From Embryology

The Completer Finisher is a perfectionist and will often go the extra mile to make sure everything is "just right," and the things he or she delivers can be trusted to have been double-checked and then checked again. The Completer Finisher has a strong inward sense of the need for accuracy, and sets his or her own high standards rather than working on the encouragement of others. They may frustrate their teammates by worrying excessively about minor details and by refusing to delegate tasks that they do not trust anyone else to perform.

I had no idea that Oocytes and spermatozoa were not matured at the time of release, for no reason at all i assumed that it was bucket science and the two just needed mixing and "let them do their thing". Which is ridicules now that i think about it.

--Mark Hill (talk) Thank you for your feedback.

Laboratory Work

Lab 1

A summery of two recent research articles on fertility or fertilization.

Article One:Degradation of Paternal Mitochondria by Fertilization-Triggered Autophagy in C.elegans Embryos [1]

Miyuki Sato,Ken Sato

Using C.elegans as a model organism this paper investigates the possible mechanisms in which paternal mitochondria might be removed from the Oocyte after fertilisation. Initially mitochondria from the spermatozoa were track through embriogenisis via marking with MitoTracker red (MT) and Heat Shock Green Fluorescence Protein (HS-GFP). This initial tracking showed paternal mitochondria entering the cell at fertilisation and being randomly inherited by blastomeres through to the 4 cell stage then clearing by the 16 cell stage.

To establish a link between this pattern and autophagy, autophagisomes with GFP marked homologue of a protein in their membrane (LGG-1) were fertilised. These autophagisomes were built up around the pronuclear paternal DNA (C.eleigans spermatazoa have their mitochondria distributed around the head of the gamete and posses no tail) and then dispersed around the cytoplasm as the blastocyst developed. Like the paternal mitochondria the autophagisomes then cleared by the 16 cell stage as well as appearing sparadicaly in places related with regular development.

Further fertilisation with mutant sperm line spe-9, that cannot produce the proteins for normal fertilisation, did not produce the initial induction of autophagy. Whilst insertion of sperm line spe-11, that cannot fertilise but permit embryogenesis but show the same patterning of auto phagisomes around the paternal pronuclei. This suggested that induction of autophagy is based on the entry of paternal proteins. By arresting the Oocyte in metaphase 1 by emb-27(RNAi) it was also shown that the induction happens independent of progress into anaphase 1.

Confirmation of the role of autophagy in the removal of paternal mitochondria was done by the use of mutants with compromised autophagy regulators. Gamete mutants lgg-1(tm3489) that could not produce the autophagicyte membrane could proceed through fertilisation at a reduced capacity however could not progress past the L1 larval stage. In these matings the paternal mitochondria persisted past the 16 cell stage. In contrast if mutant Oocytes were mated with wild type spermatozoa then paternal mitochondria would be present until the Lima Bean stage and then cleared. Spermatozoa that contained the same lgg-1 mutation however had no change to the regular clearing of paternal mitochondria when mated with wildtype oocytes. This suggested that the maternal autophagocytes were the main contributors to paternal mitochondrial clearing. However paternal lgg-1 expression could, at a reduced capacity, compensate for compromised maternal autophagy.

Atricle Two: Developmental potential of zona pellucida–free oocytes obtained following mild in vitro fertilization [2]

Satoshi Ueno et al.

In this research, from a Japanese fertility clinic normal oocyte and zona free (ZF) oocytes where taken from the same patient in the same collection cycle. The ZF oocytes did not have an intrinsic absence but breakages of the zona palucida through which the oocyct was protruding. The oocyte was retrieved from the extrusion. These were then fertilised via intracytoplasmic sperm injection, cultured and followed through cleavage and blastocyst formation.

A comparison of the blastocyst formation from successfully fertilised ZF and normal oocytes showed no statistical difference in viability. The same was found of thoughs ZF derived blasticysts that were carried to full term.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:28, 4 September 2015 (AEST) These are accurate suppers of these 2 papers (5/5)

Lab 2

Introduction to addition of images to website.

Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system present in the uterus at the time of implantation.jpg

Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system present in the uterus at the time of implantation [3]| frontiers in Immunology

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:30, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Image uploaded with correct reference, copyright and student template. Please in future use a briefer image title for example, File:Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system present in the uterus at the time of implantation.jpg, could have been simply File:Cells of the innate and adaptive immune system at implantation.jpg. (5/5)

Lab 3

Brief description of 3 research articles on your subject.

Article 1:

PMID 25629662 Mitocondrial donation--how many women could benefit?[4]

This is a statistical analysis of the prevalence of women of child bearing age that have pathogenic mutation to their mitochondria that could benefit from mitochondrial donation in the UK. And the affects of the mitochondrial mutation on fertility as compared to background natural birth rate. They found no difference in fertility rates and 4% of women at risk of passing on symptomatic mitochondrial disease.

Article 2:

PMID 20393463 Pronuclear tranfer in human embryos to prevent transmition of mitochondrial DNA disease[5]

As the name suggest this paper looks at pronuclear transfer as way to remove donor mitochondria measured by mt-DNA. And it effectiveness in doing so. And the processes that occur in the oocyte when this method is used.

Article 3:

PMID 18674747 Pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations are common in the general population.[6] Another on the prevalence of mitochondrial mutations in the populous. This time via mtDNA sequencing from umbilical samples from live births, looking for ten specific mt-DNA mutations. It found a frequency rate of 0.54% for these mutations. Although they had limited data on the prevalence of these mutations maternally.

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:32, 4 September 2015 (AEST) These are relevant references to your group project. (5/5)

Lab 4

Three question quiz on Placenta Development

Take the Quiz


Which of these is NOT a part of Tertiary Chorionic Villi formation?

Mesenchyme differentiating into blood vessels and cells.
Fusing with placental vessels.
Extra-embryonic mesoderm grows into the villi.
All of the above


Which of these structures make up part of the maternal surface of the placenta?

Amniotic membrane.
Chorionic plate.


What is the name given to the abnormal development of the placenta described by the attachment of the placenta deep into the uterine wall and also penetrating into the uterine muscle but not into the uterine serosa ?

Placenta Increta.
Placenta Accreta
Placenta Percreta
Placenta Previa

--Mark Hill (talk) 10:33, 4 September 2015 (AEST) Only 2 questions. I will come back later. ANAT2341 Student 2015 Quiz Questions

--Mark Hill (talk) 9:45, 6 November 2015 (AEST) These are reasonable questions, except Q1. "Extra-embryonic mesoderm grows into the villi" there is still extra embryonic mesoderm in tertiary vili. (6/10)


Medicine Practicals: Foundations Embryology - BGDA Fertilization to Implantation | Embryo | Fetal | Placenta - BGDB Gastrointestinal | Face and Ear | Sexual Differentiation

General Embryology: Ectoderm Quiz | Mesoderm Quiz | Early Heart Quiz | Placenta Quiz | Respiratory Quiz | Renal Quiz | Genital Quiz

Lab 5

Brief Overview of Hirschsprung's disease

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) also know as congenital aganglionic megacolon or intestinal aganglionosis is a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by a lack of neurons in the intestinal tract (IT). Most commonly affecting regions of the colon and more distal sections of the hindgut although can be prevalent from the stomach to the rectum. This causes the inability of the enteric nervous system (ENS) to control secretions and blood-flow in the affected area as well as maintain peristalsis leading to sustained contraction of the smooth muscle and hence obstruction and distension of the bowel [7]. Clinically this is displayed by the absence of a meconium stool in the first 48 hours after birth and confirmed by radiological examination with a barium enema [8]. Treatment requires removal of the defective region via surgery and has many possible complications [9].t

The ENS is derived from the Neural Crest. Vagal neural crest cells (NCC) contributing to the fore-,mid- and hind-gut[10], Sacral NCC's contributing to the distal hindgut[11]. Malformations of it's development such as HSCR are termed neurocristopathies. In the case of HSCR, most commonly it a restriction in the migration and proliferation of the neural crest cells in early development (weeks 4-7) impeding their colonisation of the gut. The cause of this impediment is varied. Around half of cases can be linked to the GDNF/RET (glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor/receptor tyrosine kinase)gene families that regulate to progression of the NCC cells through the mesoderm [12]. Mutations in any number of these genes can lead to delay or inability of the NCCs in their progress rostro-cordauly.

Another cuase comes from disruption of Endothelin pathways that although also control migration, maintain the enteric NCC progenitors cells in their proliferative state [13]. Mutations in this pathway have shown to stop differentiation of the NCC cells at the distal bowel [14], meaning although fully colonised the ENS cells have reduced excitatory fibres and abnormal neurotransmitter release.

Outside of genetic mutations retinal (vitamin A) deficiency has been link to HSCR [15]. Although vitamin A deficiency has been linked to numerous congenital defects of which HSCR is a small part. The complexity of systems that contribute the enteric nervous system mean that HSCR, although fairly understood as a disease, has many possible causes not yet linked.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:45, 7 November 2015 (AEST) (5)

Lab 6

Complete work on group project.

Lab 7

A brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on Odontogenisis.

Enamel hypomineralisation due to endocrine disruptors.

jedeon K et al.[16].

Endocrine disruptors and their possible health effects have been gaining a lot of traction in the media in the past decade. Most touted of these being the estrogen-like Bisphenol A (BPA) found in many plastic products. This study compared the affects of BPA and two other endocrine disruptors (EDs) genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) on tooth development by use of mouse models and cell culture.

Their results showed that phenotypicaly rats exposed to BPA devolop the greatest degree of hypomineralisation, 75% of rats treated. Compared to lowest reading of 35% for though exposed to GV excluding the control group. Further more in HAT-7 rat ameloblast-like cell culture and analysis with RT-qPCR it was shown that BPA was up-regulating enamelin mRNA levels and down-regulating klk4 mRNA. The reson that mixtures of EDs were not as disruptive as BPA alone was discovered to be link to V which had a down-regulation effect on enamelin mRNA promoters only. It was suggested that there was most likely other target genes that the EDs affect that gave rise to there results.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:50, 7 November 2015 (AEST) You have misunderstood the assessment. You were meant to find a recent paper on endocrine development and describe the embryonic origins of tooth components. There were 2 parts to the assessment. (2/5)

Lab 9

2.Great stuff guys, Good layout, nice flow of topics and comprehensive. Language is easy to follow. Well research and supported. There are couple of parts that need some references WIKI original recommends that if you make a statement of fact or something that can be disputed you should add a reference ie. last statement of epidemiology . But, work in progress, i understand. You could hyperlink some of the more unfamiliar words to the UNSW embryology glossary and other pages to get the wiki "click through" effect. I hate to recommend it because i really like how clean and "wiki" like your page is but we have to add images so perhaps a map of the genes and mutations, show the promoters and such? The symptoms section has some repetition to its structure i think you should condense it all into the table then write a lead in paragraph to the table. Lead in could have a bit about when the symptoms usually come on in life? I would recommend moving diagnosis to above treatment and after pathology to help with flow. This would also semi-separate the page into theory and clinical. For the pathology image if you make a one by one table and put the image into it, it should sit in alignment on the page. Its just my browser but on a smaller screen it cuts out to the left. Not a big deal. try to have the images on a line to them selves or at the end of paragraphs rather then word wrapping the text. Makes it look neater no matter how big you have the window. That's all i can think of. Other wise looks like it going to be one of the best of the class. Very professional.

3.This is really good and basically finished, Images are relevant and informative, then drawn image is especially great. Flow and headings are spot on, nice table. Realy professional. Not a huge amount to say on this one just a bit of housework to do before you publish. Make sure any factual statements you have are refrenced Id move the first image of the FRS so your not leading in with it. Drop the Definition subheading and just make in your introduction section. Makes it more wiki like. For a style guide have a look at the wiki page Taking the underline from under the subheading will make it read nicer, but then I have a person hate of underlines. You could add an epidemiology section to move to world map to and there’s lots information you could put in such a section. Your image under pathogenesis is word wrapped to the left. I would change that to in line or word wrap to the right. Given the detail of the image I would suggest in line. Likewise with your rat specimen image bring it down under the heading. If you put it in its own box you could add some details about what we’re looking at in the image. Topics like Environmental factors could use some more detail. Although I know were all still working on our pages. Make sure to hyperlink unusual words or other topics mentioned to the sites glossary or pages for that lost clicking through wiki effect. Apart from that another top notch page, great detail, really interesting and direct. Fantastic work guys.

4. Great work guys, a lot of information in there. Well referenced and easily readable. Nicely broken up with some informative images. Tables are great and make it easy to find information on a big page. And the first embedded video I’ve seen which is nice. Looks like it all the information is there already just a couple of heading to finish off so well done. Stylistically the only things ill pick on are, The numbered list in treatments, doesn’t fit with the formatting of the rest of the page. Just turn them into subheading or tables like the others. Some of the tables are standalone ie. Male infertility disorder that should really have some intro text to them. Also make sure they have a description underneath each one describing what’s in table. And reference of where the information’s coming from. You could add a section on epidemiology/prevalence of types of infertility. But the intro could be enough if you flesh something out in there. Don’t forget to hyperlink some of the important words to the sites glossary and other pages so people can find extra reading or background. And I think you’ll have a really informative page. Fantastic work guys.

5. Hey guys been working hard I see, Lots of information, well referenced (chemotherapy section pending) and really interesting stuff. The layouts a bit hard to follow, I’d suggest dropping things down a heading level so that, example, infertility was the heading, with page beak. And targeted drugs surgery etc. wear a third level head and just bold. At times the page seems to go off on a tangent such as how chemo is administered. Try to tie it in with what relation it has on onco-fertility or consider leaving it out and just linking to further information on the subject. For the above to points have a look at a wiki page that also deals with a dense subject like the world war 2 page look at what they’ve done to group the information and break out blocks of text. The list of drugs at the end would go much nicer into a table after leading in with the text. I recommend you rotate you tables too so that they read left to right rather than top to bottom ie switch rows and columns and then put the data into bullet list in each table area rather than dashing out the excess space. Most of the images are great and interesting (oocytes and tissues), Some don’t add much to the page (DNA breaks, Lady get intravenous). Have a look through them and think about whether the image provides any extra information, assists understanding of topic or is eye-catching, attention grabbing, if it doesn’t do one of the three grab another image. Consider adding some hyperlinks to the sites glossary and other pages of site key words. It’s all there and the information’s really good. If you work out the formatting so the text is easily digestible you’ll have a great page.

6. Fantastic job guys, this ones hard to pick on. Layout is great, flows, logical topics, easy to read, nicely broken up with informative or interesting images. Just smashing. References appear to all be solid. So what can I suggest? You could try making up a table for the advantages and diss advantages so it’s easy to compare each tech. The PCR Cycle copies table is just a list of exponential growth and can go. Hyperlink some of your key words to the glossary or other pages so people can get background or further reading on topics involved. Change the heading to spell out Assisted Repro… etc. so that its stated before you abbreviate. Collect up the info to make your intro and so far you have the best project of the group. Pretty flawless guys.

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:45, 7 November 2015 (AEST) You need to begin by being less personal with your assessments. I feel that some of your critical feedback is useful while some is too specific in terms of just minor corrections. In all a reasonable state to understanding how peer assessment works. (15/20)

Lab 10

Hyaloid Vascular System

Link to permalink image: | Hyaloid Vascular System

The hyaloid vascular system (HVS) is a network of blood vessels, supplied by the hyaloid artery and extending from the optic disk to the superior part of the retina. These nourish the eye during development . This structure is transient disappearing before birth, but is commonly present in premature infants[17]. Persistence post nataly leads to severe blindness. It is a common target of studies into the signaling pathways of vascuralisation and regression.

Embryology link Vision - Retina Development #Week 8

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:55, 7 November 2015 (AEST) This assessment has been well achieved including the selected reference. (5/5)

Lab 11

Still no sign of the CATI form, so here's my pledge to do it when it comes out. And here it is, almost forgot Proof of eval of ANAT2341.jpg

--Mark Hill (talk) 11:57, 7 November 2015 (AEST) Thank you, though you were supposed to just send me an email with the screenshot. (5)

--Mark Hill (talk) 12:01, 7 November 2015 (AEST) Stem Cell Project (17/20)

Lab Attendance

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:45, 7 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:31, 14 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:43, 21 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:36, 28 August 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:20, 4 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 12:08, 18 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 14:00, 25 September 2015 (AEST)

--Z3292373 (talk) 12:55, 9 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3292373 (talk) 13:45, 16 October 2015 (AEDT)

--Z3292373 (talk) 12:21, 23 October 2015 (AEDT)


Test student 2015

Uploading Images in 5 Easy Steps  
First Read the help page Images and Copyright Tutorial.
Hint - This exercise is best done by using separate tabs on your browser so that you can keep all the relevant pages easily available. You can also use your own discussion page to copy and paste links, text. PMIDs etc that you will need in this process.
  1. Find an image .
    1. Search PubMed using an appropriate search term. Note that there is a special library of complete (full online) article and review texts called PubMed Central (PMC). Be very careful, while some of these PMC papers allow reuse, not all do and to add the reference link to your image you will still need to use the PMID.
    2. You can also make your own search term. In this link example PMC is searched for images related to "embryo+implantation" simply replace "embryo+implantation" with your own search term, but remember not everything in PMC can be reused, you will still need to find the "copyright notice" on the full paper, no notice, no reuse.
    3. Where else can I look? BioMed Central is a separate online database of journals that allow reuse of article content. Also look at the local page Journals that provides additional resources.
    4. You have found an image, go to step 2.
  2. Check the Copyright. I cannot emphasise enough the importance of this second step.
    1. The rule is unless there is an obvious copyright statement that clearly allows reuse (there are several different kinds of copyright, some do not) located in the article or on the article page, move on and find another resource. Not complying with this is a serious academic infringement equivalent to plagiarism."Plagiarism at UNSW is defined as using the words or ideas of others and passing them off as your own." (extract from UNSW statement on Academic Honesty and Plagiarism)
    2. You have found the statement and it allows reuse, go to step 3.
  3. Downloading your image.
    1. Download the image to your own computer. Either use the download image on the page or right click the image.
    2. To find the downloaded image you may have to look in your computer downloads folder, or the default location for downloaded files.
    3. The image file will have its own original name, that you will not be using on the wiki. You can rename it now (see renaming below), but you should also make a note of the original name.
    4. Make sure you have everything ready then for the
    5. You have the image file on your computer, go to step 4.
  4. Uploading your image.
    1. First make sure you have all the information you want to use with the file readily available. There is also a detailed description below.
    2. Towards the bottom of the lefthand menuunder “Toolbox” click Upload file. This will open a new window.
    3. In the top window "Source file", click "Choose file" and then navigate to find the file on the computer. and select the image.
    4. If you have done this correctly the upload window will now have your image file shown in choose file and also in the lower window "File description" in "Destination filename:" DO NOT CLICK UPLOAD FILE YET.
    5. Rename your file in "Destination filename:" this should be a brief filename that describes the image. Not any of the following - the original file name, image, file, my image, your ZID, etc. Many of the common embryology names may have already been used, but you can add a number (01, 02, 03, etc) or the PMID number to the filename to make it unique.
    6. If the filename or image has already been used or exists it will be shown on the upload page. If another student has already uploaded that image you will have to find another file. Duplicated images will not receive a mark, so check before you upload as you cannot delete images.
    7. In the "Summary" window for now just paste the PMID. You will come back and edit this information.
    8. Now click "Upload image" at the bottom of the window, go to step 4.
  5. Edit and Add to your page.
    1. Edit - Open the image with the "Edit" tab at the top of its page. You should see the PMID you had pasted earlier in the new edit window. Add the following information to the summary box.
      1. Image Title as a sub-heading. Under this title add the original figure legend or your own description of the image.
      2. Image Reference sub-sub-heading. Use the PMID link method shown in Lab 1 and you can also have a direct link to the original Journal article.
      3. Image Copyright sub-sub-heading. Add the copyright information under this sub-sub-heading exactly as shown in the original paper.
      4. Student Image template, as shown here {{Template:Student Image}} to show that it is a student uploaded image.
    2. Add - Now add your image to your own page under a subheading for Lab 2 Assessment including a description and a reference link. If still stuck with this last step, look at the example on the Test Student page.
    3. Done!

Students cannot delete images once uploaded. You will need to email me with the full image name and request deletion, that I am happy to do with no penalty if done before I assess.

Non-Table version of this page

Stress Relief....


Please do not use your real name on this website, use only your student number.

2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page

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  1. <pubmed>21998252</pubmed>
  2. <pubmed>25256934</pubmed>
  3. <pubmed>26136750</pubmed>
  4. <pubmed> 25629662 </pubmed>
  5. <pubmed> 20393463 </pubmed>
  6. <pubmed> 18674747 </pubmed>
  7. <pubmed>17514199</pubmed>
  8. <pubmed>6691093</pubmed>
  9. <pubmed>9722005</pubmed>
  10. <pubmed>8565847</pubmed>
  11. <pubmed>9753687</pubmed>
  12. <pubmed>12399307</pubmed>
  13. <pubmed>16624853</pubmed>
  14. <pubmed>16339294</pubmed>
  15. <pubmed>12702665</pubmed>
  16. <pubmed>25158179</pubmed>
  17. <pubmed> 23772130 </pubmed>