User:Z5015544

From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?


If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.


Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).


2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.


Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]

References

  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.

<pubmed>26932668</pubmed>Development

ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Mark Hill (talk) 12:31, 5 August 2016 (AEST) Very good. I see though that you have used HTML code (that is fine), but in general I prefer the simpler Wiki coding as it gives a more consistent appearance to the pages.


External link

Lab Attendance

Z5015544 (talk) 14:41, 12 August 2016 (AEST)Lab 1Z5015544 (talk) 14:41, 12 August 2016 (AEST) Z5015544 (talk) 14:41, 12 August 2016 (AEST)Lab 2Z5015544 (talk) 14:41, 12 August 2016 (AEST) ANAT2341 Lab1

Z5015544 (talk)Lab 4Z5015544 (talk)

Z5015544 (talk) 14:35, 5 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5015544 (talk)Lab 3Z5015544 (talk)

Z5015544 (talk)Lab 5Z5015544 (talk)

Z5015544 (talk) 13:22, 9 September 2016 (AEST)Lab 6Z5015544 (talk) 13:22, 9 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5015544 (talk) 14:26, 16 September 2016 (AEST)Lab 7Z5015544 (talk) 14:26, 16 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5015544 (talk) 13:10, 23 September 2016 (AEST)Lab 8Z5015544 (talk) 13:10, 23 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)Lab 9 (forgot to report my attendance on the day)Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)Lab 10 (forgot to report my attendance on the day)Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)Lab 11 (forgot to report my attendance on the day)Z5015544 (talk) 15:14, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Z5015544 (talk) 15:13, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)Lab 12Z5015544 (talk) 15:13, 28 October 2016 (AEDT)

Embryology


Belbin model - Teamworker

I believe the role of "Teamworker" appears to match my attitude most compared to the other roles primarily because one of my main priorities when working with others is to ensure that everyone is contributing and henceforth working together as a proactive unit. Having played soccer for eight years, cricket for two years and as a current wardsmen coordinator at a public hospital, I have come to understand that being a teamworker is an attribute that each team member must have in order for a group to reach their goal.


Throughout my experiences when working with different teams I have also come to realise that support and encouragement of others is key in order to promote the contribution of each member. Minimal contributions by other team members is often a challenge I have faced in the past as when this occurs, it slows the team's work progress down and increases the workload for other team members. I always attempted to manage this issue by speaking with the group member(s) and highlighting the importance of their contribution to the team, which in most cases motivates them to invest more energy into working towards the goal.



WEEK 1

Lecture 1: Fertilzation


Prior to attending the second lecture this week, I initially thought that I had a relatively in-depth knowledge regarding the process of fertilization having completed my studies in physiology, histology and year 12 biology. However, after attending this lecture, I was left amazed after having seen the complexity of this process itself. What I found particularly interesting was the fact that all these little processes, such as membrane depolarization and the cortical reaction to name a few, lead to the formation of each human being that we see around us today. The content really made me reflect upon how incredible our bodies really are! I really look forward to learning more about the next steps of the developing embryo!


Lab 1 Assessment


<pubmed>27469431</pubmed>

The research article called "Mitofusin 2 regulates the oocytes development and quality by modulating meiosis and mitochondrial function" by Liu et al. (2016) aims to determine whether a mitochondrial dynamic protein named Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), influences the quality of oocytes in the process of development by modulating mitochondrial function in vitro. In order to investigate this question, Liu et al. (2016) collected germinal vesicle oocytes from 4-week-old Imprinting Control Region (ICR) female mice and transfected them with Mfn2-siRNA. Multiple variables were investigated such as the levels of Mfn2 expression in oocytes after transfection and the effect of down-regulating Mfn2 upon oocyte maturation and fertilisation (Liu et al., 2016).

Overall it was discovered that the levels of protein and mRNA in the Mfn2-siRNA transfected group appeared to be significantly lower than the control groups who were not transfected (Liu et al., 2016). In addition to these findings, the article also revealed that a knockdown of Mfn2 influenced fertilisation and cleavage rate of oocytes whereby the Mfn2-siRNA group's rate dropped to 61%, a value that was significantly lower than the Cy3-siRNA transfected and untreated groups which had rates of 76% and 77.5% respectively. Furthermore, the knockdown of Mfn2 was also shown to affect oocyte meiosis, such that the microtubules during this process were arranged in a disorderly fashion and also no separated homologous chromosomes were found although the first polar body eduction had already taken place (Liu et al., 2016). It was also revealed that those groups which had low expression of Mfn2 experienced mitochondrial dysfunction in the oocytes (Liu et al., 2016). The article concludes that a reduction in the levels of Mfn2 protein was associated with a reduction in the rates of fertilisation and first polar body extrusion, thus supporting the notion that a knockdown of Mfn2 has the potential to influence the development and quality of oocytes "in vitro" by altering the processes of meiosis and mitochondrial function (Liu et al., 2016).



Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good brief summary of this very recent article on fertilisation and mitochondrial function. As an aside, mitochondria divide by fission and join together by fusion, these 2 events appear to be independent of the cell cycle mechanisms. Does not affect your assessment, but you seem to like the fiddly HTML text formatting. Assessment 5/5

=

WEEK 2



Sperm entry site and location of male pronucleus[1]




Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - All information Reference, Copyright and Student Image template correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. Note the reference on your page should have a ref name so that you do not have multiple entries in your reference list as shown below


<ref name="PMID27307516"><pubmed>27307516</pubmed></ref>

Assessment 5/5




Lab 3 Assessment

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development.

Question 5 - maternal diet

Assessment 4.5/5

Assessment 4

Ectoderm and Mesoderm Quiz

1

Which of the following statements are true?

The paraxial mesoderm will form cardiovascular structures such as the heat and GIT strucutes
The intermediate mesoderm will form the body wall
The lateral plate mesoderm will form structures such as the stomach and small intestine
The intermediate mesoderm will form somites

2

What day are the first pair of somites formed and how many pairs of somites are formed altogether

Day 19 and 40 pairs of somites
Day 22 and 43 pairs of somites
Day 21 and 41 pairs of somites
Day 20 and 44 pairs of somites

3

The sclerotome will form:

a single vertebral body and intervertebral disc after being subdivided
Dermatomes across the whole body
Skeletal muscles of the back (erector spinae) as well as those of the thorax and abdomen
The overlying epidermial layer of the skin

4

Which of the following is false:

Neural crest cells will form skin melanocytes
Neural crest cells will form the neural tube
Neural crest cells will form teeth odontoblasts
Neural crest cells will form the pia-arachnoid sheath



Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These seem good quiz questions and your answers are well explained. Note that Q1 would have a better explanation if you had referred to splanchnic mesoderm component of the lateral plate mesoderm. Assessment 5/5

Lab 6 (Completed the questionaire)


Mark Hill 11 October 2016 - Questionnaire on course structure. Assessment 5/5

Lab 7: Genetic mutations in Cleft palate

Question 1: Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.


Genetic mutation: Mutation is in the Foxf2 gene


Question 2: Identify a recent research article on this gene.


<pubmed>26745863 </pubmed>

Question 3: How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.


Foxf2 is a gene that is required in the neural crest-derived palatal mesenchyme that is part of the process of normal palatogenesis (development of the palate). It has been found that mutations in this gene will lead to altered patterns of expression of Shh, Ptch1 and Shox 2 genes in the development of palatal shelves in the embryo. In such an instance, inactivation of Foxf2 along with Foxf1 in early neural crest cells resulted in ectopic activation of Fgf18 expression throughout the palatal mesenchyme and dramatic loss of the Shh gene expression throughout the palatal epithelium[2] . Consequently, regulation of Shh and Fgf18 is lost and as a result palatogenesis may not follow the normal path of development. In addition, it has been discovered through experiments on mice that those subjects which lacked the Fgf18 gene as a result of Foxf2 mutations seemed to exhibit high penetrance of developing cleft palate [3]. Such associations have also been discovered in humans.

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - You have identified a cleft related gene and found related references. You should have also explained the function of foxf2 a transcription factor containing a forkhead domain (100-amino acid monomeric DNA binding motif). Assessment 4/5

Lab 7: Information on Duchenne's disease

-The prevalence of DBMD among Non-Hispanic blacks was lower than the prevalence among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic whites
-Steroids utilised as treatment include prednisone and deflazacort

All information was utilised from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/musculardystrophy/data.html

Lab 7 Assessment: Muscular Dystrophy


1.What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)? Normally, there is a large and complex gene located on the locus of the X chromosome, which will express dystrophin once transcribed and translated. However, a mutation in this gene on the X-chromosome (where it is located) will lead to altered expression of the muscle isoform which is the best-known protein product of this locus [4]. Such mutations can cause conditions known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, Autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.
2.What is the function of dystrophin Dystrophin acts as a protein which links actin filaments to the sarcolemma, a protein on the inside of each muscle fibre’s plasma membrane [5]. Hence, the protein plays a major role in supporting the strength of muscle fibres. In the absence of this protein, membrane destabilization and activation of multiple pathophysiological processes is evident, in turn altering intracellular calcium handling [6]. As a result, this causes muscles stiffness and compromises mechanic stability.


3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder? Whilst the condition may affect skeletal muscle, it is also capable of affecting respiratory muscles causing them to weaken overtime. This is because the external and internal intercostal muscles are skeletal muscles. The disorder also affects the heart (cardiac muscle), which in turn can cause heart problems. It may also affect have the potential to cause cataracts (hence it affects the eye). It has the potential to cause difficulty when swallowing (affects the esophagus). http://www.mda.org.au/disorders/dystrophies/myt.asp


4.What therapies exist for DMD?
Treatment therapies:
• Drug therapy
• Physical Therapy
• Occupational therapy
• Speech Therapy
New medical therapies:
• Stem-cell therapy
• Upregulation therapy
• Gene replacement therapy
• Myoblast transplantation
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/detail_md.htm

5.What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Animal models which have been used include:
- The mdx mouse [7]
- The Golden Retriever [8]


Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These are correct answers with related referencing. Assessment 5/5

Lab 8

Mark Hill 27 October 2016 - Urogenital paper quiz - Well Done. Q7 - The adrenal glands do not descend. Assessment 7.5/8

Lab 9 Peer Review

These are good reviews of the project pages, with some excellent specific examples. They include a balanced critical assessment and feedback, given the existing status of these pages. 8/10



Group 1:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Upon assessment of this project, it appears that the authors have devised a variety of subheadings related to the signalling pathway of the Wnt receptor in embryonic development which is excellent. The group has also began investigating the involvement of Wnt in numerous aspects of embryonic development such as skin formation. The use of subheadings and headings related to the Wnt receptor partially meets criteria 1 and 2 assessment. It also appears that the group has cited and referenced sources for some of the information utilised, particularly when describing the “Caronical Pathway”. This also partially meets criteria 3 for this assessment. The group has also attempted to explore abnormalities in the Wnt pathway by describing interruptions in the pathway and its relation to cancer which is very interesting. They have therefore attempted to research ideas related to this receptor that extend beyond formal teaching activities, by explaining the link between Wnt abnormalities and disease (criteria 5).

Whilst there are the positive aspects of the page, improvements can still be made to ensure that the group satisfies the first five points of the marking criteria. Firstly, although there appears to be subheadings, there only appear to be few and therefore it would be excellent to add more subheadings. Subheadings may relate to the history of the Wnt signalling pathway or even subtypes of the receptor as well as their respective functions. In addition, whilst the group appear to have cited some of their sources, it is important to cite all sources, particularly when gathering data under the “Non-canonical pathway” subheading. Although a series of articles have been referred to, it is vital that the group includes in-text citations in order for the audience to determine the source for each segment of information. A suggestion would be to investigate more examples of diseases caused by abnormalities in the Wnt signalling pathway

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

The group appeared to provide a general description of the abnormalities associated with disruption of the Wnt pathway; however they did not talk about abnormalities in the context of embryonic development. A suggestion would be to discuss Wnt abnormalities to the effect it has on embryonic development. It was also noticed that the group failed to include diagrams, tables or figures to reinforce the information. The use of diagrams would assist the audience in developing a visual understanding of the information presented and also makes the wiki page more appealing too. Therefore, a suggestion would be to use diagrams and figures. For example, a diagram of the signalling pathway would be a suggestion. It was noticed that the page appears to have no introduction or history describing the Wnt receptor. Therefore, a possible improvement would be to include a brief introduction and history at the beginning of the page as well as a few diagrams to provide the audience with an insight into what the receptor’s purpose is before exploring its function in embryonic developing.

In addition, it appears that the group has focused on the role of Wnt in skin development of the embryo only. A possible improvement would be to investigate the involvement of Wnt in other areas of embryonic development, perhaps the development of specific organ systems or other structures.

Group 2:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Group 2 has provided a variety of different topics related to the Notch receptor, such as its molecular pathway, its role in embryonic developing both in humans and animals as well as abnormalities caused by disruption in the receptor’s normal function (criteria 6). This variety is excellent, as it informs the audience of various aspects of the Notch receptor ranging from normal to abnormal development as well as newly emerging research (criteria 1.). Group 2 has also utilised both tables and diagrams to represent Notch receptor’s history and signalling pathway respectively (criteria 2). The use of diagrams is a great idea as it allows peers to understand the complexity of the signalling pathway in a much simpler manner (criteria 4).

In addition, the authors have correctly utilised in text citations when referencing all sources and have created a list of references at the conclusion of the page (criteria 3). Group 2 also investigated specific components of organ development which was another magnificent feature of their page, such that they divided cardiovascular development into different stages including “heart valve development” and “trabeculation” for example. This allows for an in-depth understanding of organ development with respect to the Notch receptor, rather than a general overview of the receptor’s involvement (criteria 5 and 6). The authors also have extended beyond Notch’s involvement in human embryonic development by exploring its role in animal embryonic development (criteria 5).

Although there are many positives, a possible improvement to this outstanding wiki would be to include a table of the different types of Notch receptors that exist and their different roles in embryonic development. This will allow the audience to understand that there is not just a single receptor playing a role in embryonic development but multiple. Another suggestion would be to add more subheadings under the “Central nervous system” development, as this subheading appears to have a lot less information compared to others. Also, it is obvious that there are different pathways for this receptor such as “Canonical” and “Non-canonical”, therefore it would be a great idea to include a youtube video to summarise these pathways and reinforce the in-depth description already provided on the page.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

It was also noticed that a variety of terms were utilised which were not defined in the glossary such as “cyclins”, “pluripotent stem cells” and “ligands” for example. It is important to consider that the wiki should be able to teach at a peer level (criteria 4), as some students may not understand these terms. Therefore it is important to define them so audiences can develop a coherent understanding of the information. Another negative feature of the page was that it lacked interactivity. Indeed the page is very informative, however to further engage the audience, a suggestion would be to include a set of multiple choice questions at the end of the page which tests peers about the content covered.

It was also noticed that the page had a very limited number of subheadings regarding Notch’s involvement in embryonic development. A possible improvement would be to investigate Notch’s involvement in organ systems other than Cardiovascular and central nervous system. This will add a greater variety to the page and provide a greater depth of understanding regarding the role of the Notch signalling pathway in embryonic development.

Group 4:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Group 4 has provided numerous headings related to the Hedgehog pathway, such as its involvement in organ development, neural development as well as its mechanism of signalling during embryonic development (criteria 1). The group has also used an image of the signalling pathway to help provide a visual description of the different components of Hedgehog signalling (criteria 2). The authors of this project have also provided in-text citations for all information utilised and have also included a list of references at the end of their page (criteria 3). It is also evident that the group has investigated the involvement of the Shh signalling pathway outside of the scope of human embryonic development by exploring its role in mice, chicks and fruit flies, which is excellent (criteria 5 and 6). The authors have also began to include new research and abnormalities related to the Shh pathway (criteria 1).

In order to further improve these positive aspects, the authors may provide a written description of the signalling pathway alongside the diagram utilised. This is because it is difficult to understand the signalling pathway just by looking at a diagram. Also, a suggestion would be to include a greater variety of diagrams and tables to support the descriptions already provided. Diagrams may relate to the animal models or the abnormalities described. A table may be utilised to summarise the history of the signalling pathway, such as different components of the pathway that were discovered and the year in which they were discovered. Additionally, whilst it appears that most of the information is correctly referenced, the authors have not correctly referenced the diagram that has been utilised to describe the signalling pathway, which is a breach of copyright laws. Therefore, a suggestion would be to ensure that all diagrams are referenced when added to the page.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Whilst there were positive aspects to this project, a key negative aspect of the project is that the authors have not provided an introduction describing what the Hedgehog signalling pathway is. The introduction may include an overview of the nature and role of the hedgehog signalling pathway in embryonic development, thereby introducing headings in your page. It is also evident that the authors have not met criteria 2 completely, in that a small number of subheadings were utilised. Take for example the heading, “organogenesis”, no subheadings have been created under this heading. A suggested improvement would be to include subheadings relating to specific organs formed by the actions of the Shh pathway, accompanied by an in-depth description and diagrams. It is also evident that the authors utilise complex terminology within their description that often make it difficult to grasp certain concepts. Terms include “knockout”, “autocrine”, “appendage” and “paracrine” for example. A suggestion for improvement would be to include a table of glossary terms at the end of the page, defining these terms.

It also appears that the authors have not provided a history regarding the Hedgehog signalling pathway and its discovery. A suggestion would be to include a timeline regarding the discovery of this signalling pathway, as it provides the audience with a background of how Shh came to be known.

Group 5:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Upon reviewing this page, it is clear that group 5 has provided numerous headings and subheadings related to Tbx-genes ranging from origins of the genes, their function in embryonic development, abnormalities, history and animal models (criteria 1 and 6). In doing so, the group has also ventured to provide an in-depth explanation of each subheading. Take for example the subheading named, “limb development”, the authors have provided an in-depth description into the role of T-box transcription factors in limb development whilst utilising a diagram to reinforce this description (criteria 2). It also appears that in-text citations have been correctly used to reference the sources of data in most cases (criteria 3). The authors have utilised diagrams and a table to describe various components of the T-box gene ranging from the different types of T-box genes to its mechanisms in embryonic development (criteria 4). The extensive use of diagrams allows the audience to develop a holistic understanding of the various subheadings included, as these diagrams convey the description provided in a visual manner (criteria 5). It is also evident that the group has conducted research into animal models and evolution of the T-box gene, thus demonstrating that the group has investigated areas of research beyond formal teaching activities (criteria 5).

Improvements which may be made to this page would be to include a timeline regarding the history of the T-box family, as this will display the information in a much more organised and appealing manner. Another improvement which may be made would be to include a YouTube video to introduce the signalling process in development, such as in cardiac and limb development for example. In order to make the wikipage interactive, a further improvement which may be made would be to include a set of multiple choice questions at the end of the page which ask questions about the content covered.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Alongside the various positive aspects of this project, there are few negative aspects. A negative aspect identified includes the use of images from Wikipedia pages more than once. It was stated that only one Wikipedia page was allowed to be included as a source. Therefore a suggestion would be to obtain images and data from research articles rather than from Wikipedia pages, as research articles are often a more reliable source of data. It was also noticed that images were not utilised to describe different abnormalities associated with the TBX gene, hence a possible improvement would be to include images depicting such abnormalities. These images may make this section of the page more appealing and engaging to audiences.

It was also noticed that the image titled “Evolution of the T box gene family”, was incorrectly referenced. Therefore, it is suggested that the authors of the project ensure that the original author of the image are correctly referenced to ensure that copyright laws are not breached. The final negative aspect of the project was that the “Ancient origins and evolution of the T-box gene family” subheading appeared out of place in the page. Therefore a possible improvement would be to include evolution of the T-box gene under the “Origins of the T-box gene” subheading at the beginning of the page as this will create a sense of consistency in the page.

Group 6:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

The authors of group 6 have created a variety of subheadings related to the TGF-beta signalling pathway, including the nature of the growth factor, its mechanism of action, history and emerging research (criteria 1). Authors have also provided two diagrams related to TGF-beta signalling which reinforces the description of TGF signalling provided (criteria 2). These diagrams allow for a much simpler interpretation of the signalling process described and assist in teaching at the peer level (criteria 4). It appears that the authors are beginning to conduct investigations into new research surrounding TGF-beta signalling, thus indicating that they are attempting to research beyond formal teaching activities (criteria 5).

Whilst it is excellent that multiple subheadings have been provided, a possible improvement would be to include a much larger variety of subheadings which cover the scope of TGF-beta’s role in embryonic development, abnormalities, types of TGF receptors and animal models. This may allow audiences to understand the big picture surrounding this signalling pathway which will assist in the understanding of the information already provided. Another improvement to this page would be to include more images under different subheadings. One example would be to include an image or table showing the history of discovery surrounding discovery of this signalling pathway.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Although there were positive aspects of this project, there were also numerous negative aspects which may be improved. One key negative feature of the page was that the authors did not discuss the role of TGF-beta signalling in the context of embryonic development, hence meaning they failed to meet criteria 6. To ensure that this criterion is met, authors may conduct research into the involvement of TGF-beta in specific processes that occur during embryonic development, perhaps organ development and growth of different primitive structures. In addition, whilst the authors have provided a history of the TGF-beta signalling pathway, the history appears to be very brief. Thus an improvement which may be implemented would be to include a more extensive background regarding the history of discovery of the pathway. It was also noticed that no tables were utilised within the page. A possible improvement would be to include a table describing different abnormalities and their causes in the context of disruption of the TGF-beta pathway. A table may also be utilised to describe different subtypes of TGF-beta receptors as well as their functions during embryonic development. Tables may be utilised as they will assist in the process of teaching at the peer level (criteria 4), particularly because they convey information in an orderly and organised manner.

The authors of this project also failed to meet criteria 3, in that only one source was referenced in the process of the signalling pathway and also no in-text citations were provided. In addition, authors failed to reference the image file named, “Process of TGF-beta signalling pathway 01”. It is vital that all sources are referenced correctly in order to ensure that the copyright laws regarding the use of information are adhered to. The final negative aspect of the project was that the page did not flow very well, in that subheadings were arranged in a disorderly fashion. An example of this is the inclusion of the subheading labelled, “history of TGF-beta signalling pathway”, towards the end of the page. Since such a subheading provides a background surrounding the pathway, a possible improvement would be to include this subheading at the beginning of the page. By ensuring the orderliness of the page, this creates a sense of coherency between subheadings, thus making the page more appealing and engaging.

Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track

Lab 12: Exploring how evidence in a primary research article is utilised in a review article

The review article by Foglia & Poss (2016) explores what is currently known regarding the process by which cardiac tissue develops and regenerates. The article focuses on reasons as to why cardiac muscle following events such as myocardial infarction for example, does not heal in the same way compared to other animals such as zebra fish.

A primary research article that is cited by Foglia & Poss, is one which investigates the processes by which cardiomyocyte mitosis is induced after birth and how it may be utilised in the treatment of the damaged myocardium layer of the heart (Chaudhry et al., 2004). This research article builds upon past research regarding the known fact that stimulation of myocyte mitotic division has implications for cardiomyocyte and conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Through a set of experiments conducted on the hearts of mice, immunoblot anaylsis was utilised to detect the levels of cyclin A2 in the heart post-birth. Cyclins are molecules that are present within the cell cycles and through their binding or unbinding to cyclin-dependent kinase molecules, they serve to regulate the cell cycle process. The researchers were measuring the levels of cyclin A2 in particular because this cyclin plays a unique role in controlling the progression through the cell cycle by promoting entry of the cell into the mitosis stage of the cell cycle. Furthermore, in accordance to these researchers, cyclin A2 is believed to modulate cardiomyocyte proliferation in the developing embryo. The main findings of this article was that cyclin A2 levels were not detected through Northern blot analysis when the mice had reached approximately six week of age, whereby this reduction post-birth was shown to be consistent with other studies on humans too. Since this overall reduction trend was present through various experiments conducted on mice, researchers of this article ventured into examining how upregulating re-entry into the cell cycle through cyclins such as cyclin A2 may allow for cardiac regeneration following CVD [9].

Returning to the article by Foglia & Poss (2016), these researchers examine the process of shift from hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation) to hypertrophy (increased cell size) and how these may serve as possible targets for stimulating or reactivating cardiomycocyte proliferation in adult tissue. In discussing this, the authors utilise research conducted by Chaudhry et al. (2004) as a source of evidence to describe that overexpression of cyclin A2 is capable of stimulating cardiomyocyte DNA mitosis in adult mice. The authors of the research article utilise this piece of evidence to reinforce their suggestions that induction of cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle by A2 may allow for repair of heart tissue following the event of CVDs. However, the review article progresses to claim that such a phenomenon is not possible, as other studies have revealed that the same process is inefficient in humans [10].


References

  1. <pubmed>27307516</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>12812790</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>26745863 </pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>14636778</pubmed>
  5. <pubmed>11917091</pubmed>
  6. <pubmed>15470384 </pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>15470384</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>15470384</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>15159393</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>26932668</pubmed>