From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Class Attendance

--Z3391078 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 11:34, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 11:10, 11 August 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 10:43, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 10:59, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 11:05, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 10:44, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 11:00, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 10:56, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--Ashley Smith 11:04, 6 October 2011 (EST)

-- Ashley Smith was in class on 13 October 2011 (signature was broken)

-- Ashley Smith was in class on 20 October 2011 (signature was still broken)

Online Assessments


1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

 Robert G. Edwards was the first to develop In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in the UK during 1978.

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

 Regulating the acrosome reaction. Harvey M. Florman, Melissa K. Jungnickel and Keith A. Sutton. International Journal of Developmental Biology. (2008) 52: 503-510
 This articles states that there are more complex pathways, besides just the Ca2+ signaling help to link sperm exocytosis and zona pellucida stimulation with each other. This article explains in, full detail, all the various in depth steps that are involved in the signal transduction pathway once a sperm makes contact with a zona pellucida.  

3.) Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

 1. Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
 2. Tuerner's Syndrome (monosomy X)

--Ashley Smith 22:06, 1 August 2011 (EST) -Had accidentally placed in the "my talk" section.


1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

Spermatazoa surface proteins bind to ZP3. After the sperm and egg membranes fuse and fertilization occurs IP3 pathways help to raise the level of intracellular Calcium, and an enzyme alters the ZP3 so that it will no longer bind any other sperm to the plasma membrane; this helps to prevent multiple fertilizations.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Research article: Turner Syndrome

Review article: Outcomes of spontaneous and assisted pregnancies in Turner syndrome: the U.S. National Institutes of Health experience

--Z3391078 02:47, 11 August 2011 (EST)


1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Folic Acid

'2. 'Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.


--Ashley Smith 09:24, 18 August 2011 (EST)


1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?


2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

   * Ductus venosus - between the umbilical vein and IVC
   * Foramen ovale - between the right and left atrium
   * Ductus arteriosus - between the pulmonary artery and descending aorta 

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Etiology and Clinical Manifestations

--Ashley Smith 10:54, 25 August 2011 (EST)


1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Around 90-percent of diaphragmatic hernias occur on the left side, due to the fact that the left side closes later than the right side.

--Ashley Smith 10:17, 1 September 2011 (EST)


1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

During week 9 the palatal shelves fuse with both each other and the primary palate.

2. What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

The quail-chicken chimeras were the staple animal model used in identifying the migration and final pathways of neural crest cells.

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Abnormal neural crest cell migration can cause Tetralogy of Fallot.

--Ashley Smith 23:28, 13 September 2011 (EST)


1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

(a) No, satellite cells are necessary for muscle hypertrophy according to evidence obtained in 2011 via McCarthy, et al.

(b) Although evidence leads to them being unnecessary, satellite cells are generally still involved in hypertrophy.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

The low frequency stimulation affects satellite cells, which seem to play a role in facilitating the fast-to-slow fibre-type transitions. Adaptive potential within the myonuclei of the satellite cells seem to also indicate that their main role is to maintain stability of the activity-induced fibre-type transitions over time.

Trisomy 21 Peer Assessment

1.The different headings seem a bit much… ie: The defects could be somehow joined into one category with abnormalities and Meiosis discussion combined with aneuploidy. The flow would just seem better with more subheadings instead of headings.

2.In the introduction, there seems to be some disorganization. Instead of having aneuploidy defined, how about have a hyperlink on it to take you to the glossary and have it defined there, or describe it within the first paragraph where it is first mentioned?

3.Human_idiogram-chromosome_21.jpg This image seems to not be formatted correctly. I couldn’t find any reference for it, and it didn’t have a caption under it to help describe the picture properly.

4.Chromosome-_trisomy.jpg‎ This image also is missing a caption from under it.

5.Under prevalence, the numbers need editing; currently it is trying to show the years as a telephone number.

6.The image “Tandem SNP Analysis Process” just looks a bit awkward… Maybe it’s too big, or maybe the text can be formatted to fit around it and make it more aesthetically appeasing.

7.The aneuploidy section seems a bit out of order. Should be combined with Meiosis I and Meiosis II to help offer a more holistic explanation of what happens to cause the disease.

8.More information needs to be cited. For example, neither defects section has much, if any, citations for the facts that are given.

9.For the references section, is it really necessary to separate the sources based on Journals, Reviews, etc? If you think so, the formatting should at least be kept consistent throughout, including the first section which is formatted numerically instead of with dots.

10.The information given is helpful in allowing us to follow along and understand the copious amounts of information that goes along with this topic. Lots of hyperlinks are available for further descriptions of things also, which is helpful.

--Ashley Smith 02:06, 22 September 2011 (EST)


ALL Group Assessments have been added to all of the Group Projects. :)

--Ashley Smith 10:55, 29 September 2011 (EST)


No assignment was given.

LAB 10

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.


2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

-The auditory tube, which is the pathway which fluid uses to draim from the middle ear, is shorter at a younger development in comparison to the adult length.

-The auditory tube is also narrower in diameter, which also complicates the drainage process.

-The auditory tube runs almost horizontal, as opposed to the adult auditory tube, which runs at a 45-degree to the horizontal angle which helps the drainage process.

-The auditory tube is opened by muscles; it is normally closed. Until adult growth ther is only a single muscle, the tensor palati muscle, as opposed to the adult which has 2 muscles to aid in the opening of the tube.

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Usher Syndrome, Type I


LAB 11

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

  • The fusion of the primum and secundum muscular septums forms the interatrial septum.
  • Passages that connect the right and left atria:

The foramen ovale (in the septum secundum) together with the foramen secundum (in the septum primum) allows for passage from the right to left atria

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract

Abnormalities and defects commonly occur by:

  • abnormal proliferation in the Anterior/secondary heart field can lead to an elongation defect
  • abnormal migration or proliferation of Neural crest cells can lead to a septation defect
  • abnormal rotation of the myocardium can lead to an alignment defect
  • abnormal proliferation of the endocardium can lead to a cushion defect