Talk:SH Practical - Respiratory
A Semiautomatic Segmentation Algorithm for Extracting the Complete Structure of Acini from Synchrotron Micro-CT Images
Comput Math Methods Med. 2013;2013:575086. doi: 10.1155/2013/575086. Epub 2013 Feb 28. Xiao L, Sera T, Koshiyama K, Wada S.
Source Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
Abstract Pulmonary acinus is the largest airway unit provided with alveoli where blood/gas exchange takes place. Understanding the complete structure of acinus is necessary to measure the pathway of gas exchange and to simulate various mechanical phenomena in the lungs. The usual manual segmentation of a complete acinus structure from their experimentally obtained images is difficult and extremely time-consuming, which hampers the statistical analysis. In this study, we develop a semiautomatic segmentation algorithm for extracting the complete structure of acinus from synchrotron micro-CT images of the closed chest of mouse lungs. The algorithm uses a combination of conventional binary image processing techniques based on the multiscale and hierarchical nature of lung structures. Specifically, larger structures are removed, while smaller structures are isolated from the image by repeatedly applying erosion and dilation operators in order, adjusting the parameter referencing to previously obtained morphometric data. A cluster of isolated acini belonging to the same terminal bronchiole is obtained without floating voxels. The extracted acinar models above 98% agree well with those extracted manually. The run time is drastically shortened compared with manual methods. These findings suggest that our method may be useful for taking samples used in the statistical analysis of acinus.
Treatment of COPD: a matrix perspective
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2008;3(1):113-22.
Dunsmore SE. Source Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. email@example.com
Abstract Fundamental physical properties, such as the intrinsic recoil of the lung, are governed by the extracellular matrix. The prototypical roles of the matrix proteins, collagen and elastin, in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema have long been recognized, and much research effort has been devoted to understanding mechanisms of extracellular matrix synthesis and turnover in the lung. Yet, despite extensive knowledge of the biochemical properties of collagen and elastin, none of the present clinical strategies for treating COPD directly target the extracellular matrix. From a matrix perspective, therapeutic interventions that limit elastic fiber destruction and/or restore function to damaged alveolar units merit particular consideration as clinical strategies for treating the emphysema component of COPD. Effective treatment of the bronchiolar component of COPD requires a better understanding of the relationship between airway fibrosis and airflow obstruction. Translating basic knowledge of extracellular matrix biology into the clinical venue will be essential in the development of new approaches to COPD treatment.
Morphometry of the human pulmonary acinus
Anat Rec. 1988 Apr;220(4):401-14.
Haefeli-Bleuer B, Weibel ER. Source Department of Anatomy, University of Berne, Switzerland.
The geometry and morphometry of intraacinar airways in human lungs were studied on silicone rubber casts from two adult lungs. We defined acini as the complex of alveolated airways distal to the terminal bronchioles--that is, beginning with the first-order respiratory or transitional bronchiole. The morphological properties of pulmonary acini are described. The acinar volume averages 187 mm3 (SD +/- 79 mm3). Intraacinar airways branch dichotomously over about 9 generations (range 6-12). The internal airway diameter falls from 500 micron to 270 micron between acinar generations 0 and 10, whereas the outer diameter (including the sleeve of alveoli) remains constant at 700 micron. Towards the periphery the size of alveoli increases and clusters of alveoli become more numerous. The longitudinal path length of acinar airways (defined as the distance along the ducts from the transitional bronchiole to the alveolar sacs) averages 8.8 mm (+/- 1.4 mm). The morphometric data collected in this study are used to construct an idealized model of human acinar airways that can be related to existing models of the human bronchial tree.