From Embryology

Lab Attendance

Lab 1 --Z3463514 (talk) 13:45, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 2 --Z3463514 (talk) 13:21, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 3 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:28, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 4 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:12, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

Lab 5 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:13, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 6 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:21, 11 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 7 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:08, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 8 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:04, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

Lab 9 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:07, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 10 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:03, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 11 --Z3463514 (talk) 12:06, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 12 --Z3463514 (talk) 13:20, 30 October 2015 (AEDT)

Lab 1 Assessment

Article 1 PMID 26131222

The aim of this article was to determine the impact of oxygen concentration during in vitro culture of human oocytes and embryo on fertilisation, implantation, pregnancy, gestation and abortion rates. Women between 20-48 years old who are seeking for infertility treatments and intracytoplasmic sperm injection participated in this experiment. Embryos were randomly allocated for incubation under three different oxygen conditions, the first group was subjected to 20% Oxygen in air. The second group was initially subjected to 20% Oxygen in air, then on the following day (day 2) 5% Carbon Dioxide and 90% Nitrogen gas was introduced into the system while Oxygen was decreased to 5%. Finally, the third group was subjected to 5% Carbon Dioxide gas and 90% Nitrogen gas throughout the experiment.

To determine its ability to yield a successful pregnancy, the embryo must be cultured and incubated for 2-6 days in a defined medium.

Embryos cultured in 5% Oxygen in air presented highest rates of fertilization and implantation compared to those incubated in 20% Oxygen in air. Meanwhile, embryos cultured in 20% Oxygen in air also presented high rates of fertilisation, high quality embryo and implantation. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection derived embryos cultured in 20% Oxygen in air resulted in lower rates of cleavage compared to those of from the second group, from 20% - 5% Oxygen in air. These results were consistent with the data previously published.[1]

Article 2 PMID 26238449

The objective of this article was to evaluate in vitro maturation, IVM in sub-fertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing IVF, by comparing outcomes with a control group of non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women. IVM involves the in vitro culture of immature oocytes from metaphase II, when the oocyte is considered to be fully mature to undergo fertilisation. This could be a groundbreaking procedure for women suffering polycystic ovarian syndrome as these gametes has expressed their maturational and developmental competence after their retrieval from the ovaries.

A total of 268 patients suffering with polycystic ovarian syndrome, 100 PCO patients and 400 controls were included in the investigation. The analysis provided information suggesting that IVM is a preferable approach in treating women with PCOS during an IVF cycle compared to those without the syndrome. Thus is was concluded that IVM was more efficient as a treatment option in terms of clinical pregnancy, implantation and cycle cancellation rate in women suffering PCOS. [2]

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:46, 16 September 2015 (AEST) Good summaries of these 2 articles. The second article is particularly interesting. (5/5)

Lab 2 Assessment - Images

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

Deer mice oocytes at various stages of development in vitro.jpg

Deer mice oocytes at various stages of development in vitro [3]

PMID 23457518

Copyright: © 2013 Choi, He. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:46, 16 September 2015 (AEST) You have uploaded the image OK and given it a suitable name. You have not included the reference, copyright and student template in the image summery box (copyright not required on your page here). I have updated your image summary box for you to demonstrate how this information should appear with uploaded images. (3/5)

Lab 3 Assessment

1. Shiraishi, K., Ohmi, C., Shimabukuro, T., & Matsuyama, H. (2012). Human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment prior to microdissection testicular sperm extraction in non-obstructive azoospermia. Human reproduction, 27(2), 331-339. PMID 22128297

2. Irvine, D. S. (1998). Epidemiology and aetiology of male infertility. Human Reproduction, 13(suppl 1), 33-44. PMID 9663768

3. Lotti, F., & Maggi, M. (2015). Ultrasound of the male genital tract in relation to male reproductive health. Human reproduction update, 21(1), 56-83. PMID 25038770

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:50, 16 September 2015 (AEST) These references relate to your group project work. You could have used the reference template here and perhaps given a sentence explaining the relevance to the topic. (5/5)

Lab 4 Assessment - Quiz Questions

Early Vascular Development


Which of the following statement is correct about angiogenesis:

Begins week in extra embryonic mesoderm and then embryonic splanchnic mesoderm
Begins as the formation of blood islands
Blood islands extend and fuse together to form a primordial vascular network
VEGF and PGF stimulates growth and development
All of the above


Which of the following statement is NOT correct about blood vessel remodelling:

The branches from main arteries may arise as new outgrowths from the enlarged stem
VEGF is required later for endothelial cell maintenance in tissues
Extensive remodelling during embryo development leads to an asymmetrical adult system in the body
Early vascular development is asymmetrical


What cells are not contained in blood islands?


--Mark Hill (talk) 10:50, 16 September 2015 (AEST) Q1 does not really test the students knowledge on the topic and your explanation in the answer also does not help those who may have gotten the question incorrect. You need to have gone through each option with an explanation here as well as perhaps links to useful resources. Q2 "NOT correct" type of questions are always difficult to design correctly without just "tricking" the student. In particular your third option basically sets up option 4 as the only correct answer. Once again more work on your revealed answer required. Q3 is really a very silly question and does not test an embryology student. (7/10)

Lab 5 Assessment

What is the difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele?

Gastroschisis and omphalocele are congenital abnormalities of the abdominal wall and are the most common anterior abdominal wall abnormality in infants. Gastrochisis is a congenital malformation which occurs in the abdominal wall due to incomplete closure of the lateral folds during the initial gestation. Unlike omphalocele, the exposed viscera lateral, usually to the right, to the closed umbilical ring does not have a covering sac or remnant membrane.[4] Through thorough research, it appeared that the gastroschisis could be the result of amniotic damage, poor prenatal care, maternal infections and younger maternal age. [5]

Omphalocele is a congenital defect which is thought to occur during the process of body folding. It is where the umbilical cord and intestinal tract are extruded or herniated through the umbilical ring with a covering sac or sometimes with its remnants of peritoneum and amnion. Research has observed that the formation of an omphalocele is highly associated with chromosome abnormalities such as trisomies 18 and 13. The clinical discrepancy between the two malformations were based upon its location, size and whether the covering sac or remnant is present or absent. [6] [7] It was observed that infants with omphalocele were more susceptible to have other anomalies, and were diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension. [8]

During the first trimester, vaginal ultrasound may be able to diagnose whether a foetus of as early as 12 weeks suffers from gastrochisis and omphalocele. The ultrasound may assist paediatric surgeons to identify the contents of the herniation and malformation.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:00, 16 September 2015 (AEST) Correct. (5/5)

Lab 7 Assessment

1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.


The pituitary gland is a major endocrine organ located at the base of the brain, it is responsible in controlling growth and development and the functioning of the other endocrine glands. The purpose of this research article was to investigate the mechanism underlying the pituitary defects. This was carried out by using different cre lines to inactivate Otx2 in early head development and in the prospective anterior and posterior lobes. OTX2 is a homeo-domain transcription factor that is required for normal head development in mouse and human. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye or pituitary development. Mice that expresses Otx2 deficiency in early head development and pituitary oran ectoderm exhibit craniofacial defects and pituitary gland malformation at birth.

The research demonstrates that Otx2 expression in the neural ectoderm is important intrinsically for the development of the posterior lobe, and extrinsic effects on anterior pituitary growth. The findings of this research suggest that mechanisms that underlie the diminished hormone secretion by the pituitary gland in patients with Otx2 mutations. The variable ocular, cranio-facial and pituitary defects that arose in Otx2 expression are consistent with the dosage sensitivity for Otx2 in early head development.

2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Teeth development is also known as "Odontogenesis", this process commences in week 6 of embryonic development. It involves the ectoderm of the first pharyngeal arch and neural crest, ectomesenchyme.

Embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth:

1. Ameoblast - Epithelial cells that are derived from the oral epithelium of ectoderm and produces teeth enamel. Ameloblasts are the result from preameloblast differentiation which originate from inner enamel epithelium.

2. Odontoblasts - Mesenchymal cells which are derived from the neural crest; depending on their enamel epithelium activity they will differentiate differently. These cells produce predentin which calcifies to dentin which is found beneath the enamel in the crown region and under the cementum in within the root.

3. Periodontal ligament - It provides attachment of the teeth to the alveolar bone of the maxillae and the mandible. The periodontal ligament is composed of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, bone, cementum cells and bundles of collagen fibres.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)

Lab 8 Assessment - Peer Assessment

Group Project 1

It’s great to begin with a introductory video which defines your topic. I do suggest finding a reference for the first paragraph for the introduction. Besides that, references have been cited correctly and shows that you have conducted extensive research, but remember to reference as you add information ( [##] ). I think you guys did a great job with the heading and subheadings; it shows us that you have done extensive literature research, and have came to a conclusion as to what information was relevant. Just a grammatical error made in “Timeline of Mitocondrial Donation” which is missing a H in mitochonidral. I suggest proof reading all the text before uploading! This will make it easier for the audience to understand and also for yourself! As to the “Benefit” heading, I think it will be a good idea to add information and case studies on disadvantages towards three person embryos.

Nice to see that you guys have included a timeline, this shows the progress made throughout the years. But I think there is still information that can be added into this area; for example: different possible approaches or more controversial issues that has emerged. “Technical Progression” is an impressive choice of heading; I found it very interesting to read. The cytoplasmic transfer images used were great! They were very easy to understand. The “Timeline” under “Cytoplasmic transfer” could be merged with the history timeline heading above.

Overall, I think more information and content needs to be added under all the headings and subheadings. To make it easier for the audience to read, I suggest adding detailed images, tables and flowcharts. It will be more eye-catching for readers and will keep them interested. I see that you guys have a table under “Prohibited Section” however that just leads to another link, rather than having the link there; I think it would be a great improvement if there is a short summary of all the sources found.

I think your page is organised and formatted very well! With more information/content, detailed diagrams and tables; it will further improve your Wiki Page! Good Luck.

Group Project 2

This Wikipage is very well structured, the headings and subheadings are all very appropriate; the introduction presents the entire topic very well. This really grabs the attention of the audience as the structure of the page is very easy to navigate. “Epidemiology” was very easy to understand as you introduced all the jargon with its shortened name; good idea to add the glossary at the bottom defining all the scientific terms. It is very beneficial for those audience who have not been introduced to these scientific terms. “Causative Agents” was explained perfectly, which makes it easier for the audience to read. I also suggest using some bullet points and tables. It’s great to see the use of tables in “Symptoms”, it simplifies the content and makes it easier to categorise the different severity of the symptoms. As for “Diagnosis”, I suggest adding some subheading to separate the different ways of diagnosis (History, physical examination, ultrasound, further investigations etc). Make sure you add more subheading throughout the page, it highlights the key points for each heading for the audience. “Complications”, “Treatment” and “Prevention” has good use to subheadings, it is well structured and interesting to read. This shows that you have conducted adequate literature searches and have a deep understanding of OHSS. I suggest to add more information into complication, case studies or examples could be used.

I am impressed to see that you guys have drawn your own detailed diagram. However, I suggest that you add more diagrams, videos and tables; this can enhance the audience’s understanding towards OHSS. There is a lot content at this point which is great to see all the research you guys have conducted however, it need visual aids to make the page easier and more interesting to read. All the resources have been cited correctly but I think more research to support the page and enhance the validity of your information.

Overall, I am very happy with this page. Remember, more visual aids (diagrams, videos, tables and flowcharts). Great work!

Group Project 3

Wow! The photo very encapsulate the audience and the topic itself. It is great how you used a lot of visual aids for your page, especially the hand drawn images which is very simple to understand the morphology differences of PCOS a normal ovary. All these visual aids attracts the audiences’ attention. After reading through the majority of the sections, I realised that some content are inconsistent with each other. It is a good idea to proof read all the sections and make sure that all information are integrated cohesively. As for the table under “Current Treatment”, since you have a column for disadvantages, it would be a good idea to add another column comparing it to the advantages.

I have also realised that you guys have not added a glossary; it is very beneficial for the audience as some might not have been introduced to scientific names. Make sure you write their full names then have the abbreviations in brackets to introduce a new term. [Luteinising Hormone (LH)]

There were a few grammatical and spelling errors; for example under “Blood Test” you have mentioned ‘Thyroid Stimulating Hormone’ however you have named it LSH. Shouldn’t it be “TSH”? It is important to proof read and ensure that the information is consistent. It would be great to see more images supporting “Gynecologic ultrasonography” and “magnetic resonance imaging”. The amount of resources found shows that extensive literature research have been conducted. All the references were also cited correctly.

This page has an excellent structure, by adding more detailed diagrams, content and references will improve the page even more!

Group Project 5

This page is off to a really good start! Just skimming through the page shows that you have really done thorough research. The page is very content heavy but it is also good to see that you guys have began to add detailed images, tables and videos. To make the page seem less content heavy, I suggest changing some bolded heading to Subheading which will neatly and evenly space out the content; it will make it easier for the audience to read as they can just pick which heading they prefer to read. I have noticed the “oncofertility timeline” is located at the very bottom, it would be a good idea to move it to the top to show the audience the progression and history of oncofertility.

It is great to see that you have make the use of bullet points; as a reader I would prefer to see a bullet dot rather than a hyphen (-). I know this may be a small thing to change but it will look a lot neater. The videos used in this page is very insightful and interesting, this will keep the audience intrigued. It is clear that some areas have not been focused on such as “Artificial Insemination”, “In-Vitro Fertilisation”, “Oncofertility timeline”, “Unique chemotherapy drugs” and “How does it effect the cancer cells”. With more research I am sure these areas can be successfully improved.

Extensive research have been conducted which is great to see however some references have not been cited correctly, as they are no present under the references (33, 45) while a few are repetitive (26/27, 24/25), 19 is just inconsistence. Just a reminder that references are requires in the body of the page; so just proof read everything and include the references.

Overall, the page is outstanding. The content and videos shows the amount of effort you guys have put into this Wikipage. With these peer assessments, I am certain that the page will improve a lot!

Group Project 6

This page has an impressive amount of content, this shows that you guys have done amazing research and deducing those which are relevant for this chosen topic. As your page is very content heavy, visual aids (detailed diagrams, videos, tables and flowcharts) can be a great way to lighten the content and keep the audience interested. Remember to add a hand drawn diagram! The heading used were very appropriate for the topic, but the overuse of subheadings makes it harder for the audience to understand. I would suggest to condense some of the subheadings as I think some are not necessary (Laws and Legal Status - it is fine just having the countries in bolding titles) I suggest having them in a table which will look a lot neater. In the subheading, it is clear that there is a lot of advantages and disadvantage; I suggest to have them in table format, making it easier to read for audiences. But it is also good to see that you have made use of bullet points.

Adding a glossary at the bottom will be very beneficial for the audience as there are a few terms that are not explained (IMSI, IVF and FISH etc). There are still a few headings and sub which have not been touched on; “Utilisation of Diseased Cell Lines” and “Ethics” I am certain with more research, no doubt the content of these will be great!

Your reference list is extremely long which is good! Showing you have done numerous and numerous of literature searches and put them to good use. Just to remind you that it is important to have in-site referencing in the body of the page.

Overall, the page was a delight to read! All the content seem to be integrated nicely which shows great teamwork. I am certain after condensing some information and including visual aids, your page will be awesome!

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) Good peer assessment feedback. My only suggestion would be to structure it in a more point-like form and organise into a major/minor structure. (17/20)

Lab 9 Assessment - Permalink

Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Link to permalink image: Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are generated from the optic neuroepithelium. The choroidal melanocytes, the other pigmented cells, are derived from neural crest cells that have migrated towards the eye. RPE are cuboidal cells with multiple villi on its apical side which are in direct contact with the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells. Its lateral sides are joined together by tight junctions, adherens and gap junctions. The basal side of the retinal pigment epithelium is in contact with the underlying basal membrane which is also known as the Bruch's membrane. The permalink shows that the sensory retina and pigmented epithelium are separated by a space called the optic ventricle. In the adult the optic ventricle will no longer be present and the 2 layers would be closely associated to each other.

Embryology Link Vision - Retina Development#Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Test Student 2015

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:27, 6 November 2015 (AEST) (5/5)


  1. <pubmed>25131222</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>26238449</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>23457518</pubmed>| [1]
  4. Júnior, E. A., Rolo, L. C., Tonni, G., Haeri, S., & Ruano, R. (2015). Assessment of fetal malformations in the first trimester of pregnancy by three-dimensional ultrasonography in the rendering mode. Pictorial essay. Medical ultrasonography, 17(1), 109. PMID 25745664
  5. Bargy, F., & Beaudoin, S. (2014). Comprehensive Developmental Mechanisms in Gastroschisis. Fetal diagnosis and therapy, 36(3), 142-149. PMID25171094
  6. Calzolari, E., Bianchi, F., Dolk, H., & Milan, M. (1995). Omphalocele and gastroschisis in Europe: a survey of 3 million births 1980–1990. American journal of medical genetics, 58(2), 187-194.
  7. Júnior, E. A., Rolo, L. C., Tonni, G., Haeri, S., & Ruano, R. (2015). Assessment of fetal malformations in the first trimester of pregnancy by three-dimensional ultrasonography in the rendering mode. Pictorial essay. Medical ultrasonography, 17(1), 109. PMID 25745664
  8. Corey, K. M., Hornik, C. P., Laughon, M. M., McHutchison, K., Clark, R. H., & Smith, P. B. (2014). Frequency of anomalies and hospital outcomes in infants with gastroschisis and omphalocele. Early human development, 90(8), 421-424. PMID 24951080

--Mark Hill (talk) 08:27, 5 November 2015 (AEDT) CATEI completed (5)

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link