User:Z5014803

From Embryology
Student Information (expand to read)  
Individual Assessments
Mark Hill.jpg

Please leave this template on top of your student page as I will add your assessment items here.

Beginning your online work - Working Online in this course

  1. Make your own page.
    1. Log-in to the embryology website using your student ID and Zpass.
    2. Click your student number (shown in red at the top right of the screen following log-in)
    3. Create page using the tab at the top of the page, and save.
  2. Add the following to the top of your page exactly as shown - {{ANAT2341Student2016}}
  3. How would you identify your Type in a group and add to your page.
  4. What was the most interesting thing you learnt in the fertilisation lecture?


If you have done the above correctly your ZID should be blue and not red on this page link - ANAT2341 2016 Students.


Here is the example page I made in Lab 1 Student Page. With a few more explanatory notes.

Click here to email Dr Mark Hill

Editing Links: Editing Basics | Images | Tables | Referencing | Journal Searches | Copyright | Font Colours | Virtual Slide Permalink | My Preferences | One Page Wiki Card | Printing | Movies | Language Translation | Student Movies | Using OpenOffice | Internet Browsers | Moodle | Navigation/Contribution | Term Link | Short URLs | 2018 Test Student
Lab 1 Assessment - Researching a Topic
In the lab I showed you how to find the PubMed reference database and search it using a topic word. Lab 1 assessment will be for you to use this to find a research reference on "fertilization" and write a brief summary of the main finding of the paper.
  1. Add a new Sub-heading "Lab 1 Assessment" (without the quotes).
  2. Search the database for a reference on "fertilisation" published in the last 5 years.
    1. It must be a research article not a Review.
    2. The full paper must be available online, not just the abstract.
  3. Add a link to this reference using its PMID using this code <pubmed>XXXXX</pubmed> replacing the Xs with just the PMID number (no text).
  4. Under the reference write a short summary of the papers main findings.
    1. Only 1-2 paragraphs.
    2. Must not be a copy of the paper abstract.
  5. Save and you are done.

PubMed logo.gif

Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading an Image
  1. Upload a research image using the guide information below. The image uploaded for your individual assessment can relate to your project or from fertilisation to week 3 of development (upload only a single image).
  2. Add that image to your own individual page (see Images) including an image title and its reference link.
  3. No two students should upload the same image, check new images before you upload.
  4. No student can delete an image once uploaded, please contact me by email with the image address and I will delete (with no penalty, just glad to help out).


2016 Group Project Topic - Signaling in Development

OK you are now in a group

  1. Go to the blank group page and add a topic that interests you along with your student signature.
  2. No two groups can do the same topic, but at this stage the final topic has not yet been decided (next week).

Initially the topic can be as specific or as broad as you want.


Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation.png

Chicken embryo E-cad and P-cad gastrulation[1]

References

  1. <pubmed>27097030</pubmed>
Lab 4 Assessment - GIT Quiz

ANAT2341 Quiz Example | Category:Quiz | ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions |

Design 4 quiz questions based upon gastrointestinal tract. Add the quiz to your own page under Lab 4 assessment and provide a sub-sub-heading on the topic of the quiz.

An example is shown below (open this page in view code or edit mode). Note that it is not just how you ask the question, but also how you explain the correct answer.

Lab 5 Assessment - Course Review
Complete the course review questionnaire and add the fact you have completed to your student page.
Lab 6 Assessment - Cleft Lip and Palate
  1. Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate.
  2. Identify a recent research article on this gene.
  3. How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development.
Lab 7 Assessment - Muscular Dystrophy
  1. What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?
  2. What is the function of dystrophin?
  3. What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?
  4. What therapies exist for DMD?
  5. What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?
Lab 8 Assessment - Quiz
A brief quiz was held in the practical class on urogenital development.
Lab 9 Assessment - Peer Assessment
  • This will form part of your individual assessment for the course.
  • Each student should now look at each of the other Group projects in the class.
  • Next prepare a critical assessment (should include both positive and negative issues) of each project using the project group assessment criteria.
  • This assessment should be pasted without signature on the top of the specific project's discussion page. (minimum length 3-5 paragraphs/project)
  • This critical assessment should also be pasted on your own student page.
  • Each student should therefore have 5 separate reports pasted on their own page for this assessment item.
  • Length, quality and accuracy of your reports will be part of the overall mark for this assessment.
    • there will be a greater loading on this than simple question assessments.
Lab 10 Assessment - Stem Cells
As part of the assessment for this course, you will give a 15 minutes journal club presentation in Lab 10. For this you will in your current student group discuss a recent (published after 2011) original research article (not a review!) on stem cell biology or technology.
Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track
Lab 11 Assessment - Heart Development
Read the following recent review article on heart repair and from the reference list identify a cited research article and write a brief summary of the paper's main findings. Then describe how the original research result was used in the review article.

<pubmed>26932668</pubmed>Development

ANAT2341Lectures - Textbook chapters  
Lecture (Timetable) Textbook - The Developing Human Textbook - Larsen's Human Embryology
Embryology Introduction Introduction to the Developing Human
Fertilization First Week of Human Development Gametogenesis, Fertilization, and First Week
Week 1 and 2 Second Week of Human Development Second Week: Becoming Bilaminar and Fully Implanting
Week 3 Third Week of Human Development Third Week: Becoming Trilaminar and Establishing Body Axes
Mesoderm Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development Fourth Week: Forming the Embryo
Ectoderm Nervous System Development of the Central Nervous System
Early Vascular Cardiovascular System Development of the Vasculature
Placenta Placenta and Fetal Membranes Development of the Vasculature
Endoderm - GIT Alimentary System Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract
Respiratory Respiratory System Development of the Respiratory System and Body Cavities
Head Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck Development of the Pharyngeal Apparatus and Face
Neural Crest Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System
Musculoskeletal Muscular System Development of the Musculoskeletal System
Limb Development of Limbs Development of the Limbs
Renal Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Genital Urogenital System Development of the Urinary System
Stem Cells
Integumentary Integumentary System Development of the Skin and Its Derivatives
Endocrine Covered through various chapters (see also alternate text), read head and neck, neural crest and renal chapters.
Endocrinology Textbook - Chapter Titles  
Nussey S. and Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach (2001) Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; ISBN-10: 1-85996-252-1.

Full Table of Contents

Heart Cardiovascular System Development of the Heart
Sensory Development of Eyes and Ears Development of the Eyes
Fetal Fetal Period Fetal Development and the Fetus as Patient
Birth and Revision
Additional Textbook Content - The following concepts also form part of the theory material covered throughout the course.
  1. Principles and Mechanisms of Morphogenesis and Dysmorphogenesis
  2. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development
  3. Human Birth Defect
ANAT2341 Course Timetable  
Week (Mon) Lecture 1 (Mon 1-2pm) Lecture 2 (Tue 3-4pm) Practical (Fri 1-3pm)
Week 2 (1 Aug) Introduction Fertilization Lab 1
Week 3 (8 Aug) Week 1 and 2 Week 3 Lab 2
Week 4 (15 Aug) Mesoderm Ectoderm Lab 3
Week 5 (22 Aug) Early Vascular Placenta Lab 4
Week 6 (29 Aug) Gastrointestinal Respiratory Lab 5
Week 7 (5 Sep) Head Neural Crest Lab 6
Week 8 (12 Sep) Musculoskeletal Limb Development Lab 7
Week 9 (19 Sep) Renal Genital Lab 8
Mid-semester break
Week 10 (3 Oct) Public Holiday Stem Cells Lab 9
Week 11 (10 Oct) Integumentary Endocrine Lab 10
Week 12 (17 Oct) Heart Sensory Lab 11
Week 13 (24 Oct) Fetal Birth and Revision Lab 12

ANAT2341 2016: Moodle page | ECHO360 | Textbooks | Students 2016 | Projects 2016

Lab Attendance

Z5014803 (talk) 18:29, 5 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 14:40, 12 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 14:07, 19 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 13:09, 26 August 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 14:45, 2 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 13:13, 9 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 13:46, 23 September 2016 (AEST)

Z5014803 (talk) 13:58, 7 October 2016 (AEDT)


Belbin Team Roles

In my previous courses, I was introduced to the Bebin model team roles as a way to identify myself in a team scenario. I definitely see myself as a "Shaper" since I am driven to try and complete the task at hand as soon as possible to ensure sufficient time for the editing process and the refining of the task. I also agree that I motivate other team members to progress through the task at a efficient pace such that the group does not lose momentum. I am also a person who is not afraid to speak my mind and thus will contest other viewpoints in order to spark a discussion. I identify myself as a very dynamic person in the way that I act according to the different predicaments I'm in and this results in numerous ways of efficiently solving any problems. Although I identify myself as a Shape I do not agree that i can become aggressive or bad humoured as I see some traits of a Co-ordinator in me. I have a very mature approach and recognise that each individual has a different way of attacking a problem and have learnt to appreciate others.

Lecture 1: Fertilisation

I have always been fond of the details surrounding fertilisation as it seems like a very interesting topic. It is more than just a sperm and egg cell coming together. The first lecture on fertilisation highlighted the various processes that need to occur in order to form a zygote, from gametogenesis to fertilisation and then forming the zygote. In my first year studies I learnt that there is a mechanism to prevent multiple sperm cells to enter the ovum but wasnt familiar with the process. The most interesting aspect of this lecture was precisely the process from fertilisation to the prevention of polyspermy. I was intrigued by how sperm cells are attracted to the oocyte which was through the ZP2 protein and only the nucleus of the spermatozoa enters the cell membranes. I was also interested in how membrane fusion will result in oocyte processes that will prevent polyspermy through the elevation of intracellular calcium levels. I had minimal knowledge of this topic but the lecture really made me want to learn about this process in a lot more detail.

New SubHeading

External Link

SMH

Internal Link

ANAT2341 Lab 1

Fertilization Lab

Student Page

Referencing

fertilization

PMID 27486480

Assessment 1

<pubmed>27486266</pubmed>

In order for fertilization to occur spermatozoa must be activated in a process known as 'sperm capacitation'. The primary research article "Seminal vesicle proteins SVS3 and SVS4 facilitate SVS2 effect on sperm capacitation" by Araki et al (2016) investigate the role of seminal vesicle secretion and how they inhibit the activation of spermatozoa and how they reduce the fertility of the capacitated spermatozoa (decapacitation). In previous studies it has already been shown that SVS2 acts as a capacitation inhibitor and a decapacitation factor and Araki et al (2016) build up on this pre existent knowledge about SVSs other than SVS2. The investigation utilised CD-1 mice, in particular female mice, to show the effects of SVS3 and SVS4 on sperm cells in the female reproductive tract.


Levels of SVS3 and SVS4 were measured in each part of the female reproductive tract such as the copulaatory plug, vagina, oviduct and uterine region near the vagina and oviduct 1.5 hours post copulation. By using anti SVS3 antibody there were clear indications as to the specific roles of SVS3. Results showed that there were no SVS3 proteins in any of the aforementioned parts of the reproductive tract and thus the protein alone had no effects on sperm capacitation. In saying that, SVS3 proteins did show that they had the ability to potentiate the effects of SVS2. Similarly anti SVS4 antibody was utilised to provide insight into the function of this particular protein. Contrary to the findings for SVS3, SVS4 was detected in the uterus but not in any other part of the tract. This suggests that SVS4 has similar activity to that of SVS2 in a way that both the proteins enter the uterus. Thus, SVS4 acts as a capacitation inhibitor similar to SVS2 but results indicated that it does not have the decapacitation effect like SVS2.


Mark Hill 18 August 2016 - You have added the citation correctly and written a good summary of this very recent article, still only available in the pre-published submitted format, findings. One thing, you must always include the full term in your summary (even if it appears in the paper title) before you begin to use the acronym. "SVS" (seminal vesicle protein secretion) could and may mean different things in different contexts.


Assessment 5/5

Assessment 2

Live imaging of the whole mouse embryo at E6 (A to D) and E5.5. (E to H)[1]


Mark Hill 29 August 2016 - Reference and Copyright correctly included with the file and referenced on your page here. You have not included the {{Student Image}} template in the file summary box. Assessment 4.5/5

References

Lab 3 Assessment

Mark Hill 31 August 2016 - Lab 3 Assessment Quiz - Mesoderm and Ectoderm development. All correct, Well done! Assessment 5/5


Assessment 4

Quiz

1

Which of the following structures does the ectoderm contribute to?

epithelium, mesentry, connective tissue
enteric nervous system
epithelium and smooth muscle
enteric nervous system, connective tissue, smooth muscle

2

What lies rostral in relation to the notochord?

mesoderm
the neural tube
the buccopharyngeal membrane
the mesoderm then endoderm

3

During Week 8- 10 (GA 10- 12 weeks):

neural crest migrates into the wall forms enteric nervous system
endoderm in the GIT wall proliferates
a second rotation (of 90 degrees) occurs on the longitudinal axis establishing the adult orientation of the stomach.
mesoderm within the dorsal mesogastrium form a long strip of cells adjacent to the forming stomach above the developing pancreas

4

Narrowing of a lumen such as the duodenum or the pylorus is also called:

duplication
atresia.
stenosis
gastroschisis


Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These seem good quiz questions. Question 1 should have been worded "Which of the following GIT structures". The other questions and your answers are fine. Assessment 5/5

Student Page

Lab 6 Assessment

Completed ANAT2341 Lab 5 - Course Feedback Questionnaire

Mark Hill 11 October 2016 - Questionnaire on course structure. Assessment 5/5

Lab 6 Assessment

Identify a known genetic mutation that is associated with cleft lip or palate

Tbx22 mutations are associated with cleft lip/palate

Identify a recent research article on this gene

[https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375406 Arunee Kaewkhampa, D.D.S., M.S., Dhirawat Jotikasthira, D.D.S., M.S., Sutti Malaivijitnond, D.D.S., M.S., Piranit Kantaputra, D.D.S., M.S TBX22 Mutation Associated With Cleft Lip/Palate, Hypodontia, and Limb Anomaly Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal.: 2012, 49(2); 240-4 PubMed 21375406]

How does this mutation affect developmental signalling in normal development

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - This assessment is incomplete. Assessment 2/5

Lab 7 Assessment

Muscular Dystrophy

What is/are the dystrophin mutation(s)?

The mutations in the dystrophin gene can sequentially lead to two types of muscular dystrophies; Duchene (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophy. DMD is the largest known gene in humans measuring 2.4Mb. The gene provides the coding for the a protein called dystrophin which is located primarily in muscles (skeletal and cardiac) and in minor quantities in nerve cells. In most cases mutations in this gene are of the deletion type in which pieces of DNA are lost. Other types of mutations include large duplications (pieces of DNA are copied) and point mutations (small changes in the DNA code). The aforementioned dystrophies arise from deletions in the dystrophin gene. [2]


What is the function of dystrophin?

The dystrophin protein provides a structural link between the cytoskeleton of muscles and the extracellular matrix which attributes to maintaining the muscle integrity. It is located at the muscle sarcolemma in a membrane-spanning protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the basal lamina. Although not much is known about the protein it is thought to cause membrane stabilisation and a lack of the protein can activate multiple pathophysiological processes. [3]


What other tissues/organs are affected by this disorder?

A gradual deterioration in lung function occurs as respiratory muscles weaken resulting in respiratory failure. The heart can also be affected in 1 of 2 ways namely abnormal heart rhythms and cardiomyopathy.


What therapies exist for DMD?

There is no cure for the disease as of yet but there are various research programs worldwide tackling this issue. There are also measures that can help manage the condition and improve quality of life. These include exercise, supportive environment, medical treatment (steroid treatment mostly), nutrition, surgeries, and palliative care. Other therapies that are currently under going research include gene therapy, reading through stop signals, stem cell therapy, utrophin upregulation, moosting muscle growth and reducing muscle damage [4]


What animal models are available for muscular dystrophy?

The mouse is used animal model for muscular dystrophy. Other animal that have been utilised include the golden retriever dog and pigs. [5]

Mark Hill 13 October 2016 - These are good responses including referencing. Assessment 5/5

Lab 9 Peer Review

These are very good reviews of the project pages, with some specific examples. They include a balanced critical assessment, given the existing status of some of these pages. 8/10



Group 1:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Upon initially glancing over the project you can clearly see a range on headings and subheadings and it is evident by these that the project is about the WnT signalling pathway in skin of fetus. This is sufficient for assessment criteria 1 and 2 as you can see the aspect of research they are targeting such as skin formation during embryonic development. Throughout the text you can see citations relating to the topic and a range of references at the end of the project. This satisfies the requirements for criteria 3 but just a small critique would be to put these references in the references section just to clear out the unnecessary area. It can also be commended that the group project goes above and beyond the curriculum of informing us about the background information of WnT signalling pathway in skin of fetus but also includes the complications and diseases arising due to abnormalities in the WnT pathway. This is excellent and satisfies the requirements for criteria 5

There can be some improvements in the project but they are not necessarily of the utmost importance. Firstly, the group can add other specific subheadings and the relevant information under them such as the history or background of the signalling pathway. This is just so the reader has a more rounded knowledge of the pathway and can increase the interest and keep them engaged. It would also be good to see in the text and not just at the end of a paragraph. Such as, in the canonical and non canonical pathway heading it would be recommended to have in text citation and not just at the end just to show the reader where the information was gathered from.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Although the project has a fair amount of positives there are some areas that are lacking. Firstly, the report requires additional information in each section and how this information can be linked to pathways in embryological development. It would also be recommended to put in diagrams, images, tables etc. This would engage the reader and make the read more interesting since at the moment there are no images or tables. Also doing so will satisfy one aspect of criteria 2. This way the audience can develop a visual understanding of the topic. It would be advisable to put tables in the history section in the form of relevant dates/years and the information corresponding to the year.

Also, it would be good to see the role of WnT signalling pathway in something other than skin, for eg: an organ or tissue or cell. This would aid in achieving a higher mark for criteria 5 as you go above the required information. Overall it was great to see all group members contributing to the project but minor edits such as citations, images, tables, and adding additional information to sections would really captivate the reader and make it an enjoyable read.

Group 3:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

The group project looks terrific at the initial glance. You can clearly see all the headings and subheadings. In particular, it is great to see a range of subheadings such as “limb bud formation”, “bone development”, “kidney development”. This shows that there was a lot of research put into this project. Also by doing so you have made it clear that your project is about the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Pathway (FGFR). The page is also very easy to navigate as well which was nice to see.

It is also great to see that there is addition of tables, images, and diagrams as it kept the read a lot more interesting and captivating. This allowed you to successfully satisfy criteria 2. It is also good to see correct in text citations and references as this allowed the reader to search for additional information if interested or necessary. Although you haven’t made up any multiple choice questions it is excellent to see a MCQ section. This is a great way to test the readers’ knowledge and in turn you can reflect if you have provided accurate and sufficient information to answer these questions.

It was great to see that you added an abnormalities section and in particular different types of syndromes and disorders. This meant that you went over the minimum information required and put in extra effort to create a coherent project. This satisfied criteria 5 and thus a better project. Overall there are many positives in this report and with minor amendments such as adding information to sections such as “Apert syndrome”, “Animal models”, “Kidney development”, “external genitalia development” etc, a very articulate and well rounded project will be created.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Although there are many positives in the project, there should be some amendments to the project just to ensure all bases are covered. Firstly, it would be advised to increase the amount of information to the introduction and history sections. As these sections are lacking information, the reader may not have enough information to carry on reading as their base on this topic isn’t really strong and lacks information. This can easily turn off new readers and inhibit further exploration of the topic/ project. By adding additional dates in the history section, a better overall knowledge and background of the signalling pathway can be developed which can only enhance learning.

Overall, there are not many negatives and I believe as a reader your project was a great example of progress so far and with the aforementioned minor tweaks, your group is well on their way to achieving extremely high marks.

Group 4:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

At initial glance I can see a range of headings and subheadings which just made it easier to navigate from one aspect of the project to another. This satisfied the requirements for criteria 1 and 2. This also allowed me to recognise the main topic of the project is the Hedgehog signalling pathway. There is also an addition of an image of the pathway which was great to see as it outlines the main components of the pathway and in general educates the reader about the signalling pathway. This provided a visual stimulus/ description which in turn engaged the reader to find out more about the topic.

It was also good to see correct in text citations and a references list at the end which in turn satisfied criteria 3. To satisfy criteria 5 it was excellent to see information that was well beyond the required information. An example of this is when discussing the role of the pathway in not only humans but also in mice, chicks and fruit flies. The group also began to include new research and abnormalities related to the Shh pathway which aided in rounding off criteria 1.

In order to improve the already positives of this project it would be advised to add a description to the image just so the reader can have some sort of summary about the main points of the image/ pathway. Also, addition of diagrams or tables in some of the subheadings would be good as it will keep the reader interested and in general provide a visual aid. Also it is necessary to cite and provide a reference of the image as it breaches the copyright laws.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Although there are positives to the project, there are a few negatives that can easily be fixed. It is crucial to put in an “Introduction” heading and providing relevant information. This in turn will create a coherent project as it flows from one aspect to another whilst simultaneously providing a brief overview of the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway. Although you have explored the mechanism in animal models it is imperative to link this to embryological development. Also, addition of diagrams, interactive quizzes and tables is necessary to satisfy criteria 3, since 1 image is not enough.

Adding a glossary of terms at the end of the project is needed to clarify any words or phrases that have not been previously encountered such as “organogenesis”, “paracrine”, “dephosphorylation” etc. Overall, the project is coming along nicely and with the recommended amendments, a high mark is definitely in order.

Group 5:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Upon reviewing the page, it is evident that there has been a lot of research put in this project. Initially, there is evidence of a range of headings and subheadings which allowed the navigation from one aspect of the project to another extremely easy. This allowed me to confirm that the project is about T-box genes and their signalling. Secondly, it was excellent to see a range of images, tables and graphs as they provided visual aids to learn more about the topic and in general made it easier to accumulate information. Also it was good to see that these tables and images were correctly cited and referenced at the end which meant that there was no breach of copyright laws.

Also, throughout the project there was sufficient amount of information in each subheading which meant that the reader gained all relevant information pertaining to the section that they are reading. It was also great to see a range of abnormalities being added to the project. This meant that you have went above and beyond the scope of the assessment and researched that extra bit to provide additional information about the signalling pathway and complications arising from any mutations. This meant that you successfully satisfied criteria 5 and thus a more rounded project.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

This project certainly contains a range of positives but there were minimal negatives that can easily be amended in order to achieve a very high mark. I noticed that there was more than 1 image being used from Wikipedia and the criterion clearly says that a maximum of 1 was allowed. This is not a big deal but just in case there is harsh marking and penalties, it is advised to replace the additional image with another image. In addition, it would be useful to add a glossary of all the terms that one may find confusing such as “homologues”, “heterozygous”, “homology”, “notochord” etc. This in turn will provide the reader with enough information to understand the context of the project and in turn keep them engaged.

Another negative aspect of the project was that the subheading “Ancient origins and evolution of the T-box gene family” randomly appearing nearing the end of the project. This looked a bit out of place and not flowing with the rest of the passage. To correct this it would be advised to add this to the start of the page with the “Origin of the T-box genes” section just so the information clearly flows from one topic to another without creating confusion. Overall, this project is coming along quite nicely. It is evident that a lot of research has been put into constructing a coherent and succinct project but also have the visual cues to back up the main aspects. To maximise marks, it is recommended to reflect on the feedback and correct the minor mistakes.

Group 6:

Positive aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Upon reviewing the page I can see a number of headings and subheadings such as the nature of the growth factor, its mechanism of action, history and emerging research. But to be critical, a range of other headings is necessary to ensure all bases are covered when researching and providing the relevant information. This will help in satisfying the requirements for criteria 1 and 2. It is good to see the addition of a diagram to your project as it is a requirement for criteria 2. This provided a visual aid that kept me interested to find out more about the topic while simultaneously making it easier to understand the theory behind the process of TGF Beta signalling pathway. It is also great to see the current research and limitations as this shows that you are going beyond the scope of the required criteria and researching ahead to provide that extra bit of information. This in turn is a great way to satisfy criteria 5.

Negative aspects of the project and suggested improvements:

Although there are a few positives in the project, there are a number of negatives which can be improved upon to ensure a coherent project is created. Firstly, it is advised to put the heading “history of TGF- beta signalling pathway at the top” with the introduction as this is an introductory section and should be addressed initially on the page. This will allow you to create a more flowing page which also looks nice. Secondly, it would be advised to add more images and tables as it is a requirement for criteria 2. By doing this you will keep the reader engaged and wanting to find out more about the chosen topic. In saying that, you already have a couple of images but not referenced. It is imperative to correctly cite and reference these images as failure to do so will result in a breach of copyright laws.

Another critique is to add more subheadings with a range of different aspects of the signalling pathway being explored. It is recommended that you dedicate a chunk of your project to describing the pathway in detail and its role in embryonic development and abnormalities relating to mutations caused by the pathway. This will ensure you answer criteria 6 as it is a great deal of the report. It is also advised to put the history section under the introduction section as placing it in the middle of the project is a bit out of place and inhibits the flow of the information from one subheading to another. Also, the history section can be improved by adding more information as there have been more findings in this research topic since the 1970s. An addition of glossary is also needed for terms such as “peptide”, “cytokine”, “angiogenesis”, “protein kinase” etc. This will aid readers understand terms that they previously have not encountered and allow them to correctly understand the context of the information.

It has also come to my attention that there are little to no references or in text citations. By adding information without correctly giving the authors credit is a breach of copyright laws and must be done urgently. Overall, the project shows signs of progress with a number of positives. By reflecting on the negative aspects and acting upon it, it is certain that high marks are in order.


Lab 10 - Stem Cell Presentations 2016
Group Mark Assessor General Comments

Group 1: 15/20

Group 2: 19/20

Group 3: 20/20

Group 4: 19/20

Group 5: 16/20

Group 6: 16/20

The students put great effort in their presentation and we heard a nice variety of studies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine today. The interaction after the presentation was great.

As general feedback I would like to advise students to:

  • Never discuss M&M as a separate section in journal clubs. I gave this advice prior to the lab, but still most groups did talk through the M&M section.
  • Do not use your slides as cheat sheets, avoid text on slides, know what messages you need to get across, use images to illustrate these
  • Engage with your slides. Talk through them. Point at panels. Gauge your audience’s understanding by making eye contact with them
  • Avoid using abbreviations. Most people do not readily understand these and will lose track


Lab 11 Assessment

Ischemic myocardial infarction causes irreversible cell loss and scarring and is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Thus, the inability to replace damaged cardiac muscle ranks among the most prominent regenerative failures of mammals. The investigation by Lepilina et al studied Zebrafish, an animal with a unique yet poorly understood capacity for cardiac regeneration. Their results indicated that the regeneration of the myocardium occurs through 2 coordinated stages after the resection of the ventricular apex. Initially, a blastema is formed, a mass of cells capable of growth and regeneration into organs or body parts. They are comprised of progenitor cells that express precardiac markers and undergo differentiation and proliferation. In the second stage, the tissue surrounding both cardiac chambers induces developmental markers and exponentially expands. This creates a new epithelium cover for the underlying exposed myocardium. New vasculature then forms supplying the regeneration muscle by epicardial cells invading the wound. These cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The fibroblast growth factor of subtype 17 b (fgf17b) in induced in the myocardium in the regenerative phase whereas the receptors fgfr2 and fgfr4 are induced in neighbouring epicardial derived cells. The investigation revealed that injury to the myocardium or the epicardial tissue collaborate in an Fgf-dependent manner to achieve cardiac regeneration.

This primary article is related to the review article in several ways. Since adult myocardium is prone to scarring and hypertrophy leading to fatal arrythmias and heart failure, cardiac regeneration in mammals (especially humans) shows low proliferative capacity. This is juxtaposed in the review article by relating it to the mechanisms in the zebrafish, which shows that they can in fact regenerate cardiac muscle after injury, suggesting that latent regenerative potential exists. The review article also draws differences in the inability of mammals to regenerate crucial structures, including limbs, spinal cord and cardiac muscle. However, zebrafish etain the ability to regenerate these and other organs. Thus there is some significance as to how such animals have these fundamental aspects in relation to cardiac regeneration and their ability to repair themselves efficiently. Thus the primary research article provides an understanding of the processes and mechanisms that help certain species to allow proliferation of cardiomyocytes which can aid in generating new targets for therapeutic manipulation.

5/5

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