From Embryology

Welcome to the 2014 Embryology Course!

Links: Timetable | How to work online | One page Wiki Reference Card | Moodle
  • Each week the individual assessment questions will be displayed in the practical class pages and also added here.
  • Copy the assessment items to your own page and provide your answer.
  • Note - Some guest assessments may require completion of a worksheet that will be handed in in class with your student name and ID.
Individual Lab Assessment
  1. Lab 1 Assessment - Fertilization References
  2. Lab 2 Assessment - Uploading a Research Image
  3. Lab 3 Assessment - Researching your Project Sub-Heading
  4. Lab 4 Assessment - Cord Stem Cells
  5. Lab 5 Assessment - Abnormalities
  6. Lab 6 Assessment - Group Work (As announced in the lecture, No individual assessment item for this Lab, but I do expect you to have added content to your Group project by tomorrow's Lab.)
  7. Lab 7 Assessment - Endocrine+Teeth
  8. Lab 8 - Genital
  9. Lab 9 - Peer Assessment
  10. Lab 10 - Sensory Development
  11. Lab 11 - Stem Cells
  12. Lab 12 - Stem Cells Presentation (see preparation information)
Lab 12 - Stem Cell Presentation Assessment More Info
Group Comment Mark (10)
  • Lots of effort to place article in larger context
  • Slide lay out could be improved: lots of empty space, use larger images and talk through them
  • Results presentation a bit convoluted. Try to finish discussion of each experiment with a clear conclusion.
  • Repetition of information towards the end
  • One presenter had an unprofessional style of presentation
  • Good well-structured presentation
  • Good introduction
  • Methods discussed separately. Try to avoid this, and incorporate in discussion of experiments. Not sure if technology was understood very well.
  • Good well-structured presentation
  • Do not discuss methods as a separate section
  • Discussion of results not always very clear, comprehension?
  • Good well-structured presentation
  • Lots of text on slides, improve talking through images, blow up images
  • Good discussion
  • Good well-structured presentation, amount of text on slides relatively good.
  • Figures too small, discussion bit convoluted
  • Slightly over time
  • Good comprehension and well-structured presentation.
  • Too much text on slides
  • Experiments discussed in a lot of detail. Try to be more concise and discuss aim of experiment, approach, summarize results, conclude.
  • No talking through figures
  • Good well-structured presentation, great introduction, inclusion of images in presentation done relatively well.
  • Methods discussed separately. Incorporate methods in discussion of the experiments in the results section.
  • Try not to depend too much on text on your slides
  • Talking through results images was not very clear, comprehension?
More Useful Links
Student Projects
Group 1 Respiratory User:Z3330991 User:Z3332339 User:Z3333429 User:Z3372817
Group 2 Renal User:Z3463310 User:Z3465141 User:Z3465654 User:Z5030311
Group 3 Gastrointestinal User:Z3414515 User:Z3375627 User:Z3415141 User:Z3415242
Group 4 Genital User:Z3415716 User:Z3416697 User:Z3417458 User:Z3417753
Group 5 Integumentary User:Z3417796 User:Z3417843 User:Z3418340 User:Z3418488
Group 6 Endocrine User:Z3418702 User:Z3418837 User:Z3418698 User:Z3414648
Group 7 Neural User:Z3418981 User:Z3419587 User:Z3422484 User:Z3374116
Group 8 Musculoskeletal User:Z3418779 User:Z3418718 User:Z3418989
Student Projects Fetal Development of a specific System.
2014 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12
Student Projects - Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6 | Group 7 | Group 8 | Moodle

Online Assessment

Lab 1

Article 1


< Turgut Aydin, Mustafa Kara, Turktekin Nurettin Relationship between Endometrial Thickness and In Vitro Fertilization-Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Outcome. Int J Fertil Steril: 2013, 7(1);29-34 PubMed 24520460

> method & findings women aged 20 to 29 with homogenous characteristics of basal hormone levels, duration of infertility, Body mass index, antral follicle count and age were split into 4 groups of differing endometrial wall thickness (1 <7mm, 2 7-10mm, 3 10-14, 4 >14mm). thickness was measure using TV- USG in the midsagittal plane on the day of hCG administration when 1 or 2 follicles reached 17mm in size. 35-36 hours following hCG for final maturation, TV- USGguided needle aspiration of the follicular fluid was carried out, as was ICSI in all cases. Luteal phase was supported on the oocyte "pick-up" day until serum pregnancy test 12 days later. Clinical pregnancy could be confirmed by presence of fetal sac or fetal cardiac activity 2 weeks later via ultrasound.

The article found that of the women in group 1 (endometrial wall = <7mm) there was a dramatic reduction in Implantation rate, CPR, and ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR)compared to group 2, 3 and 4. There didnt seem to be a significant difference between 2, 3, and 4 in this catagory of result. Retrieved oocyte number, transferred embryo number, and the fertilization, cleavage, and implantation rates (IR) was also found to be similar in all four groups. Results then showed that women of an endometrial wall thickness of less than 7mm would experience a significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (although no threshold was observed)

Article 2


< S Olatunbosun Banjoko, Fasiu O Adeseolu Seminal Plasma pH, Inorganic Phosphate, Total and Ionized Calcium Concentrations In The Assessment of Human Spermatozoa Function. J Clin Diagn Res: 2013, 7(11);2483-6 PubMed 24392378

> method & findings Seminal plasma concentrations of pH, total Calcium, ionized calcium, and inorganic phosphate were recorded in 80 male patients to find a correlation of the substances to mobility and spermatazoa count. The 31 patients who were recorded as having hypomotility (<60%) exhibited lower calcium concentrations (0.19+0.01mmol/L) compared with the normal motility group ( 0.24+0.01mmol/L). The same was observed with phosphate levels (hypo= 5.64+1.62mmol/L normal= 7.83+1.27 ). No noticable differences were observed in the pH levels betweeen the two groups. Of those in the hypomotile group, there was a greater occurance of abnormal form in the spermatazoa, 36% compared to the normal groups 5%. The mobility and count of the spermatazoa was performed using a binocular microscope and improved neubauer counting chamber.

The article shows that there was a relationship between calcium and phosphate levels that indicate that lower levels of the two in seminal fluid would result in lower count and motility as well as presence of abnormal forms in the spermatazoa. There did seem to be a paradoxical effect from calcium levels on sperm depending the maturation level of the sperm. In the epididymis, calcium ion stimulate immature sperm whereas in ejaculated semen, it inhibits sperm motility.

--Mark Hill These are useful references and descriptions, fix the reference formatting. (5/5)

lab 2

P63 staining of human anorectum in 10th week.jpg

P63 staining of human anorectum in the 10th week. There was considerable proliferation activity within the epithelia of rectum and anal canal. The P63 immunoreaction still remained strongly immunoreactive on the epithelium of the anal canal while the rectum exhibited no reaction[1]

  1. Pengjun Su, Yuhang Yuan, Ying Huang, Weilin Wang, Zhibo Zhang Anorectal malformation associated with a mutation in the P63 gene in a family with split hand-foot malformation. Int J Colorectal Dis: 2013, 28(12);1621-7 PubMed 23736768 | [1]

--Mark Hill This is a relevant image, you need to fix the associated information formatting on the file summary page and include the student image template. (4/5)

Lab 3

Hindgut development during the human fetal stages

1. A Woollard, J Hodgkin The caenorhabditis elegans fate-determining gene mab-9 encodes a T-box protein required to pattern the posterior hindgut. Genes Dev.: 2000, 14(5);596-603 PubMed 10716947

2. F Beck Homeobox genes in gut development. Gut: 2002, 51(3);450-4 PubMed 12171973

3. Romana Illig, Helga Fritsch, Christoph Schwarzer Spatio-temporal expression of HOX genes in human hindgut development. Dev. Dyn.: 2013, 242(1);53-66 PubMed 23073994

--Mark Hill These are 3 references, where is a single sentence describing why you have selected these for the project? (4/5)

Lab 4

Identify a paper that uses cord stem cells therapeutically and write a brief (2-3 paragraph) description of the paper's findings. PMID21939170

< V H Sarmadi, C K Tong, S Vidyadaran, M Abdullah, H F Seow, R Ramasamy Mesenchymal stem cells inhibit proliferation of lymphoid origin haematopoietic tumour cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Med. J. Malaysia: 2010, 65(3);209-14 PubMed 21939170


Research was conducted into the ability for a non-haematopoietic population of Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) within adult bone marrow to inhibit the poliferation of tumour cells. Bone marrow was aquired and dilated with 1X PBS (phosphate buffered saline and prepared for immunophenotyping using a FACSCaliber flow cytometer and then stained.

Introduced to BV173 Tumour cells (a human B cell precursor leukemia). After an incubation period of 18hours in 37°C, these cells were harvested and thymidine incorporation was measured by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. An inhibitory effect pronounced when there is a direct cell to cell contact. The cell cycle analysis revealed a substantial reduction in DNA synthesis in presence of MSC arresting tumour cell proliferation in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. This prevented the tumour cells to enter into S phase of cell cycle.

There are a number of developmental vascular "shunts" present in the embryo that are closed postnatally. Identify these shunts and their anatomical location.

  • The foramen ovale - An opening in the interatrial septum allowing some blood to bypass the pulmonary circuit by passing from the right atrium directly to the left atrium. Postnatal, this fuses shut to leave the fossa ovale
  • The ductus arteriosus - A short, muscular vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta allowing the blood that didnt pass through the foramen ovale to bypass pulmonary circulation.. Ligamentum arteriosum is the remnant after postnatal closure.
  • The ductus venosus – Shunts blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava, bypassing the fetal liver and delivering oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetal heart. Ligamentum venosum is the remnant after postnatal closure.

--Mark Hill Your paper summary is based upon the abstract, you need to "read the paper" and make your own summary, too much like a simple cut-n-paste without trying to understand the article. Shunts are correct. (2/5)

Lab 5

Cloacal Extrophy

By the end of week seven, the urorectal septum, a coronal ridge of mesenchyme has formed down the angle between the allantois and hindgut and fuses with the cloacal membrane. This forms an anterior urogenital sinus and a posterior anorectal canal.

If the cloaca ruptures before completely partitioning, it can lead to extrophy. Although extremely rare with only occuring in one in 200 000-400 000 births, it requires immediate surgical attention postnatal [19]. It arises from the failure of the caudal fold to close. Cloacal extrophy results in a child being born with with many inner-abdominal structures exposed. A portion of the large intestine lies outside of the body, and on either side of it are the two halves of the bladder. To diagnose this, MRI Imaging is usually performed during development to detect the 'elephant trunk sign' of cloacal extrophy

Andrea Bischoff, Maria A Calvo-Garcia, Naira Baregamian, Marc A Levitt, Foong-Yen Lim, Jennifer Hall, Alberto Peña Prenatal counseling for cloaca and cloacal exstrophy-challenges faced by pediatric surgeons. Pediatr. Surg. Int.: 2012, 28(8);781-8 PubMed 22878705

--Mark Hill Brief summary is OK (4/5)

Lab 6

Group work

Lab 7

Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.

A study was done into the role of molecules that modulate the differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic endocrine cells. during embryonic development, the glucagon cells that co-expressed tyrosine hydroxylase rarely proliferated and didn't express precurser marker neurogenin. There was also seen to be a increased expression of the transcriptional repressor Hes1. The study indicates that this finding may have important implications for approaches seeking to promote the generation of beta cells to treat diabetes.

Patricia Vázquez, Ana M Robles, Flora de Pablo, Catalina Hernández-Sánchez Non-neural tyrosine hydroxylase, via modulation of endocrine pancreatic precursors, is required for normal development of beta cells in the mouse pancreas. Diabetologia: 2014, 57(11);2339-47 PubMed 25082160

Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Embryonic layers are the ectomesenchymal cells, the ectoderm of the first pharyngeal arch, and neural crest. Tissues involved are the Ameloblasts and Odontoblasts. Odontoblasts forms predentin which calcifies to form dentin and are Mesenchymal cells derived from the neural crest cells that differentiate under the influence of enamel epithelium. Ameloblasts Produce the enamel during the ossification of the jaw

--Mark Hill Relevant article, you are still plagiarising the abstract and your summary does not indicate that you are reading the full article. Tooth layers are fine. (3/5)

Lab 9

Group 1

Overall this is a well produced project so far, very impressed. Only minor changes to polish up some sections are needed. The introduction help with orientating the reader with the content especially with the origins of development and brief on how fetal compares with embryonic stages as well as conducting and respiratory side of lung function. The project as a whole is not text heavy with some good images included which again are helpful in guiding the information

The tables and placement of content is very well thought out with the exception of referencing. It would be advisable to move all the references to one spot (preferably the end) so content isn't so broken between sections. viewers looking for the references can follow those link you've provided wherever they end up.

Pictures, while a good addition to supplement the text information, need to have more information regarding the individual images. some text highlighting what the viewer is looking at in the image will be beneficial

some sections need more work in them. Abnormalities is looking good (but i'm sure will improve), but other sections like Current models and historic findings needs to have more research with integrated referencing

Group 2

Good introduction with integrated citations. Content is easy to understand and well presented. There needs to be more references in some sections like development to compare with the rest of the work, which is well done.

Obviously historic findings needs to have some content added

Timeline is simple and easily gives information on sections

As a whole, the project feels like a wall of text even with the images included. breaking some sections up to more concise, dot pointed content could do well.

more work needs to be done tidying up referencing. Changing the references so that they link to a list at the end would be a good idea. You can always look at other project pages and just copy the reference style

Images are well used throughout the project. Again, relocating the references for these would be a good idea. A few have no flavour text to identify what the viewer is looking at. Look at adding this to page.

That all being said, well thought out and executed project so far

Group 4

Nice amount of content on this page. some work needs to go in reformatting the development and Current model sections as the dot points don't bring some of the information across effectively. Perhaps a table could remedy some parts

The Table included is well done but could use some references integrated.

Referencing is very poor in the development and current research sections. more work needs to be done here in not only obtaining more citations for the content as there is next to none for the amount of content, some reformatting needs to be done so the citations are all listed in the same spot

A few points where information is missing as per your edits. just make sure to remedy this and proof read before submission to add relevent content or remove the text.

Great work so far. More images can't hurt

Group 5

Introduction should be more to do with the content rather than the intention of the page. Introduce the reader to the system and then go into development in the next sections.

Fantastic job on the overview with the table being a highlight of this project

All of the images are very well integrated and presented. good work on the text and also the referencing in abnormalities section.

More references need to be included within text. Low amount thus far. References also need to be reformatted to be listed in one spot. You can always look at other groups page and copy their layout. The abnormalities section on your page has the right idea. Have a chat in group about it.

The main issues with this project are mainly formatting, very well done otherwise

Group 6

Introduction needs to have content in it. Start with a quick orientation to the system that you are presenting with some key points on development and structures.

Tables in Pineal gland section needs some work, adding informationn and keeping them cited.

References need to be collated in one spot. look at other groups content and copy their style and use it to declutter your page.

The images that you are using are good, but more need to be added to areas that are lacking them.

Still a lot of text indicating work that needs to be done. I'm sure you will get around to fixing this, but just make sure to proof read your own content to not miss any. Same work to be done rewording some of the subheading texts. try to avoid rhetorical questions like in the timelines

There are timelines scattered throughout the project page. Moving them all to one section near the top, perhaps under the introduction would help to give an overview of all the content

The section formatting is very good with a nice amount of information. Only thing lacking there is some more in text citations.

Great work so far

Group 7

Nice introduction. Short and to the point

Images are well used but there needs to be more. content is too text heavy so far. even if you recreate some images yourself, it would help the page greatly

Needs more references for the text heavy sections, even if you are reusing the same reference, we need to see where the information came from. References also need to be collated in one spot. look at other groups content and copy their style and use it to declutter your page.

There are sections missing content like spinal cord, meninges and abnormalities. Make sure to go through all your content to not miss these parts by submission.

Some information on the current research rather than just citing the research needs to be done. reduce the reference and add more info.

Good work, some minor formatting and will look great.

Group 8

All Text and no images. Not a good look to go through. some formatting of the text would be a good idea to break up the text in addition to adding images.

The referencing is well done for the content at the top of the page. Whoever is doing the tendon section onward needs to take note of this and add all their references in the same style.

The humour section is unnecessary "information" that i doubt needs to be there. definately consider removing.

The information you have here is good. It will require a lot of work to get it to a point that it is well presented. I understand that it will be difficult with only the two of you in the group. Just keep adding a little bit each day to the sections.

--Mark Hill This is not to bad a peer assessment providing critical feedback. You should apply this to your own work for these assessment items (8/10)

Lab Attendance

  • Lab 1 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:51, 6 August 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 2 --Z3375627 (talk) 11:45, 13 August 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 3 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:09, 20 August 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 4 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:27, 27 August 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 5 --Z3375627 (talk) 13:05, 3 September 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 6 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:48, 10 September 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 7 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:06, 17 September 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 8 --Z3375627 (talk) 11:41, 24 September 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 9 --Z3375627 (talk) 11:17, 8 October 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 10 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:03, 15 October 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 11 --Z3375627 (talk) 12:08, 22 October 2014 (EST)
  • Lab 12 --Z3375627 (talk) 11:10, 29 October 2014 (EST)