From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?

If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.

Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).

2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]


  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.


ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Lab Attendance

Z5019306 (talk) 14:34, 5 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5019306 (talk) 14:41, 12 August 2016 (AEST)


Z5019306 (talk) 14:42, 26 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5019306 (talk) 14:18, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5019306 (talk) 13:30, 9 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5019306 (talk) 13:23, 16 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5019306 (talk) 13:54, 7 October 2016 (AEDT)

Belbin Model Team Roles

I have used this model to identify myself in a team scenario in previous courses and found that I view myself as a Shaper. I am very driven for the need to achieve the best results possibly by challenging myself and the team to continually improve. "Task-focused" is a very accurate way of describing me and I try to be as efficient as possible by not losing focus and finding the best and fastest approach in solving problems. In saying that, I do not think Shaper is the only role that describes me as I definitely see myself as also a Complete Finisher. I agree with going the extra mile to make sure everything is "just right", and also can see that sometimes teammates may get a little frustrated if I worry too much about minor details.

Lecture 1: Fertilisation

External Link

SMH - external linking via URL and choosing a name

Internal Link - internal linking via URL

ANAT2341 Lab 1 - internal linking via page name

Fertilisation Lab - internal linking via page name and choosing a name

Lab Assessments

Lab 1 - Researching a topic


It is known that environmental chemical such as heavy metals can be toxic to the body, and thus affect human functions such as reproduction. The article "The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction" by Cavallini et al (2016) investigate the biological sensor of toxic chemical compounds, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), in order to examine the harmful effects of heavy metals on females who were undering in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. The toxic and essential heavy metals inspected were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead in follicular fluids. They hypothesised that the highest metal ion concentration within follicles of women represented a long-term exposure to environmental pollutants and that these metals could affect follicular development in women. Their data suggested that heavy metals, especially chromium and lead, induced a negative effect on follicular maturation in women undergoing IVF. This data was shown specifically through a decreased production of estradiol and a decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes in the women. However, one point to note was that the studies analyzed a single metal but the human exposure effect would be much more complex as an individual is normally simultaneously exposed to several metals and other various compounds.

Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of the article findings. An interesting study looking at the effects of industrial pollution on fertility, we now have significantly more of these heavy metal compounds (and other compounds) in the environment since the industrial revolution. Teratogens continue to be identified in our environment.

You should also see an earlier study from another Italian city Brindisi

Assessment 5/5

Lab 2 - Uploading an image

Ectoderm Specification of Human Embryonic Stem Cells[1]

Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. On your page here where the image appears, you should include the ref name for a citation, as shown below.

Code: <ref name="PMID25849374"><pubmed>25849374</pubmed></ref>

Assessment 5/5

Lab 3 - N/A

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Neural Paper Quiz. Assessment

Lab 4 - Gastrointestinal Quiz


Which of the following relations to the notochord are incorrect:

Dorsally; the buccopharyngeal membrane
Ventrally; the neural tube
Caudally; the primitive streak
Rostrally; the buccopharyngeal membrane


Which of the following events occur in week 8 to 10 of Gestational Age:

Intestine Herniation
Liver Development
Intestine Rotation
Mesentry Development


Of the lumen abnormalities, which of the following is defined by the narrowing of the lumen:



{In the 4th week of Gestational Age, there are three divisions of the GIT that will be defined later by their vascular supply, the fore-, mid- and hindgut. What is the adult midgut comprised of:

Liver, stomach, ileum, ascending colon
Lower duodenum, jejunum, cecum, half transverse colon
Lower duodenum, ileum, descending colon, rectum
Esophagus, liver, appendix, descending colon

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - GIT quiz questions test a range of developmental topics. Question 1 is confusing and not clear that it tests GIT knowledge. Question 2 "Gestational Age:" differs from "fertilisation age" and I generally include the latter and the GA in brackets. Question 3 is a reasonably easy question, your explanation is good. Question 4 is fine, question is a little clumsy. Assessment 5/5

Lab 5 - Course Review/Questionnaire

Completed the questionnaire in the lab.

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Course questionnaire completed. Thanks. Assessment 5/5

Lab 6 - Cleft Lip & Palate

1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate:

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) Gene Mutation.

2. Identify a recent research article on this gene:


3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development?

BMP4 is a polypeptide that has been found to be a crucial signalling molecule in regulating the formation of teeth, limbs and bone from mesoderm. In order to dissect the function of BMP signalling, when the type 1 BMP receptor (BMPr1a) was conditionally inactivated, the BMPr1a mutants exhibited completely penetrant, bilateral CL/P. [2] Moreover, the inactivation of the gene itself, (i.e. a BMP4 gene deficiency) induced isolated cleft lip. It is difficult to prove any particular rare variant is etiologic, but some findings suggest that spontaneous mutations such as VANGL1 could be a risk factor for neural-tube defects associated with CL/P. [3]

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - BMP4 is a cleft related factor and you referenced summary is useful. It would have been good to also include the signaling pathway involved. Assessment 5/5

Lab 7 - Muscular Dystrophy

1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)

A complex gene on the X chromosome typically transcribes and translates the cytoplasmic protein dystrophin. Thus, a mutation of this gene leads to an altered expression of it that may consequent in various conditions. Such health conditions related to genetic changes of dystrophin include DMD-Associated dilated cardiomyopathy, Duchene and Becker muscular dystrophy and familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common mutation is an intragenic deletion in the genetic code for dystrophin.

2. What is the function of dystrophin?

Dystrophin actus to bridge the inner cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. Specifically, it is located between the sarcolemma and the outer layer of myofilaments in the muscle fiber. As a result, it has been demonstrated to contribute to stiffness in living muscle cells and in turn stabilizing the sarcolemma and protecting the myofilaments from disruption during contractions. [4]

3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?

Although dystrophin mutations primarily affect skeletal muscle of the body, adverse health condition involving cardiac muscle, the brain and the eye have been identified to be associated with it. Dystrophin is also present in cardiac muscle and thus the disorder can also weaken the cardiac muscle as the mutation leads to instability and thus vulnerability to damage from strong contractions. [5]

4. What therapies exist for DMD?

While there is no current cure, there are currently many therapies that have found various rates of success including: gene replacement therapy, physical therapy, stem-cell therapy and upregulation therapy.

5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?

Animals models that are ‘available’ or prone to muscular dystrophy include the mdx mouse and the golden retriever.

Mark Hill 17 October 2016 - Well answered with citations, except q4 and 5. Assessment 4.5/5

Lab 8 - Urogenital Development Quiz

Lab 9 - Peer Assessment

These are good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include some balanced critical assessment, perhaps a little too on the positive side, given the existing status of some of these pages. 7/10

Group 1: Very good job so far with great content covering the significant aspects of Wnt signalling. The information regarding the subheadings are all relevant and correctly referenced as they should be. Though the content is great, I think the introduction is quite lacking compared to the rest. A little more background and overall knowledge would’ve made it a lot easier to understand for the reader. There are some diagrams utilised that delineate a clearer understanding, however, I still think more detail is required in a lot more sections such as the embryonic development. Also, with regards to the embryonic development, it may be better to include other embryonic areas in order to holistically cover the Wnt signalling and its significance to embryology. Understandably, there are certain areas that need to be improved such as better descriptions for subheadings. Overall, the group project does seem to be making great progress with the only real improvement required being extra detail, so good job!

Group 2: Great progress so far. To start, all references have been done correctly and the appropriate subheadings and abbreviations can be seen. The history section is quite comprehensive and gives an effective background. The page describes and provides a detailed overview of the actual pathway with the visual aid of a diagram. An enhanced understanding is easily acquired with the great detail being delivered with clarity and simplicity. The inclusion of the abnormalities and its role in animal development provides a holistic understanding of the Notch signalling pathway. There is very little to improve which is of significance, however my personal contribution would be the use of a glossary to explain some confusing jargon. Keep going and you guys will do very well!

Group 3: Very impressive page with great organisation and excellent use of headings and subheadings. The content itself is quite detailed despite some parts being incomplete (understandably for now). The hand drawn diagram is quite nice and allows for an easier simplification in understanding the topic. The quiz at the end too is a nice tool that will help ensure understanding the topic. The referencing so far has been appropriately performed as instructed. There are some great images such as the image on bone development, and I would suggest trying to include more images for the other areas of development or even videos. One thing to improve would be explaining the FGFR pathway itself as opposed to the constituents in the pathway as it has been done. Also, a bit more detail on the history can enhance overall background on the topic and aid with the introduction in interesting the reader. Overall, great project so far with only a few minor tweaks to correct.

Group 4: Great start on the project with well-written information. Appropriate subheadings have been used so the information was quite easy to follow. The referencing has been performed correctly with a list of references at the end. Additional further information regarding the Hedgehog pathway has been provided as it went beyond embryonic development and explored it in mice and chicks. I would suggest using more diagrams and providing a brief concise description for all of them (one of the images didn’t have any description at all, and its specific relevance was hard to discern). The use of a glossary at the end will help clarify any jargon that is not understood by the reader such as organogenesis. Overall, the project is going great and with a little more refining, will lead to great results!

Group 5: Extremely good page that looks almost up to completion. The information is well-detailed with appropriate headings, subheadings and referencing. The visual aids used are great in helping understand the topic and they too are also cited correctly. The specific pathway is described along with its history. The embryonic development information is cited with relevant articles and went well beyond the scope of the assessment with additional information about the mutations. Some points to improve (although minor) would be the use of a glossary and perhaps re-organising the structure of some subheadings such as the “Ancient origins..” section which seems like it should belong to the start. Overall, the page is really good and covers a lot of content whilst keeping it relevant and intriguing to the reader. Great work!

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentation

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track


  1. <pubmed>25849374</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>15716346</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>17409324</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>7844149</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>27354892</pubmed>