From Embryology

Lab Attendance

--Z3254758 10:04, 25 July 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:35, 1 August 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:09, 8 August 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:04, 15 August 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:15, 22 August 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:05, 29 August 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 11:08, 12 September 2012 (EST) arrived at 10:10am

--Z3254758 10:02, 19 September 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:07, 26 September 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:11, 3 October 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:04, 10 October 2012 (EST)

--Z3254758 10:09, 17 October 2012 (EST)

Full lab attendance logged --Mark Hill 07:30, 18 October 2012 (EST)

Lab 1


This article reviews some important features of capacitation as well as presenting their findings regarding the role of PLD-dependent actin polymerization in sperm motility during capacitation. They demonstrated the importance of PLD-dependent actin polymerization for developing hyper-activated motility.

--Mark Hill 10 September 2012 (EST) Good answers second question, where is the nobel prize for IVF answer? 5/10.

Lab 2

Task 1
Paternal chromatin mouse embryos.jpg
Task 2
Rac1 and RhoA are Rho GTPases that regulate the invasion of the human embryo through the endometrial stroma. Inhibition of Rac1 expression prevents embryo invasion of the stroma, whereas inhibition of RhoA promotes it. Rac1 also plays a role in human endometrial stromal cell migration.


--Mark Hill 1. Image uploaded with all required information including copyright and student image template. 2. Paper identifies a protein associated with the implantation process, including a brief description of the protein's role. 10/10

Lab 3

1. Gestational age refers to the time period between the first day of the mothers last period and birth. Fertilisation age is the time between conception and birth. [1].

--Mark Hill

  • You have identIfied the difference between "gestational age" and "post-fertilisation age" and explain why clinically "gestational age" is used in describing human development. You should have also said that this was approx. 2 weeks, and that GA was used because it is more easily determined.
  • Where is the answer to the second question? Identify using histological descriptions at least 3 different types of tissues formed from somites.


Lab 4


Amniocentesis- involves using a needle to take a sample of amnitoic fluid. It can be used to detect down syndrome and turner syndrome among other abnormalities.

Chorionic villus sampling- a needle is used to take a sample of chorionic villus (placental tissue). It is helpful in detecting down syndrome and cystic fibrosis.



This paper demonstrates the successful use of intrathecally injected mesenchymal cells derived from human umbilical cord blood to partially recanalise a dissected basilar artery. The patient was a 17 year old Korean man with infarction of the bilateral pons, midbrain and right superior cerebellum as a result of the basilar artery dissection.

The paper identifies that human umbilical cord blood contains hematopoietic stem cells, as well as mesenchymal stem cells which express neural makers Tuj1, TrkA, glial fibrillary acidic protein and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases.

As a result of his condition the patient became quadriplegic, was unable to speak, and was unable to move his eyes, as well as a number of other symptoms. His clinical symptoms were visibly improved 5 days after the initial treatment with the mesenchymal cells. After the 27th day of treatment he regained his gag reflex, was able to swallow, had pupil dilation and was able to move his eyes, his soft palate stopped sagging, and the rigidity of his muscle tone reduced enough to allow him to sit in a wheelchair.

--Mark Hill Both questions answered correctly. I would have liked some more detail in question 1. 10/10

Lab 7

1.Provide a one sentence definition of a muscle satellite cell (b) In one paragraph, briefly discuss two examples of when satellite cells are activated ?

Satelite cells are stem cells that are located under the basal laminar of each muscle. When muscle is damaged satelite cells infiltrate the muscle and repair or replace it. They are normally quiescent.

2.In one brief paragraph, describe what happens to skeletal muscle fibre type and size when the innervating motor nerve sustains long term damage such as in spinal cord injury?

--Mark Hill - You have only answered part of the first question and nothing for the second question. 3/10

Lab 8- Peer Review

Group 2- Somatosensory

-Great introduction. Really puts the project in context and justifies the importance of your research. Citations need to be formatted like the rest of the page

-History of discoveries-very poor syntax, word repetition and no paragraphs. What is Weber's full name? This is entitled "history of discoveries" when it is actually just a very brief, nonspecific summary of "Weber". What about the other interesting discoveries from various scientists over decades?

-Adult Central Somatosensory systems- ascending in what? Position? Importance? Activity? Sensitivity? This needs a more informative opening sentence.

-Trigeminal system and Development of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex- are well explained and ideas are presented in a logical, flowing manner. Great picture with a good description and referencing (impressed you drew it).

-"making connections between...." what do the stages mean? Why does it start at stage 23 instead of stage 1?

-touch/touch receptors is good but where are the references?

-pain and pressure sections also good but needs paragraphs and the formatting of citations is incorrect

-bullet points in pressure section need a brief sentence introducing their purpose. Papers listed at bottom of section should be correctly cited instead of having hyperlinks

-interesting info in temperature

-current research- maybe you could put the name of the paper and authors and explain how they conducted their study? That would help with understanding the nice picture

-Glossary is incomplete

-Needs more pictures

-minor grammatical and spelling errors throughout but overall very good and well sequenced.

Group 3- Taste

Overall this is an excellent project. Well written, great informative photos, good use of tables, and comprehensive information that's well explained.

A few of the photos don't have the appropriate copyright information and some sections of text haven't been referenced, but in general this ticks all of the boxes

Group 4- olfaction

-numerous typos and syntax errors throughout. My favourite is "naval cavity"

-generally well explained and I like how you've used different formats for each section to keep it interesting

-this seems a bit random-


-I think the anatomy section should come before the developmental timeline just to put the developmental stages in context

-abnormal function is very comprehensive :)

-current research is great, it appears some quality research went into this

-excellent use of resources throughout, including your external links. I think you've covered everything well

Group 5- abnormal vision

-content of introduction is good and immediately puts the page in context. Emphasises abnormal development. Perhaps reconsider the syntax of some of the sentences

-paragraphing throughout project needs review

-a picture near the beginning would make the page more engaging. Seeing you can't talk too much about normal eye development, it might help in conveying some information

-you frequently make use of the carnergie stages, which is great, but perhaps briefly describe what this system means

-it's good that you have contrasted normal and abnormal development for each structure, but make sure the information isn't repeated in the "normal development" section, or perhaps remove that section altogether

- info about what the different genes control is good. What does "the first embryonic days 8.5" mean?

-I assume the two separate sections in "ocular manifestations" are genetic and environmental, but because they're not stated in the intro of this section and there's so much information in-between, it's difficult to tell. The formatting of this section adds to the confusion. Keeping the information and formatting consistent for each abnormality will make this easier to follow. The appropriate heading, sub-heading etc formatting needs to be used as well

-I like your case study, it reminds us of how these problems effect real people

-no current research or external links section?

-excellent use of resources

Group 6-Hearing

-you had me at puppy

-good intro (a few typos) and history (I like your table)

-the start of adult anatomy and histology should have an opening sentence instead of just listing information. There is no histology?

-I'm guessing the heading for development is meant to be bigger instead of it appearing to be part of "adult anatomy and histology"? This section is very comprehensive!

-your "neural domain" drawing is a good way of explaining this concept

-the summary box is a great idea, but perhaps it should be entitled "Summary of inner ear development"

-I don't understand why this is present- "NOTE: DEFINITIONS OF SYNDROMIC AND NON SYNDROMIC HEARING LOSS". You have explained what non-syndromic hearing loss is in the 1 Mutation of GJB2 gene section, but as your note says, it might be good to have a brief section with these definitions

-your genetic and structural disease tables are nice but I feel that the formatting should be the same for all of the diseases, or you should explain why you've chosen to emphasise these abnormalities

-the PDF in the Toxoplasmosis section seems to have some good info, but should be formatted like the other references

-the references in the rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, drugs and technologies to detect sections need to be formatted properly. Some info in drugs section isn't referenced at all

-technologies to detect is not a very informative heading, you need to specify what you're detecting. The syntax in this section and "technologies to overcome the problems" is poor (including the headings)

-in text hyperlinks in current research section are good for making page more interactive

-you appear to have used a lot of great resources

Mark Hill - You have made some useful comments on the other group projects and fulfilled the assessment criteria. 10/10

Lab 9 Assessment

1. Identify and write a brief description of the findings of a recent research paper on development of one of the endocrine organs covered in today's practical.


The pituitary gland is derived from folds in the oral ectoderm and neural ectoderm. The homeodomain transcription factor, Vax1, is known to play a role in eye and optic chiasm development. This study showed that the absence of Vax1 causes an ectopic fold to form in the rostral oral ectoderm, eventually producing a second separate pituitary gland. This second gland has the same cell types and neuronal fibres as a normal pituitary gland.

The authors used Vax1 knockout mouse embryos in their experiment. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were utilised to obtain their results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and reporter assays were used to process ventral forebrain tissue from the embryos.

2. Identify the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth.

Ectoderm of the first pharyngeal arch and the ectomesenchyme from the neural crest.

You have answered both questions. For question 1, Ventral anterior homeodomain transcription factor (VAX1) is also expressed initially rostral neural plate, in the medial anterior neural ridge and adjacent ectoderm. It appears to have an interesting role. For question 2, you have identified the embryonic layers and tissues that contribute to the developing teeth I would have liked some more detail in your answer. 10/10

Mark Hill - No answer for Lab 11 Assessment Question? Identify a recent research article (using the pubmed tags to cite) on iPS cells and summarise in a few paragraphs the main findings of the paper. 0/10


  1. <pubmed>15520122</pubmed>