Lab Assessment 1
Research article 1
IVF children have been noticed to have cardiovascular problems and remodeling. However not much is known of how IVF treatment could cause these cardiovascular problems and this is the main concern of this article. The scientists’ previous studies have led them to discover that ART like IVF may cause differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the IVF placenta.
The umbilical veins and cord blood from 45 IVD and 48 naturally conceived (CV) newborns was collected and tissue samples were collected and then put to undergo in vitro fertilization under various conditions. E_2 cord blood levels was also examined. Using a randomizing program, 3 IVF and 3 NC umbilical veins were selected for proteomic analysis by the iTRAQ, a proteomic analysis technology. First the 6 umbilical vein sample proteins were extracted, separated with chromatography and identified using different methods like a mass spectrometer and the MASCOT search engine (Gao et al, 2014).
Also the E_2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cord blood was measured. For further validation of proteomic results PCR and Western blotting analysis was conducted on 11 and 4 umbilical veins respectively (Gao et al, 2014).
Results showed 47 DEPs (20 up-regulated; 27 down-regulated) were found in IVF newborns in comparison to NC newborns. Q-PCR and Western blotting done showed validated results as proteins lumican, nestin and PTGDS were up-regulated and vimentin was down regulated as observed with proteomic results. The bioinformatics analysis conducted showed that umbilical vein DEPs had a connection with development of many systems including cardiovascular system development and carbon metabolism (Gao et al, 2014). This study indicates there is different in expression of proteins in IVF-newborns compared to NC newborns and that DEPs might correlate with IVF-related cardiovascular issues (Gao et al, 2014).
Research article 2
This experiment aims to investigates, in rams, the effects of fish oil on level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), spermatozoa death incidence and in vitro fertilization (IVF) (Behzad, 2014).
9 Rams were randomly selected and split into control (5) and fish oil (4) groups. A diet was administered of essentially 0% fish oil to the control groups and 2.5% to the fish oil group and other things such as equal amounts of vitamin E. After 21 days semen from both groups was collated via an artificial vagina. Semen continued to be collected weekly following this. This continued on for 70 days during breeding season. (Behzad, 2014). Every week after the initial 21 days ROS level and spermatozoa death incidence was measured via flow cytometry. However during only the first (day 21) and last (day 70) weeks of sperm collection sperm was analyzed using a sperm analyzer program called CASA and swimming up technique was used to prepare sperm for IVF. (Behzad, 2014).
The results showed a greater volume, concentration and sperm motility in fish oil groups. They found higher fertilization rates in fish oil groups; 56% compared to 49%. In third week of samples O_2 and spermatozoa death incidence was lower in fish oil groups (Behzad, 2014).
Therefore this articulate argues that dietary omega-3 which is found in fish oil could be used to increase fertilization rates in vitro fertilization.