From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)


--Z3387190 12:55, 28 July 2011 (EST)

Lab1 Assessment:

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

The first in vitro fertilization studies were related to non- mammalian aquatic species. These studies on animals with external fertilization played an important role in the comprehension of the fertilization process. Further studies engaged in mammals. In 1959 experiments with rabbits succeeded which led to the first viable mammal offspring via IVF. The in vitro fertilization therapy in humans was developed by Robert G. Edwards and the gynaecologist Patrick C. Steptoe. In 1978 the first human baby was born by means of IVF. In 2010 the English scientist Robert G. Edwards received the “Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine” for the development of human IVF. [1]

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

The paper [2] shows that the chance of becoming pregnant for infertile women undergoing a fertility treatment is not correlated with emotional stress. The meta- analysis included fourteen studies with 3583 infertile women receiving a single cycle of fertility treatment. The effect of pretreatment anxiety or depression was measured with the standardised mean difference between women with a successful conception and those without.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

- Transposition of the great vessels

- Anencephaly

--Z3387190 19:37, 31 July 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 10:02, 3 August 2011 (EST) These answers are good.

Lab2 Assessment:

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

Responsible for the binding of the sperm is a zona pellucida glycoprotein, called ZP3. After the fusion of the sperm and oozyte mambranes contents of the cortical granules remove a carbohydrate from ZP3, resulting in the lack of the ZP3 to bind to sperm membrane. This is part of the block to avoid polyspermy.[3]

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

  1. Estrogen requirements in girls with Turner syndrome
  1. How do you monitor the patient with Turner's syndrome in adulthood?

--Z3387190 23:17, 10 August 2011 (EST)

Lab3 Assessment:

1. What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Iodine deficiency can lead to disorders in neuro development varying from mental retardation to cretinism.[4]

2. Upload a picture relating to you group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

EEG in Angelman syndrome mice with a maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3

EEG in Angelman syndrome mice with a maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3.jpg

File:EEG in Angelman syndrome mice with a maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3

--Z3387190 23:39, 17 August 2011 (EST)

Lab4 Assessment:

1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?

The allantois is continuous with the urinary bladder. The bladder enlarges and the allantois forms the urachus. This is a stalk, which runs from the urinary bladder to the umbilical region.

2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.

In the fetal circulation system three shunts are essential for the blood to bypass the liver and lungs, ductus venosus, oval foramen, and ductus arteriosus. The umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood and runs from the placenta to the right atrium. Approximately one half of the blood bypasses the liver through the ductus venosus. The oval foramen is an opening in the right atrium, allowing blood to run into the left atrium. The ductus arteriosus allows most of the blood from the right ventricle to pass the lungs and to run into the aorta.

3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Signs and Symptoms in Angelman Syndrome

--Z3387190 19:40, 22 August 2011 (EST)

Lab5 Assessment:

1. Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

Diaphragmatic hernia accures more frequent on the left side with about 85% of all cases. The reason is probably that the left pericardioperitoneal canal closes later in development, and it is also greater in size than the right one.

Lab6 Assessment:

1.What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

In the human embryo, the two palatal shelves fuse in week 9.

2.What animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of cells?

Cell transplantation from a quail into a chicken helped to exemplify the origin and migration of neuro crest cells.

3.What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

CHARGE Syndrome and DiGeorge Syndrome

Lab7 Assessment:

1. Are satellite cells (a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy and (b) generally involved in hypertrophy?

Satellite cells are important for the onset of new muscle fibres, and involved in hypertrophy, but they are not essential for it.

2. Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

CLFS causes the fast muscle to vary first the metabolic and then the contractile properties, and causes them to act like a slow fibre. Satellite cells play an important role in fibre regeneration. The fibre type transition cannot take place, if they are absent in a muscle.

--Mark Hill 10:42, 16 September 2011 (EST)

I would like each student to now also look at the following online page before the next Lab and write a comment based upon the group project assessment criteria. Paste your comment on the Trisomy 21 discussion page and also on your own student page.

3. Peer review “Trisomy 21”

  • The introduction appears not quite complete.
  • The “some recent findings” section would fit better at the end of the page.
  • Adding some historic background to the page would be interesting.
  • The key points relating to the topic were well described and illustrated.
  • The choice of content shows a good understanding of the topic area.
  • Some images (e.g Human ideogram- chromosome or Chromosome trisomy) lack a reference and or copyright notice.
  • No student drawing included.
  • The term descriptions tear the page apart, they would fit better in the glossary.
  • Relates the topic and content of the Wiki entry to learning aims of embryology.
  • Use of a broad variety of reliable resources.

Lab8 Assessment:


Group 1

  • Interesting introduction, but includes quite a few spelling mistakes, make sure you correct them.
  • The epidemiology section includes lots of information, but the sentences make sometimes no sense, or include writing mistakes.
  • Maybe place the “karyotype” image on the right, it interrupts the epidemiology section.
  • I like the “malfunctions” image, but it looks a bit lost at this position, and lacks a copyright information.
  • The sperm + egg image is genius, but it disrupts the flow on the left side, so maybe put in to the right.
  • Clinical manifestations: the heading should be on the left edge of the page, the content is ok but would look better in a table.
  • Diagnostic procedures: very good section, but the tables seem a bit too big.
  • The treatment section looks fine, except for the “speech ” and ”appearance” part. Those could include more information.
  • The research section seems very well done.
  • The glossary is incomplete. You should decide, if you want to link the words or not, but if you do, it must be for the hole

page, and not only one section.

  • Make sure all images include a copyright notice.

--Z3387190 11:38, 25 September 2011 (EST)

Group 2

  • Introduction: good content, but the symptoms do not really belong there.
  • Very nice historical section, nice to read
  • Epidemiology and etiology seem almost like one big section. Maybe separate the content a bit more (no repetitions), and break it done with subheadings.
  • Pathogenesis: includes helpful explanations and information, good use of reasonable subheadings. The drawn images could have been done with more


  • Diagnostic tests: very nice informative section, good use of images to visualize the content. I think the choice of colour for the table could be

better, maybe another shade of the pink (darker, red...) that has been used for clinical manifestations. The green disrupts the flow of the entire page.

  • Clinical manifestations: very nice section, precise information, good structure, useful images.
  • Treatment: lots of information in a nice form, but the image would look better on the right edge (like the ones in ” research” ). Good use of subheadings.
  • Research: good content, but would be easier to follow if you would break it down with subheadings.
  • Glossary: looks good, but explanations like “malformation: see dysmorphia” should be avoided. It would be better to define every term separately.

--Z3387190 11:41, 25 September 2011 (EST)

Group 3

  • Introducton: the beginning is a bit to abrupt, very nice image, otherwise good content
  • History: very detailed information, useful timeline
  • Epdidemiology: fig.3 would look better on the right side, the content is good
  • Aetiology: no copyright information for the image, good use of subheadings.
  • Pathodenesis: again, figure would look better on the right side, it disrupts the flow.
  • Signs and symptoms: good table, the images look a little lost though, so maybe place them on the right edge, “age and intellect” could be bigger.
  • Diagnosis: well done
  • Management: good content, nice flow
  • Similar defects: good content, but the structure could be better, maybe place the content in a table without the dots. Everything that belongs to e.g XO should start at the same hight
  • Research: interesting section, well done
  • Glossary: seems incomplete
  • Make sure to include the copyright notice in all images

--Z3387190 12:15, 25 September 2011 (EST)

Group 4

  • Very good introduction
  • History: looks very nice, but the layout of the quote disrupts the page. I think it would be better to use bold letters, good idea though.
  • Epidemiology: nice section, useful tables
  • Genetics: good detailed content and drawings
  • Pathogenesis: do not bold words in only one section, it disrupts the whole picture, good use of sub- headings.
  • Clinical manifestations: good summary of the symptoms in the drawing, the classes and the five specific features would look better in a table, otherwise good section
  • Diagnostic tests: the video subheading needs to be fixed, really irritating. Very detailed, I would put all images to the same side
  • Treadment: mechanism of tetrabenazine inhibition image could have been done with more effort
  • Research: very nice clear section

--Z3387190 21:29, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Group 5

  • Introduction: too much detail, give an overview. Only one of the images would be enough.
  • History: well done
  • Epidemiology: screening / population testing should be a separate section, very good image
  • Etiology: well done,
  • Development and Symptoms: both sections are clear and easy to follow, good use of subheadings
  • Diagnosis: seems incomplete
  • Treatment: very detailed
  • Research: I would add some other examples. If you want to outline only autism, maybe change the heading.
  • Glossary: there is a lot missing
  • Make sure to include the copyright notice in all images

--Z3387190 21:33, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Group 6

  • Introduction: the contend is ok, but the structure could be clearer
  • History: too text heavy, a timeline would be nice
  • Epidemiology: more content would be good
  • Symptoms: the picture could be more general
  • Genetics/ Aetiology: the structure could be better, maybe use some more subheadings, and put the gene profile in tables
  • Pathophysiology: you need references
  • Diagnostic tests: why does it say “insert images”, that should be fixed
  • Treatment/ management: looks like there are some references missing? Deleate “Want to learn about more surgery and treatment methods?”, the contend is good, types of shunt would look better as a table
  • Prognosis: references missing? good use of subheadings,
  • Glossary: incomplete

--Z3387190 21:54, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Group 8

  • The index should be on the left side
  • Introduction: contend is fine, but could be a little more general
  • History: is there mo important milestone after 1996?
  • Epidemiology: the first two subheadings could have more contend, the others are well done
  • Aetiology: well done, good structure and contend, but the chromosome image could have been done with more effort
  • Pathogenesis: looks good
  • Neuropathology: well done, very nice drawings
  • Clinical Presentation: good contend, but more subheadings to break up the text would look better
  • Diagnosis: very well done
  • Treatment: well done
  • Research: should be more detailed contend
  • The Glossary should be placed before the references

--Z3387190 22:39, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Group 9

  • Introduction: contend is fine
  • History: could be a bit shortened, otherwise good
  • Genetic and Etiology: well done
  • Diagnosis: looks good
  • Epidemiology: treatment doesn’t belong there (own section?), the contend is good
  • Phenotype: references missing
  • Cardiac conditions: well done, but what’s with other conditions?
  • Genitourinary Conditions: the contend is good, but the structure could be clearer, a table for the grading system would be nice
  • Endocrine: missing references, otherwise good section
  • Other associated conditions: looks fine
  • Cognitive, behavioural Phenotype: references missing?
  • Structural diff. in the brain: is there really only one resource? Lack of structure and subheadings
  • Special Facilities: I don’t think it is necessary to list the addresses of the foundations, and write down all their aims. The online link is enough.
  • Research: could have more detailed information
  • Glossary: incomplete
  • The phenotype sections should be put together

--Z3387190 23:23, 27 September 2011 (EST)

Group 10

  • Introduction: well done
  • History: lots of information, some parts have no references, subheadings and a time line would be advantageous
  • Epidemiology: good contend
  • Aetiology: the contend seems fine, but more structure would be good
  • Pathogenesis: looks good
  • Signs and symptoms: that’s more like a list that a section, maybe combine it with manifestations
  • Manifestations: well done, except for smooth muscle- seems incomplete?
  • Diagnosis: you could add more information and details
  • Treatment: the heading seems inappropriate, separate treatment and research, the contend could be more explained
  • Glossary: is incomplete
  • More images would be nice

--Z3387190 14:30, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Group 11

  • Introduction: needs more contend
  • History: the contend is ok, references are missing, include the timeline
  • Diagnosis: well done
  • Syndromes and anomalies: the contend looks fine, some parts are missing, the conditions would look better in a table
  • Development:?
  • Aetiology: looks fine, but are there references missing?
  • What staging are you talking about?
  • Types: well done
  • Pathophysiology: unfinished, otherwise good, maybe add some subheadings for more structure
  • Configuration: references missing, what is the third paragraph womb or external environment?
  • Neuroembryology: well done, nice image
  • Treatment: references missing, maybe add a detailed outline of the most frequent techniques
  • Problems: references missing
  • Research: add more contend
  • Glossary: incomplete
  • Rearrange the order of headings
  • Some images lack a copyright notice
  • Textbooks ?

Lab10 Assessment:

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

A tetratogen for deafness can be a rubella infection during the developmental period of the inner ear structures.

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

  • The eustachian tube is tight and can easily be blocked out.
  • Its orientation is more horizontal, and it is rather short in length.
  • Adults have two muscles pulling the auditory tube open, in contrast, only one of them is present in infants.

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

An autosomal dominant disorder leading to hearing loss and structural defects of all 3 regions of the ear is Branchiootorenals Syndrome 1 (BOR1). Other signs are branchial fistulas and renal abnormalities.

Branchiootorenals Syndrome

--Z3387190 14:32, 28 September 2011 (EST)

Lab11 Assessment:

1. Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

The interatrial septum is formed by the fusion of two structures. A thin membranous structure originally divides the atrium, the septum primum. It grows downwards from the roof of the heart and fuses with the endocardial cushions. The diminishing space between the atria is called foramen primum. An opening in the septum, the foramen secundum, acts as a shunt and forms while the foramen primum closes. The septum secundum is muscular and is the second structure forming to the right of the septum primum. Like the first septum, it grows downwards leaving an opening called the foramen ovale. Blood from the right atrium to the left atrium passes through that shunt persisting of foramen secundum and foramen ovale until birth, this is when this opening closes.

2. Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Transposition of the great vessel
  • Double outlet right ventricle

Lab12 Assessment:

1. Give examples of 3 systems that continue to develop postnatally.

  • Respiratory system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Ear:

2.Identify the abnormalities detected by the Guthrie Test and link to one abnormality listed in OMIM.

Blood analysis used to dedect metabolic and hormonal diseases in neonates like:

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cystic fibrosis


--Z3387190 11:36, 27 October 2011 (EST)


  1. [Höög 2011] C. Höög. Human in vitro fertilization. "The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - Advanced Information". (31/07/2011)
  2. [Boivin et al. 2011] J. Boivin, E. Griffiths, C. A. Venetis. Emotional distress in infertile women and failure of assisted reproductive technologies: meta-analysis of prospective psychosocial studies. BMJ 2011; 342:d223;

Lab Attendance

--z3387190 13:06, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--User:Z3387190 13:05, 4 August 2011 (EST)

--Mark Hill 13:32, 18 August 2011 (EST) Attended Lab 3.

--z3387190 11:11, 18 August 2011 (EST)

--z3387190 12:50, 25 August 2011 (EST)

--z3387190 12:37, 1 September 2011 (EST)

--z3387190 12:15, 15 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3387190 12:56, 22 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3387190 12:32, 29 September 2011 (EST)

--Z3387190 12:04, 6 October 2011 (EST)

--Z3387190 13:01 13 October 2011 (EST)

--Z3387190 12:10 20 October 2011 (EST)