From Embryology

Lab 4 Online Assessment

  1. The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure?
  2. Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation.
  3. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

Lab Assessment 1

1. Identify the origin of In Vitro Fertilization and the 2010 nobel prize winner associated with this technique.

- Origin: The research for IVF dates back from the US from the 1930's where experiments were carried out in rabbits. Human IVF was first attempted in the 1940's by John Rock where he used 138 human oocytes and was the first to extract an intact fertilised egg. The first attempt at a human IVF pregnancy was attempted in 1973 by a team from Monash University which only lasted a few days, being unsuccessful. However soon after in 1977, the first successful pregnancy was achieved by Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards, resulting in the birth of Louise Brown on 25 July 1978.

- 2010 Nobel Prize winner for the development of IVF: Dr. Robert G. Edwards

2. Identify a recent paper on fertilisation and describe its key findings.

"Pregnancy after Age 50: Defining Risks for Mother and Child." Kort DH, Gosselin J, Choi JM, Thornton MH, Cleary-Goldman J, Sauer MV. Source Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Key Findings: This paper found that by using donor-egg in vitro fertilisation, women in their 50's were able to achieve a successful pregnancy. This involved high risks regarding maternal complications such as cesarean and hypertensive disorders in the 50 year old women, however this level of risk was found to be at a similar rate to the younger recipients.

3. Identify 2 congenital anomalies.

Cleft Palate

Spina Bifida

--Mark Hill 09:53, 3 August 2011 (EST) You need to have answers to these 3 questions before Lab 2.

Lab Assessment 2

1. Identify the ZP protein that spermatozoa binds and how is this changed (altered) after fertilisation.

During fertilization, the ZP protein in which spermatozoa specifically binds to is the ZP3 glycoprotein. After fertilization, a ‘zona reaction’ occurs which is the process where the properties of the ZP is changed, making it impermeable to other sperms. This happens near the plasma membrane of the oocyte where the cortical granules release lysosomal enzymes into the perivitelline space which causes changes to the plasma membrane, making it impermeable to other sperms.

2. Identify a review and a research article related to your group topic. (Paste on both group discussion page with signature and on your own page)

Group 4 Topic: Neural Tube Defect

Research Article:

Conway S.J., Gosnell M., Rogers R., Simmons O., Snider P., Young R. (2011), Notochordal and foregut abnormalities correlate with elevated neural crest apoptosis in Patch embryos. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20802. Epub 2011 May 6.

Review Article:

Abdel-Hamed Z., Johnson C.A., Logan C.V. (2011), Molecular genetics and pathogenic mechanisms for the severe ciliopathies: insights into neurodevelopment and pathogenesis of neural tube defects. Molecular Neurobiology

Lab Assessment 3

What is the maternal dietary requirement for late neural development?

Upload a picture relating to your group project. Add to both the Group discussion and your online assessment page. Image must be renamed appropriately, citation on "Summary" window with link to original paper and copyright information. As outlined in the Practical class tutorial.

Choline is required in the maternal diet for late neural development. It is important particularly in the mother's diet as it enhances memory functions in the developing fetus brain. This is because choline helps to control all normal cell functioning, thus helping the hippocampus, the memory centre of the brain to develop normally.

White blood cell populations from Huntington's Disease patients

White blood HD.gif

Lab Assessment 4

The allantois, identified in the placental cord, is continuous with what anatomical structure? Identify the 3 vascular shunts, and their location, in the embryonic circulation. Identify the Group project sub-section that you will be researching. (Add to project page and your individual assessment page)

The allantois is continuous with the developing bladder from the placental cord.

Three vascular shunts and its location in the embryonic circulation:

1. Ductus arteriosus: between the aortic arch and pulmonary artery

2. Ductus venosus: between inferior vena cava and umbilical vein

3. Foramen ovale: between right atrium and left atrium

Group Project sub-section: Introduction + Clinical Manifestations.

Lab Assessment 5

Which side (L/R) is most common for diaphragmatic hernia and why?

The left side is more common for diaphragmatic hernia. This occurs if the pleuroperitoneal folds in the infant which separates the lung from the gut fails to close properly. Another reason for it being more common on the left side could be because of the earlier closing up of the right pleuroperitoneal opening.

Lab Assessment 6

1. What week of development do the palatal shelves fuse?

Week 9

2. What early animal model helped elucidate the neural crest origin and migration of neural crest cells?

Quail-Chick Chimera

3. What abnormality results from neural crest not migrating into the cardiac outflow tract?

Tetralogy of Fallot.

Lab Assessment 7

Are satellite cells

(a) necessary for muscle hypertrophy


(b) generally involved in hypertrophy?


Why does chronic low frequency stimulation cause a fast to slow fibre type shift?

A chronic low frequency stimulation causes a fast fibre to transform completely into a slow fibre.

Lab Assessment 10

1. Besides fetal alcohol syndrome, identify another environmental teratogen that can lead to hearing loss.

Infection with Rubella (also knowns as German Measles), causes deafness.

2. Identify 3 factors that contribute to poor neonatal drainage of the middle ear.

  • Neonatal auditory tube is more horizontal
  • Neonate only has one muscle (tensor palatini) whereas the adult has 2
  • Passageway in the neonate is narrower than adults

3. Identify 1 genetic abnormality that affects hearing development and link to the OMIM record. (Your individual abnormality should be different from all other students)

Deafness, Autosomal dominant 1; DFNA1

Lab Assessment 11

1.Name the components that give rise to the interatrial septum and the passages that connect the right and left atria.

Interatrial septa made of : Septum secundum and septum primum

Passage connecting right and left atria: foramen ovale and foramen secundum

2.Identify the cardiac defects that arise through abnormal development of the outflow tract.

  • Atrial septic defect
  • Tetralogy of Fallot
  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Transposition of the Great Vessels
  • Hypoplastic Right heart disease
  • Left or Right Ventricular Outflow tract obstruction
  • Interrupted aortic
  • Double Outlet Right Ventricle
  • Tricuspid Atresia


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