From Embryology

Lab Attendance

Full lab attendance logged --Mark Hill 07:32, 18 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 1--Z3333431 11:49, 25 July 2012 (EST)

Nobel prize

Dr Robert G. Edwards was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2010 in the development for the in vitro fertilization.

The studies show that using the natural conception is way better than using the assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Methods of ART include IVF (in vitro fertilization) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) where the sperm does not pass its natural way. With changes to the hormones in the body allowing myosis and mitosis to occur can change or have improper copying of the chromosomes. This measures the congenital abnormalities and comparing it to natural conception. It was found that there was a common trait of each method of ART; such as IVF had higher number of heart disease and DDH with renal reflux. However there was no evidence or substantial proof that the ART and were able to be compared to natural conception.

Mark Hill - Q1 correct, but no origin provided. Q2 reference relates to fertilisation, no pubmed link provided. 8/10

Lab 2 --Z3333431 10:12, 1 August 2012 (EST)

Mark Hill - No Lab 2 assessment provided here. 0/10 Lab 2 Assessment 1. Upload an image from a journal source relating to fertilization or the first 2 weeks of development as demonstrated in the practical class. Including in the image “Summary” window: An image name as a section heading, Any further description of what the image shows, A subsection labeled “Reference” and under this the original image source, appropriate reference and all copyright information and finally a template indicating that this is a student image. Template:Student Image 2. Identify a protein associated with the implantation process, including a brief description of the protein's role (1-2 paragraphs).

Lab 3 --Z3333431 10:07, 8 August 2012 (EST)

Online assessment Lab 3

The difference between gestational age and the post-fertilization age is that gestational stage is the time between the last menstrual cycle to the conception. The post fertilization age is the time since the fertilization to the current time. the gestational age is about 2 weeks greater than the post-fertilization age.

Gestational age is used because of the developmental age and the calender age my be different. Also the date of the last menstrual cycle can easily be determined easily and clearly, where as post-fertilization age it has to be inferred.

The somite differentiation

Somites can differentiate into dermomyotome and sclerotome. Sclerotomes will develop into the vertebrae. This is from the sclerotome wrapping around the notocord, and around the neural tube. Dermomyotome, this will then divide into two subgroups; the dermatome and the myotome. The dermatome will develop into the dermis of the skin, whereas the myotome will from the muscles of the limb buds, then start to form limb muscles

Lab 4 --Z3333431 09:33, 15 August 2012 (EST)

Mark Hill - 10/10

Online assessment Lab 4

Two types of invasive prenatal diagnostic techniques related to the placenta is that of Chroionic Villus Sampling (CVS)and amniocentesis.

  • Chroionic Villus Sampling allows the exclusion of Down Syndrome and cystic fibrosis

  • Amniocentesis also allows the exclusion of Down Syndrome and spina bifida.

Cord stem cells

Lately there has been a great debate on where a good source to get stem cells from. The idea of using the umbilical cord blood stem cell is that it was believed that the cell is most naive, as it lacks a check point. With using umbilical cord stem cells they have found that the most effective, as embryonic stem cells came from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. This had meant that in order to retrieve the cells, you had to destroy the embryo. This had a whole new problems in ethics, religion and political. With this way, the mother nor the child is harmed. These cells are in the stage between becoming a adult stem cell and the embryonic cell.

Using stem cells in repairing a wide range of pathological disorders. They have found that using the cord stem cells was seen to have some regenerative capabilities as it had been seen in a patient to have improved sensory perception. With this in its early stages in neurological pathways, other forms have been shown to have some success such as using it for rheumatoid arthritis.

--Z3333431 23:02, 21 August 2012 (EST)

Lab 5 --Z3333431 10:03, 22 August 2012 (EST)

Mark Hill - Q1 You needed to "describe" the techniques, not just name them. Q2 OK 8/10

Online assessment Lab 5


Lab 6 --Z3333431 09:57, 29 August 2012 (EST)

Online assessment Lab 6

Group work

Lab 7 --Z3333431 10:04, 12 September 2012 (EST)

Online assessment Lab 7

1.(a)Provide a one sentence definition of a muscle satellite cell (b)In one paragraph, briefly discuss two examples of when satellite cells are activated ?

2.In one brief paragraph, describe what happens to skeletal muscle fibre type and size when the innervating motor nerve sustains long term damage such as in spinal cord injury?

1.(a)Muscle satellite cells is are a small population of cells that are in its quiescent state that reside in skeletal muscle that help in repair and growth [1] (b) With damage to the muscle from shorts bursts of activity or physical injury it can produce a response to recruit satellite cells. Cells travel to the site of injury by the cytokines such as myogenic regulatory factors, this is to proliferate and differentiate into the skeletal muscle to replace the damaged fibres. This is also helped by macrophages, as they help recruit further satellite cells. [1]

Mark Hill - Q1 Ok. Q2 In one brief paragraph, describe what happens to skeletal muscle fibre type and size when the innervating motor nerve sustains long term damage such as in spinal cord injury? You have not answered the question here. 5/10

Mark Hill - No peer assessments shown here. 0/10

Lab 9 --Z3333431 10:16, 26 September 2012 (EST)

Mark Hill - No answer shown here. 0/10

Lab 10 --Z3333431 10:37, 3 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 11 --Z3333431 10:19, 10 October 2012 (EST)

Mark Hill - No answer shown here. 0/10

Lab 12 --Z3333431 10:28, 17 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 1 --Z3333431 (talk) 10:19, 7 August 2013 (EST)

  1. <PMID:15627266><pubmed>