|Cardiovascular System Development See also Heart terms, Immune terms and Blood terms.
- basophil - (basophil granulocyte) rare blood cell have 2 or 3 lobed nucleus and the nucleus may appear S-shaped. Cytoplasmic granules are stained deeply bluish or reddish-violetand fewer than those in eosinophils. Cells release vasoactive substances heparin and histamine that dilate blood vessels.
- blood islands - earliest sites of blood vessel and blood cell formation, seen mainly on yolk sac chorion.
- erythrocyte - (red blood cell) most abundant blood cell with no nucleus and cytoplasm contains haemoglobin.Cells are about 7 µm in diameter, "donut-shaped" and function to transport of oxygen.
- eosinophil (eosinophil granulocyte) blood cell nucleus has two lobes and cytoplasm filled with granules that stain red or pink when eosin. Cells involved with phagocytosis of antibody-antigen complexes, granules also contain histaminase and arylsufatase to degrade histamine and leukotrienes.
- extraembryonic mesoderm - mesoderm lying outside the trilaminar embryonic disc covering the yolk sac, lining the chorionic sac and forming the connecting stalk. Contributes to placental villi development.
- haemocytoblasts - stem cells for embryonic blood cell formation.
- growth factor - usually a protein or peptide that will bind a cell membrane receptor and then activates an intracellular signaling pathway. The function of the pathway will be to alter the cell directly or indirectly by changing gene expression. (eg VEGF, shh)
- leukocytes - subdivided into granular leukocytes (neutrophils, basophils and eosiniphils) and non-granular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes).
- mesoderm - the middle layer of the 3 germ cell layers of the embryo. Mesoderm outside the embryo and covering the amnion, yolk and chorion sacs is extraembryonic mesoderm.
- monocyte - blood cell nucleus is C-shaped and cytoplasm slightly larger and stronger staining than granulocytes. Monocytes contain fine granules (lysosomes) and when leave the circulation and locate in tissues, differentiate into macrophages.
- neutrophil (neutrophil granulocytes) - most common granulocyte blood cell nucleus divided into 3-5 lobes connected by thin strands of chromatin. Cytoplasm contains two types of granules: primary granules (A granules, lysosomal enzymes) and Secondary granules (B granules, bactericidal enzymes).
- pericytes - (Rouget cells) cells located at the abluminal surface of microvessels close to endothelial cells, mainly found associated with CNS vessels and involved in vessel formation, remodeling and stabilization.
- platelets fragments of the cytoplasm from the bone marrow megakaryocyte (thrombocyte precursor cell).
- vascular endothelial growth factor - (VEGF) A secreted protein growth factor family, which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth. VEGF's have several roles in embryonic development. The VEGF family has 7 members (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-E, VEGF-F, and PlGF) that have a common VEGF homology domain. PIGF is the placental growth factor. They act through 3 VEGF tyrosine kinase membrane receptors (VEGFR-1 to 3) with seven immunoglobulin-like domains in the extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase sequence.