From Embryology

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:47, 6 August 2015 (AEST) Thanks for setting up your page. We will be talking more about this in the Practical on Friday.

Lab Attendance

--Z5017878 (talk) 13:46, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 14:57, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:51, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:11, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:37, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 13:24, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 14:05, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:43, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z5017878 (talk) 13:55, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:03, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z5017878 (talk) 13:21, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z5017878 (talk) 12:04, 30 October 2015 (AEDT)

Online Assessments

Lab 1 Assessment

Relationship of polar bodies morphology to embryo quality

This study was conducted in hopes to find a method to forecast the quality of embryo derived from reproductive technology. 355 patients that were undergoing In-Vitro Fertilisation or Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) were a part of this study. From these patients 3048 zygotes were extracted and placed into two groups; intact or fragmented.

The oocyte was extracted 37 to 28 hours after recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin administration followed immediately by the collection of semen sample. The semen sample was then treated and prepared for fertilisation of the oocyte. The zygotes were recruited after 16 to 18 hours and their polar bodies examined and placed into their respective groups based on morphology. The development of the zygotes were then closely studied and graded against systems such as the Istanbul consensus and Gardner's grading system.

At the conclusion of the study it was deduced that the zygotes with intact polar bodies performed remarkably better than those with fragmented polar bodies. During the third day the intact polar body group had better embryo rates, blastocyst rates and available embryo rates. The pregnancy rate and implantation rate of the two groups however were found to have no differences.


Microdroplet In Vitro Fertilization Can Reduce the Number of Spermatozoa Necessary for Fertilizing Oocytes

During In vitro fertilisation (IVF) usually a large sample of spermatozoa is needed. In the female body only a few spermatozoa reach the oocyte. This study introduces the idea of micro droplet IVF in hopes of mimicking the in vivo conditions and lowering the amount of spermatozoa needed. Mice were used as the subjects for all the experiments performed and the procedures were conducted using HTF fertilisation medium.

This study involved several counterparts where each experiment tackled different factors that may affect the microdroplet IVF procedure. The microdroplets conprised of only one microlitre containing either 5, 10, 20 or 50 spermatozoa in comparison to the usual 80 - 500 microlitres. Each of the experiments were replicated four times using spermatozoa from different males and either cyropreserved or fresh samples. The first experiment tested the effects that the cumulus cells, GSH and sperm number, the second on varying numbers of oocytes and spermatozoa, third on the effect of using cyropreserved sperm, the fourth on the effects of using volumes of suspension larger than the optimal for the preparation of the cyropreserved sperm and the fifth was to ensure normal development of embryo.

The study was deemed successful where as little as 5 spermatozoa could fertilise an oocyte. The rate of success was also found to be heightened depending on factors, for example the presence of cumulus cells was found to be beneficial to the spermatozoa fertilisation rate. Microdroplet IVF could be the alternative pathway for those who have depleted numbers of spermatozoa due to factors such as age, genetic conditions or damages to sperm over time.


--Mark Hill (talk) 17:02, 3 September 2015 (AEST) These are reasonable summaries of these 2 papers. If you intend to use acronyms, they should be spelt out in full the first time they appear with the acronym then in brackets. (5/5)

Lab 2 Assessment

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

Zona Pellucida and ZPC-ubiquitin.jpg

Zona Pellucida and ZPC-ubiquitin[3]

PMID 21383844

--Mark Hill (talk) 17:07, 3 September 2015 (AEST) The image has now been uploaded correctly and contains reference, copyright and student template. (5/5)

Lab 3 Assessment

Here are the articles related to 'Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis':




--Mark Hill (talk) 17:10, 3 September 2015 (AEST) These papers are relevant to Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis. Would have been nice to include a sentence abut each paper though. (5/5)

Lab 4 Assessment


Which ONE of the following is true with regard to the male reproductive system?

The midpiece of spermatozoa is responsible for motility
The male sex hormone, testosterone is produced by spermatozoa
Only one spermatozoa has to reach the oocyte for fertilisation to occur
Spermatozoa primarily use their chemotaxic response to oestrogen to locate the oocyte


Which statement is INCORRECT with regard to the female menstrual cycle:

Gonadotropin releasing hormone is only responsible for signalling the release of luteinising hormone (LH)
The peak of oestrogen occurs during ovulation
The female body experiences a rise in temperature during the luteal phase and is an indication of menstruation
Rising levels of progesterone occur in the luteal phase


Select the CORRECT statement:

Fertilisation usually occurs two thirds down the fallopian tube
Upon entering the vagina, spermatozoa have up to four days to fertilise the oocyte
Spermatozoa contributes to only 10% of seminal fluid upon ejaculation.
Capacitation is the inactivation of spermatozoa motility

ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

--Mark Hill (talk) 17:15, 3 September 2015 (AEST) You left off the closing quiz code, I have added it above. Q1 is not technically correct as the mid piece provides the energy for motility, not actual motility. You need to also explain in your revealed answer why the other options are incorrect. Q3 first option is not a clear statement 2/3 from which end? (8/10)

Lab 5 Assessment

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Gastroschisis and omphalocele (also known as exomphalos) are gastrointestinal abnormalities. They are the two most common defects of the anterior abdominal wall where gastroschisis occurs in 2.6 per 10,000 babies and omphalocele occurs in 2.1 per 10,000 babies [4] [5]. Gastroschisis is usually diagnosed around week 6 of gestation and the mothers are most likely to be under 20, undernourished and are smokers where as omphalocele is usually diagnosed 17 weeks into gestation and occurs predominately in women over the age of 30 [6] [7].

Gastroschisis is a congenital anomaly which affects the abdominal wall, most commonly in the area to the right of the umbilicus [7]. It is due to the lack of membranous covering over the wall causing herniation of viscera through the abdominal wall [8]. Gastroschisis is caused by the regression of the omphalomesenteric arteries which connect the yolk sac to the dorsal aorta [4]. However factors that also link to its occurrence include failure in mesenchymal differentiation, first trimester vascular accident and use of tobacco and illicit drugs [8].

Omphalocele on the other hand is the herniation of the abdominal viscera into the base of the umbilicus [6]. It is mainly caused by failure to complete lateral body fold migration leading to an open body wall and failure of the intestines to return to the abdominal cavity [4] [6]. Another cause includes the persistence of the primitive stalk [6]

--Mark Hill (talk) 14:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (4/5)

Lab 7 Assessment

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

Mechanisms involved in glucocorticoid induction of pituitary GH expression during embryonic development.

Through the use of chicken embryos the study investigates the pathways in which glucocorticoids undergo to initiate growth hormone in the pituitary during embryo development. The research discovered the pathway namely the ERK1/2 pathway. The ERK1/2 pathway was stimulated by corticosterone treatment, however repetitive stimulation of the pathway was also found to suppress corticosterone thus suppressing the release of growth hormone. Corticosterone is the primary type of glucocorticoid in rodents and birds thus this knowledge was applied to glucocorticoids as a whole and provided the conclusion that the ERK1/2 is a strictly regulated cyclical pathway.

Somatotrophs are responsible for producing growth hormone in the anterior pituitary. Increased circulation of corticosterone lead to maturation of somatotrophs thus an increase production of growth hormone. The study also used exogenous glucocorticoids and found that it had the same effects.

PMID 25560830

Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

The embryonic origin of developing teeth are from the ectoderm and mesoderm layers of the trilaminar embryo coupled with neural crest contribution as well. Teeth are primarily derived from two types of cells, the odontoblast and ameloblasts. Odontoblasts are neural crest derived mesenchyme cells. They differentiate under the influence of enamel epithelium to form predentin which later calcifies to form dentin. On the other hand, ameloblasts produce enamel. Growth of teeth occurs in ossifying jaws and the periodontal ligament is responsible for holding the tooth in the bone sockets.

--Mark Hill (talk) 14:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (4/5)

Lab 9 Assessment (Peer Reviews)

Group 1

The entire project is presented simplistically and all the content is relevant and easy to understand. Majority of the flaws I found were based around poor grammar and syntax which could be fixed up with some editing. Below is a more detailed breakdown of some of the things you could fix.

Firstly, I liked that the introduction was brief and concise and gives the reader a basic understanding of the topic of three person embryo. The video was also informative and provided some background information around the topic. I was informed that mitochondrial DNA was the major factor concerning this topic however there was a lack of information about its importance to the body so a short summary could be included along with some examples of diseases it could cause.

Also, the use of a timeline to present the history is a great idea and I think it could be improved and would look more aesthetically pleasing if it were to be placed into a table. I also think the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s label could be removed to make it look less clustered since they aren’t particularly necessary.

Some information under the heading ‘Technical Progression’ has yet to be filled in but from what is there I’d like to suggest exchanging the bullet points for numbering instead for the information under ‘Pronuclear transfer’ and ‘Polar body transfer’ since they sounded like sequence steps as opposed to separate points.

Finally, I found the layout of the table under the heading ‘Legal status’ to be very well put together. There are however some countries placed under the incorrect continents and I found that the order was easily changed and mixed up. I also noticed that several of the countries were linked to the same sources which made the information very unspecific. Instead of just links I think a few sentences explaining the legislation would be more informative.

Group 2

This wikipage is very well put together. Your choice of headings, subheadings and tables and images is remarkable, it definitely makes the whole page flow very well. I particularly like the hand-drawn image which does a great job at simplifying the process of the pathogenesis of OHSS.

The introduction very concisely explains the contents of the page and I liked how it was finished off with a statement about the aim of the page. I thought it really brought the introduction together nicely. I can’t say much about the content except that it is very engaging and very well written so well done guys! Keep up the good work!

Some suggestions I have that could improve your page include adding more images. It would be nice to have some graphs to complement the statistical date from the epidemiology. Also, in some of the paragraphs e.g. in the last paragraph of ‘Epidemiology’ there isn’t a citation that accounts for the information at the end of the paragraph so that should be fixed.

Group 3

First and foremost the PCOS Ovary Vs Non-PCOS Ovary hand drawn image is amazing and its placement at the beginning really drew in my attention to the topic. I also particularly liked the purple theme set up throughout the wikipage, I thought it really helped bring the page together.The headings, subheadings and images are all set out neatly making it very presentable and easy to follow. The language used was also very engaging which is always a plus. Content wise there seems to be sufficient information under most of the headings which really showed your efforts and elaborate research on the topic. The only portion that wasn’t particularly well present was the environmental factors. I felt like it needs the inclusion of some examples.

To improve your page I would like to suggest the addition of a glossary that you could use to briefly define some terms such as ‘Hirsutism’ to allow a better understanding of the text. Additionally, I also noticed that under the ‘Hyperandrogenemia’ heading there was the use of the acronyms ‘GnRH’ and ‘LH’. Be sure to express the full term placing the acronym in brackets upon their first appearance before extensive use. I saw that this was done in the following paragraph where LH was initially correctly expressed as Luteinising Hormone but again this should be done at its very first appearance. The page also lacked some history surrounding the origin of the disease and how some of the treatments were established so that could also be included.

Overall, the presentation of the page gave me the impression of a good understanding of the topic so well done guys! Keep up the good work.

Group 4

The wikipage is very well organised and the headings, subheadings and tables made everything easy to follow. I particularly liked the blue theme you kept with all the tables, it is very aesthetically pleasing. In terms of content the background information provided a clear overview of the subject especially the information about the physiology of fertility in males which laid down the foundation some basic knowledge surrounding male fertility under normal circumstances which I found useful in grasping other concepts throughout the page. The page is filled with an extensive amount of content and along with the long list of references I was given the impression of good understanding of the topic and commendable effort placed into the research.

One thing I found that wasn’t quite compatible with your page was the inclusion of the video in the ‘Causes of infertility section’. Although I do agree that it is a very good video, it had little information surrounding male infertility and was more about infertility in general. Perhaps a video exclusively about male infertility would be more suitable for your page.

As for some additional improvements, it would be beneficial to include a glossary to explain some difficult terms that would help the audience gain a better understanding of the content. Also, the addition of a hand-drawn image would also be nice. A suggestion would be to exchange your existing ‘components and structure of spermatozoa’ image with a more simplified and schematic diagram of the structure of sperm.

Overall, I enjoyed reading about male infertility and the page is coming together very nicely.

Group 5

The wikipage looks like it’s progressing very well, especially with the amount of content and references I can safely say you guys have worked hard on it and have done a substantial amount of research so well done guys. I liked the flow chart that you guys inserted, it really simplified the understanding of the IVF procedure as opposed to reading lengthy text. I also particularly liked the collapsible timeline which was presented very nicely and summarised the progress of oncofertility over time very well.

As for improvements, the references definitely need to be fixed up. There were multiple appearances of the same reference and some of the links also did not work such as reference 24 and 25. On top of that the referencing for the websites were not in a consistent format and some were also done incorrectly so be sure to fix that up. I would also look out for the type of sources used such as webmd and medianews today. I’m not entirely sure if they are reliable or acceptable but I suggest you consult Mark about that.

Additionally, the use of tables is a very good way of presenting information however, for the tables under the topic of fertility preservation for both men and women I initially though that each of the columns was a comparison against each other. Only later did I realise that each of the columns contained an individual list of treatments. To minimise the confusion I suggest rearranging the table and labelling row 1 as ‘Before treatment’, then row 2 as ‘During treatment’ and finally row 3 as ‘After treatment’ then collectively placing the treatments in their rightful spaces in the following column.

A glossary is also missing from this page, having the definitions of the more difficult terms would assist with understanding the topic. Also on another note in the ‘Types of Chemotherapy drugs’ section, I think it would look more aesthetically pleasing if bullet points were used rather than the dashes.

Overall, there is a substantial amount of content, and great use of images, videos and tables. Keep up the good work!

--Mark Hill (talk) 14:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) Well described feedback. My suggestion would be to structure it in a more point-like form and organise as major/minor. (17/20)

Lab 10 Assessment

Embryonic Tongue

Permalink: Tongue

The tongue is a muscle and is important for sensing taste. All the pharyngeal arches present in the human embryo contribute to the development of the tongue however, the tongue muscle cells are derived from somites and the muscles of mastication are derived from somitomeres. Each pharyngeal contributes a different portion where arch 1 forms the oral part of the tongue, arch 2 forms the initial transient surface, arch 3 forms the pharyngeal part of the tongue and arch 4 forms the epiglottis and adjacent regions. The superior surface of the tongue comprises of taste buds, various papillae and stratified squamous epithelium. The tongue is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CNXII) allowing movement.

Tongue Development

--Mark Hill (talk) 14:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)


  1. <pubmed>26198980</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>24583808</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>21383844</pubmed>| [1]
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 <pubmed>19302857</pubmed>
  5. Abeywardana, S. Sullivan, EA. (2008) Congenital anomalies in Australia 2002-2003 Birth anomalies series no. 3. Cat. No. PER 41. Canberra: AIHW. Retrieved from: {}
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 <pubmed>23915861</pubmed>
  7. 7.0 7.1 <pubmed>22004141</pubmed>
  8. 8.0 8.1 <pubmed>17560199</pubmed>

Test Student 2015


PMID 26244658

look at this[1]

Here's the list

  1. <pubmed>26244658</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 08:38, 1 November 2015 (AEDT) Catei submitted (5)

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

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