered in order for fertilization to occur.

Links: [1] [2]

     ===Task 2===

Identify and add a PubMed reference link to a recent paper on fertilization and describe its key findings (1-2 paragraphs).

- “Molecular Origin of Female Meiotic Aneuploidies”

This article addresses the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in pregnancy which occur as a result of aneuploidy. It discusses the disruption of the cohesion and separation of the homologues at the centromeres and the polar ends of the spindle, which can result in miscarriage and loss of pregnancy. Lack of separation of these homologues prevents the production of two separate daughter chromatids. These errors can occur either toward the end of meiosis one and also in meiosis two, and in some instances meiosis two errors can arise as a result of meiosis one errors that were not resolved. In this article, there is particular emphasis placed upon the process of female meiosis, as the major causes of errors that can lead to aneuploidy. Major errors which occur are reduced cohesion prior to separation in meiosis two, errors in trisomies, as well as premature segregation, resulting in errors of chromatid pairing and oocyte development in fertilization. Studies are being performed to examine the role, or lack of role which certain proteins play at these stages of female fertilization in order to reduce these abnormalities in conventional and IVF development, in particular in females who fall pregnant at later maternal ages. Examining the molecular mechanisms that occur when there is loss of expression of key proteins such as SMC1 alpha and beta, Scc1 and ReC8, which leads to decrease in cohesin and reduce achiasmate, ultimately leading to lack of separation of the homologues.