|Student Information (expand to read)|
Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.
Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course
|Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic|
|In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
|Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image|
OK you are now in a group
Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.
Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation
|Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz|
Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.
An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.
|Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review|
|Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.|
|Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate|
|Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy|
|Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz|
|A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.|
|Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment|
|Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells|
|As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
|Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development|
|Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.
ABSENT FOR LAB 3
Belbin Model Team Roles
I have used this model to identify myself in a team scenario in previous courses and found that I view myself as a Shaper. I am very driven for the need to achieve the best results possibly by challenging myself and the team to continually improve. "Task-focused" is a very accurate way of describing me and I try to be as efficient as possible by not losing focus and finding the best and fastest approach in solving problems. In saying that, I do not think Shaper is the only role that describes me as I definitely see myself as also a Complete Finisher. I agree with going the extra mile to make sure everything is "just right", and also can see that sometimes teammates may get a little frustrated if I worry too much about minor details.
Lecture 1: Fertilisation
SMH - external linking via URL and choosing a name
https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/ANAT2341_Lab_1 - internal linking via URL
ANAT2341 Lab 1 - internal linking via page name
Fertilisation Lab - internal linking via page name and choosing a name
Lab 1 - Researching a topic
It is known that environmental chemical such as heavy metals can be toxic to the body, and thus affect human functions such as reproduction. The article "The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction" by Cavallini et al (2016) investigate the biological sensor of toxic chemical compounds, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), in order to examine the harmful effects of heavy metals on females who were undering in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. The toxic and essential heavy metals inspected were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in follicular fluids. They hypothesised that the highest metal ion concentration within follicles of women represented a long-term exposure to environmental pollutants and that these metals could affect follicular development in women. Their data suggested that heavy metals, especially chromium and lead, induced a negative effect on follicular maturation in women undergoing IVF. This data was shown specifically through a decreased production of estradiol and a decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes in the women. However, one point to note was that the studies analyzed a single metal but the human exposure effect would be much more complex as an individual is normally simultaneously exposed to several metals and other various compounds.
|Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of the article findings. An interesting study looking at the effects of industrial pollution on fertility, we now have significantly more of these heavy metal compounds (and other compounds) in the environment since the industrial revolution. Teratogens continue to be identified in our environment.
You should also see an earlier study from another Italian city Brindisi
Lab 2 - Uploading an image
|Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. On your page here where the image appears, you should include the ref name for a citation, as shown below.
Code: <ref name="PMID25849374"><pubmed>25849374</pubmed></ref>
Lab 3 - N/A
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Neural Paper Quiz.||Assessment|
Lab 4 - Gastrointestinal Quiz
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - GIT quiz questions test a range of developmental topics. Question 1 is confusing and not clear that it tests GIT knowledge. Question 2 "Gestational Age:" differs from "fertilisation age" and I generally include the latter and the GA in brackets. Question 3 is a reasonably easy question, your explanation is good. Question 4 is fine, question is a little clumsy.||Assessment 5/5|
Lab 5 - Course Review/Questionnaire
Completed the questionnaire in the lab.
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Course questionnaire completed. Thanks.||Assessment 5/5|
Lab 6 - Cleft Lip & Palate
1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate:
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) Gene Mutation.
2. Identify a recent research article on this gene:
3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development?
BMP4 is a polypeptide that has been found to be a crucial signalling molecule in regulating the formation of teeth, limbs and bone from mesoderm. In order to dissect the function of BMP signalling, when the type 1 BMP receptor (BMPr1a) was conditionally inactivated, the BMPr1a mutants exhibited completely penetrant, bilateral CL/P.  Moreover, the inactivation of the gene itself, (i.e. a BMP4 gene deficiency) induced isolated cleft lip. It is difficult to prove any particular rare variant is etiologic, but some findings suggest that spontaneous mutations such as VANGL1 could be a risk factor for neural-tube defects associated with CL/P. 
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - BMP4 is a cleft related factor and you referenced summary is useful. It would have been good to also include the signaling pathway involved.||Assessment 5/5|
Lab 7 - Muscular Dystrophy
1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)
A complex gene on the X chromosome typically transcribes and translates the cytoplasmic protein dystrophin. Thus, a mutation of this gene leads to an altered expression of it that may consequent in various conditions. Such health conditions related to genetic changes of dystrophin include DMD-Associated dilated cardiomyopathy, Duchene and Becker muscular dystrophy and familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common mutation is an intragenic deletion in the genetic code for dystrophin.
2. What is the function of dystrophin?
Dystrophin actus to bridge the inner cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Specifically, it is located between the sarcolemma and the outer layer of myofilaments in the muscle fiber. As a result, it has been demonstrated to contribute to stiffness in living muscle cells and in turn stabilizing the sarcolemma and protecting the myofilaments from disruption during contractions. 
3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
Although dystrophin mutations primarily affect skeletal muscle of the body, adverse health condition involving cardiac muscle, the brain and the eye have been identified to be associated with it. Dystrophin is also present in cardiac muscle and thus the disorder can also weaken the cardiac muscle as the mutation leads to instability and thus vulnerability to damage from strong contractions. 
4. What therapies exist for DMD?
While there is no current cure, there are currently many therapies that have found various rates of success including: gene replacement therapy, physical therapy, stem-cell therapy and upregulation therapy.
5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Animals models that are ‘available’ or prone to muscular dystrophy include the mdx mouse and the golden retriever.
|Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Well answered with citations, except q4 and 5.||Assessment 4.5/5|
Lab 8 - Urogenital Development Quiz
Lab 9 - Peer Assessment
These are good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include some balanced critical assessment, perhaps a little too on the positive side, given the existing status of some of these pages. 7/10
Group 1: Very good job so far with great content covering the significant aspects of Wnt signalling. The information regarding the subheadings are all relevant and correctly referenced as they should be. Though the content is great, I think the introduction is quite lacking compared to the rest. A little more background and overall knowledge would’ve made it a lot easier to understand for the reader. There are some diagrams utilised that delineate a clearer understanding, however, I still think more detail is required in a lot more sections such as the embryonic development. Also, with regards to the embryonic development, it may be better to include other embryonic areas in order to holistically cover the Wnt signalling and its significance to embryology. Understandably, there are certain areas that need to be improved such as better descriptions for subheadings. Overall, the group project does seem to be making great progress with the only real improvement required being extra detail, so good job!
Group 2: Great progress so far. To start, all references have been done correctly and the appropriate subheadings and abbreviations can be seen. The history section is quite comprehensive and gives an effective background. The page describes and provides a detailed overview of the actual pathway with the visual aid of a diagram. An enhanced understanding is easily acquired with the great detail being delivered with clarity and simplicity. The inclusion of the abnormalities and its role in animal development provides a holistic understanding of the Notch signalling pathway. There is very little to improve which is of significance, however my personal contribution would be the use of a glossary to explain some confusing jargon. Keep going and you guys will do very well!
Group 3: Very impressive page with great organisation and excellent use of headings and subheadings. The content itself is quite detailed despite some parts being incomplete (understandably for now). The hand drawn diagram is quite nice and allows for an easier simplification in understanding the topic. The quiz at the end too is a nice tool that will help ensure understanding the topic. The referencing so far has been appropriately performed as instructed. There are some great images such as the image on bone development, and I would suggest trying to include more images for the other areas of development or even videos. One thing to improve would be explaining the FGFR pathway itself as opposed to the constituents in the pathway as it has been done. Also, a bit more detail on the history can enhance overall background on the topic and aid with the introduction in interesting the reader. Overall, great project so far with only a few minor tweaks to correct.
Group 4: Great start on the project with well-written information. Appropriate subheadings have been used so the information was quite easy to follow. The referencing has been performed correctly with a list of references at the end. Additional further information regarding the Hedgehog pathway has been provided as it went beyond embryonic development and explored it in mice and chicks. I would suggest using more diagrams and providing a brief concise description for all of them (one of the images didn’t have any description at all, and its specific relevance was hard to discern). The use of a glossary at the end will help clarify any jargon that is not understood by the reader such as organogenesis. Overall, the project is going great and with a little more refining, will lead to great results!
Group 5: Extremely good page that looks almost up to completion. The information is well-detailed with appropriate headings, subheadings and referencing. The visual aids used are great in helping understand the topic and they too are also cited correctly. The specific pathway is described along with its history. The embryonic development information is cited with relevant articles and went well beyond the scope of the assessment with additional information about the mutations. Some points to improve (although minor) would be the use of a glossary and perhaps re-organising the structure of some subheadings such as the “Ancient origins..” section which seems like it should belong to the start. Overall, the page is really good and covers a lot of content whilst keeping it relevant and intriguing to the reader. Great work!
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentation
|Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016|
|Group Mark||Assessor General Comments|
Group 1: 15/20
Group 2: 19/20
Group 3: 20/20
Group 4: 19/20
Group 5: 16/20
Group 6: 16/20
|The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.
As general feedback I would like to advise students to: