From Embryology

Hi there Just giving the editor a good old test run. Test student 2015

Lab Attendance

Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

Glossary Links

Glossary: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Numbers | Symbols | Term Link

--Z3416054 (talk) 13:45, 7 August 2015 (AEST) --Mark Hill (talk) 10:47, 6 August 2015 (AEST) Thanks for setting up your page. We will be talking more about this in the Practical on Friday. --Z3416054 (talk) 14:06, 14 August 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 13:57, 21 August 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 12:22, 28 August 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 13:20, 4 September 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 13:18, 11 September 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 13:10, 25 September 2015 (AEST) --Z3416054 (talk) 13:28, 16 October 2015 (AEDT) --Z3416054 (talk) 12:32, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)

Picture Tutorial

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....

Lab 1 Assessment

Article 1

This research article aimed to determine the clinical outcomes following IVF (in vitro fertilisation) and embryo transfer treatments in subjects suffering from the sexually transmitted disease syphilis. The clinical outcomes mentioned are the rates of pregnancy and health of newborns following treatment via IVF. Couples engaged in sexual intercourse over 12 months without the use of contraception and who failed to conceive were deemed as being infertile.

The subjects were divided into two groups based on serology results, a syphilis infected group and a control group, each with 160 individuals, giving a total of 320 subjects. The Syphilis infected group was further divided into three subcategories, a male infected group, a female infected group and a couple (male and female) infected group. Penicillin G20 (an anti-syphilis treatment) was given to the individuals in the syphilis group. IVF treatment commenced one month proceeding the disappearance of clinical syphilis symptoms or if test results gave a negative result for syphilis infection.

The results of this experiment revealed no significant differences in regards to the basal FSH and LH of both the control and syphilis groups. However, the thickness of the endometrium differed greatly, with the syphilis group demonstrating a thicker endometrial wall (16.9±5.4mm) compared to the control group (13.0±4.7mm). Further differences were noted in blastocyst implantation rates, with the syphilis group having less successful implantations compared to the control (24.2% vs. 34.4% respectively).Normal oocyte cleavage differed between the two groups with the syphilis group demonstrating less normal oocyte cleavage compared to the control group (6.3±4.7 vs. 8.1±4.6). Furthermore, the clinical pregnancy rates of the syphilis group stood at 43.8% compared to 55.6% of the control group.

Syphilis infection appeared to have a significant impact on the success and clinical outcomes of IVF. Syphilis associated pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to an increase in the thickness of the endometrium, which can adversely affect blastocyte implantation and endometrial receptivity. Successful pregnancy rates typically correlate with an endometrial thickness of 7-14mm, with any thickness beyond 14mm often corresponding with decreased clinical pregnancies. Rates of clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates did not differ between the three syphilis subgroups. Conception involving a male infected partner was associated with a shorter gestational period and decreased offspring birth weight, when compared to the female infected and couple infected subgroups. No explanation for this phenomenon was provided.

PMID 26208116

Article 1 Reference: <pubmed>PMC4514756</pubmed>

Article 2

The effects of oxygen levels on factors such as cleavage, implantation and pregnancy rates in IVF cultured embryos was the primary focus of this article. Women between the ages of 20-48 who were seeking treatment for infertility were utilised in this experiment. Gametes were allocated to be incubated in one of three environments, each with a different oxygen concentration. The first group was placed in an atmosphere with an oxygen concentration of 20%. The second group rested in a 20% oxygen environment for a day before being moved to a 5% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide and 90% nitrogen atmosphere. The third group consisted of a 5% carbon dioxide, 5% oxygen and 90% nitrogen atmosphere. The gametes (spermatozoa and oocytes) were incubated together in their respective environmental conditions for 4-6 hours after which fertilisation is presumed to have occurred.

Successful embryos were transferred at Day 3 cleavage. A biochemical analysis of HCG validated pregnancy, whilst ultrasound was used to confirm the presence of a heartbeat 28 days following the transfer. IVF fertilisation rates were calculated as being the number of fertilised oocytes over the number of oocytes inseminated. Cleavage rates were characterised by the number of blastomeres over the number of fertilised and abortion rate by the amount of miscarriages divided by the number of transfers.

The research article concluded that the embryos from the 5% oxygen group had the highest rates of fertilisation and implantation. The 20% oxygen group had the second highest rates of fertilisation and maintained excellent embryo quality, whilst the 20% to 5% group had the lowest rates overall. Abortion and miscarriage rates did not differ at all between the three groups. The group incubated at 5% oxygen demonstrated higher quality embryos and increased rates of pregnancy when compared to the 20% oxygen group. The article concludes that implantation, pregnancy and embryo quality can be somewhat affected by a set oxygen concentration, but are affected adversely by a shift from one concentration to another. Shifting from one oxygen concentration to another appeared to have an adverse effect on the cleavage of the embryo and would likely impact future development and the overall success of the IVF treatment.

PMID 26131222

Article 2 Reference: <pubmed>PMC4483955</pubmed>

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:40, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These are quite good descriptions of these 2 articles. (5/5)

Lab 2 Assessment


Image Reference

Jianjun Sun, Allan C Spradling Ovulation in Drosophila is controlled by secretory cells of the female reproductive tract. Elife: 2013, 2;e00415 PubMed 23599892

PMID 23599892

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:40, 17 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded and named correctly. All reference, copyright and student image template included. You might have included in the summary box an explanation to the terms that appear in the image as there is no way for the reader to interpret what is shown in each panel. (5/5)

Lab 3 Assessment


The Genetics of Infertility: Current Status of the Field

<pubmed>PMC3885174</pubmed> This article attempted to determine the role that genetics plays in female infertility. It was noted that several prominent causes of female infertility such as Galactosemia and Primary Ovarian Failure (POF) were associated with specific genes, with the GALT gene contributing to the former condition and the FMR1 gene contributing to the latter.

Causes of Sterility in Bosnia-Herzegovina Population

<pubmed>PMC4499307</pubmed> The study conducted as laid out in this article examined the causes of female sterility in the Bosnia-Herzegovina population. Married participants were arranged into various groups based upon their age. The experiment came to the conclusion that in approximately 42% of infertile married couples, female sterility was the primary cause. The two primary causes of female infertility were tubal deficiencies (31% of cases) and Diminished Ovarian Reserves (38% of cases)

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

<pubmed>PMC3872139</pubmed> This research article examines the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome (POS), a common cause of infertility in women. The article concluded that 50-70% of women suffer from insulin resistance secondary to Type 2 Diabetes and in many cases obseity, which may contribute partially to POS. Furthermore, 85-90% of women with oligomenorrhea also had POS, suggesting that it is an underlying cause. However, the exact pathophysiology of POS was not determined.


PMID 26244658

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:40, 17 September 2015 (AEST) These papers relate to your group project, I hope they are useful for the final submission. (5/5)

Lab 4 Assessment



Primary villi are produced during which stage of development?:

Week 2
Week 1
Week 3
None of the above


Mesoderm is a precursor for all of the following EXCEPT:

Skeletal Muscle Cells
Cardiac Muscle Cells
Epidermal Skin Cells
Smooth Muscle


Which of the following shows the correct developmental pathway of the male gamete:

Spermatid > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatogonia > Spermatozoa
Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Leydig Cell > Spermatozoa > Spermatid
Sertoli Cell > Spermatid > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatozoa
Spermatid > Spermatozoa > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Leydig Cell
Spermatogonia > Primary Spermatocyte > Secondary Spermatocyte > Spermatid > Spermatozoa

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) No descriptive title to your questions. Q1 relates to the timing of villi development. These types of questions encourage "student guessing" and you could have given a more detailed explanation and links to resources in your revealed answer e.g. Placenta - Villi Development. Q2 is a reasonable question, but only requiring the student only to know that Epidermal Skin Cells are from ectoderm. Once again it is your revealed answer that needs more work. Q3 is a little easy, as long as you know Spermatogonia are the diploid start cell you can quickly exclude most options, need more work. (8/10)

ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

Lab 5 Assessment

Gastroschisis and Omphalocele

Gastroschisis is classified as a full thickness cleft found in the abdominal wall, adjacent to the site of insertion of the umbilical cord. The defining features of this abnormality is the absence of a membranous sac shrouding the intestines. As a result of this the intestines will become eviscerated, thereby protruding out of the abdominal wall and will be on the exterior, rather than the interior of the body. It is believed that disruption to the vascular supply of the right abdominal wall is the primary gass of gastroschisis. [1]

Omphalocele is an abnormality characterised by the herniation of visceral organs such as the intestines, liver and spleen outside of the abdominal cavity. The visceral organs are enclosed in a membranous sac, into which the umbilical cord is inserted. [2]

The primary difference between gastroschisis and omphalocele lies in the presence of a membraneous sac and the exact organs herniating from the abdominal wall. Gastroschisis involves the intestines protruding to the outside of the body but are not covered by a membranous sac. Omphalocele however is characterised by the protrusion of multiple visceral organs (liver, spleen etc.) which are enclosed within a membranous. Furthermore, the size of both abnormalities differs greatly, with gastroschisis typically being 2-5 cm in size whilst omphalocele can vary between 2-15cm. [3]

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:50, 17 September 2015 (AEST) This is an adequate description of the differences between these conditions. (5/5)

Lab 7 Assessment

1: This research paper aimed to examine the relationship between fetal adrenal cells and the differentiated adrenal cortex. In particular, research was focussed upon possible pregenitor cells involved in maintenance of the adrenal cortex. It was hypothesised that the the most likely precursor cells of the adult cortex were the 'Glil' expressing cells found in the adrenal capsule. A number of mice adrenal glands were taken, treated with antigen retrieval solution, after which fluorescence microscopy was conducted.

The results of the paper concluded that 'Glil' expressing descendants of fetal adrenal cells are the pregenitors of the differentiated adrenal cortex. Furthermore, it was found that the 'Glil' expressing cells oringinated from 'FAdE-Cre' expressing fetal adrenal cells. Thus the authors of this research article came to the conclusion that 'Glil' expressing cells found in the adrenal cortex play an important role in the development, differentiation and maintenance of the adrenal cortex. [4]

2: A number of embryonic layers and tissues contribute to the development of teeth. The primary contributing layers are mesoderm, ectoderm and neural crest ectomesenchyme. Furthermore, neural crest may contribute through interactions with the ectoderm. Odontoblasts originate from neural crest derived mesenchymal cells and are responsible for forming predentin which calificies to create dentin (which forms the bulk of the tooth). Ameloblasts are responsible for the production of enamel, which provides teeth with the hardness required to engage in mastication.

Peer Assessment

Group 1 Peer Assessment

Hi guys! I'll start of by saying that the images and video you have included are excellent and are relevant to your topic of discussion. Also, you have a large number of reliable references which is good to see. However you have yet to include a hand drawn image, which is required for the wiki page. I feel like you could probably eliminate the typed out 'timeline of mitochondrial donation' and instead use this as an opportunity to use a hand drawn image of the timeline. Furthermore, the timeline under 'cystoplasmic transfer' feels a bit awkward and unnecessary. You could probably include this timeline alongside the 'timeline of mitochondrial donation'.

Under the 'Technical Progression' section it would be best to incorporate human embryo, mouse and human models under a sub-sub heading, as at the moment it feels a bit jumbled.

I would also recommend moving the 'Benefits' heading towards the end of the page. It feels odd reading about the benefits of three person embryos before I gain a proper understanding of how they work. Also it might be worth talking about the disadvantages (if there are any) to three person embryos to balance out the 'benefits' section. As has been previously stated, make sure you sort out the copyright information for your video as it would be a shame to lose marks if it was missing. Also, don't forget to add the 'student template' to the 'Swapping mitochondrial DNA mammalian oocytes' image as it is currently absent.

Group 2 Peer Assessment

So far your wiki page gives a very good coverage of Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome. The progression of your subheadings progresses logically from one topic to another. It's good to see that you've included an excellent hand-drawn image which is well suited to the 'pathophysiology' subheading. The amount of textual information you have under each heading is vast and gives a comprehensive description of OHSS. Furthermore, you have an excellent range of sources to support your discussion.

I feel however that asides from your hand-drawn image, your use of images and other source of media is definitely lacking. As is, your page is largely text with little to no breaks, making it quite difficult to read. The use of images would not only help break up the monotony of the text, but also help reinforce some of your ideas. I feel that the inclusion of images in the 'symptoms' and 'complications' subheadings would be suitable.

It may also be worthwhile to include subheadings concerning current research, to inform readers about contemporary developments regarding OHSS. Furthermore, 'future research' could also be another potential subheading and could illuminate potential areas that are beginning to be or could be investigated in coming years.

Overall, a very impressive page so far, that could be enhanced with the addition of relevant images and other media.

Group 4 Peer Assessment

Very impressive work so far guys! Your page covers a comprehensive topic very well, without focussing too much on certain subheadings at the expense of others. Your use of both tables and images is excellent so far. It's good to see that you have also included a video to give some variety to the media on your page. The 'background information' gives context to the issues which you discuss and though it might not be of great use for someone familiar with embryology, it would be a great help to those with no experience in this field and is therefore useful in establishing the topic of male infertility.

The only things that could be changed to improve your wiki page is perhaps altering the location of tables and pictures on your page. For example all pictures are located on the right side of the page, although not a significant issue, becomes slightly monotonous as one progresses through the page. It may be worth alternating pictures between left and right to mix things up a little bit and improve the overall flow of the page. It might also be worth including a short video underneath the 'surgical treatments' subheading to give a visual example of some of the techniques discussed.

Furthermore a subheading on future research could possibly be included under the 'treatments' subheading to give the reader information on techniques and therapies which may come to prominence in the near future.

Your wiki page thus far is very impressive! Excellent work so far.

Group 5 Peer Assessment

Awesome page so far guys! I commend you on your use of various videos to assist in conveying your ideas. Furthermore, the images you have chosen are highly relevant to the topic of discussion and assist the reader in gaining a greater understanding of oncofertility. All copyright information is present for the images you have used which is excellent to see. It may be worth including a hand drawn image under the 'radiation' subheading, as we are required to include at least one such image. The current image under the radiation subheading could easily be replicated by hand and could fulfill this portion of the criteria.

I am nitpicking here, but I would also recommend including some kind of media, most likely a picture, underneath the surgery subheading. It might even be worth doing the hand drawn image here if possible. A picture may also be good underneath the 'types of chemotherapy drugs' subheading, just to break up the wall of text and improve the reading experience for the reader. It might also be worth restructuring the 'oncofertility limitations' subheading into the form of a table (if possible), as the bullet point format feels quite awkward and out of place compared to the rest of the page. The inclusion of a glossary is also recommended, as this page will be accessible by the general public and a glossary will assist those without a background in embryology to understand and appreciate your content.

Keep up the great work guys! Your page is absolutely amazing so far and the effort you have put in is definitely reflected in the high quality of your page.

Group 6 Peer Assessment

A very snazzy wiki page so far! You have used a wide variety of images to convey the concepts of prenatal genetic diagnosis to those reading your wiki page. Copyright information and student templates were present for all the images which you provided which is great to see. A hand drawn image is absent, which is a requirement for every wiki page. It might be worth including the hand drawn image in the 'history section' as the information here could easily be represented by a hand drawn flow chart.

I commend you on your inclusion of a 'future/current research' subheading as this gives the reader a perspective of where the field of prenatal genetic diagnosis is heading in the distant future.

I see that you have included a table underneath the 'biopsy methods' subheading. It would be great to see you compile the advantages and disadvantages of blastomere biopsy and trophectoderm biopsy into a tabular format as this would make for an easier reading experience. Furthermore, tables may also be incorporated for the disadvantages and advantages of genetic techniques. I would recommend the inclusion of other forms of media such as a video or gif to assist in the conveyance of information under certain subheadings. A video/gif would fit nicely underneath the 'biopsy method' subheading, though this is just a suggestion.

Overall your assignment is superb so far. You have successfully covered a vast topic and made successful use of a broad range of sources to support your page. Your inclusion of images has been appropriate, however a hand drawn image is still required. Keep up the good work guys!

Lab 10 Assessment

Retina of the Eye

The retina is the light sensitive portion of the eye. It contains 10 separate layers, including the photoreceptor layer which is comprised of rods and cones. These rods and cones convert light into signals, which are then communicated to the brain via the optic nerve. Optic cup morphogenesis is responsible for the development of the vertebrate eye, and it is believed that this process significantly contributes to the development of the retina. The image above displays a Carnegie Stage 22 retina. The nerve fibre layer is particularly prominent in this image and is the pale layer closest to the vitreous chamber. The processes of rods, cones and ganglion cells can be observed migrating towards the optic nerve.

Embryology Link Vision - Retina Development

  1. <pubmed>PMC2166158</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>PMC1355659</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>PMC2552910</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed>PMC3817941</pubmed>