Talk:Paper - Studies of the development of the human skeleton

From Embryology

Embryo XLV, length 228 mm 45

Embryo XXII, length 20 mm 22

Embryo XLV, length 28 mm. 45

Embryo LXXXIV, length 50 mm., figs. 27 and 28). Template:CE84


Description of Plates

Plates I-V. Figs. 1-12. A series of figures drawn from models made by the Born wax-plate method. Fig. 13_ from an embryo cleared by the Schultze alkaline, glycerine method.

Plate I

Fig. 1.

Skeleton of Embryo II, 2 length 7 mm. About 20 diam.

In part

the reconstruction was made free-hand from drawings.

Plate II

Fig. 2. Right half of the distal portion of the skeleton of Embryo CLXIII, 163 length 9 mm. 25 diam. fiGS. 3 and 4. mm. 25 diam.

Right half of the distal portion of Embryo CIX, 109 length 11 (4) lateral, (5) median, view. The prochondrium of the pubis, ilium, ischium, femur, tibia and fibula are represented by stippling.

Plate III

Fres 5 and 6. Distal portion of the right half-skeleton of Embryo CXLIV, 144 length 14 mm. 25 diam. The prochondrium of the neural arches, the vertebral bodies, the ilium, ischium, femur, tibia, fibula and of the bones of the foot is represented by stippling. The last are but slightly differentiated at this period.

Plate IV

fiGS. 7 and 8. Dorsal and plantar views of the cartilages of the left leg and foot of Embryo XVII, 17 length 18 mm. 20 diam.

fiGS. 9 and 10. Lateral and median views of the distal portion of the right half of the cartilagenous skeleton of Embryo XXII, 22 length 20 mm. 20 diam.

Plate V

fiGS. 11 and 12. Median and lateral views of the distal portion of the right half of the cartilagenous skeleton of Embryo CXLV, 145 length 33 mm. 10 diam. The centres of ossification of the femur, tibia and fibula are shown.

Fig. 13. Lateral view of the left leg of an embryo 5 cm. long. 5 diam. For the sake of facilitating comparison, a mirror picture has been drawn and a technique has been used similar to that employed for illustrating the models. The centers of ossification of the ilium, femur, tibia, fibula, the three middle metatarsals and the terminal digits are shown. The position of the various structures has probably been somewhat distorted during the preparation of the specimen.

Plates VI and VII

Fres. 14-28. Transverse sections through the twelfth thoracic and first two lumbar vertebrae of a series of embryos. 1.»; diameters. figs. 14-16, Embryo CLXXV, 175 length 13 mm.,- figs. 17-19, Embryo CCXVI, Template:CE216length 17 mm.; figs. 20-22 Embryo XXII, 22 length 20 mm.; figs. 23-25, Embryo XLV, 45length 28 mm.,- figs. 26-28, Embryo LXXXIV, Template:CE84 length 50 mm.

Plate VIII

fiGS. 29-36. Transverse sections somewhat oblique through several vertebraeof various embryos. 1!; diam. Fig. 29, 4th sacral vertebra of Embryo CIX, 109 length 11 mm, figs. 30-32, 1st, 2d, and 3d sacral vertebrae of Embryo X, 10 length 20 mm.; figs. 33 and 34, 1st and 2d sacral vertebrae of Embryo CCXXVI, length 535 mm,.; Fig. 35, 2d sacral vertebra of E.mbryo- XLV, length 28 mm., Fig. 36, 2d sacral vertebra of Embryo LXXXIV, length 50 mm.

Plate IX

fiGS. 37-40. Obliquely cut frontal sections through the sacral region of several embryos. 1!, diam. Fig. 37, Embryo CLXXV, length 13 m/m.,° Fig. 38, Embryo CCXVI, length 17’ mm.,' Fig. 39, Embryo CLXXXVIII, length 1'?’ mm.,° Fig. 40, Embryo LXXXVI, length 30 mm.

Plate X

Fxos. 41-43. Sections through the coccygeal region of several embryos. 141 diam. Fig. 41, frontal section of Embryo CLXXV, length 13 mm.; Fig. 42, sagittal section of Embryo CXLV, length 33 mm.j° Fig. 43, frontal section of Embryo LXXXIV, length 50 mm.


Fig. 44. Diagram to show the curvature of the spinal column, the proportional lengths of the various regions, the relation of the acetabula to the sacral region and the direction of the long axis of the femur in a series of embryos 7 to 50 mm. in length, and in an adult. Each curved line represents the chorda dorsalis of an individual. The cervical, lumbar and coccygeal regions of this are represented. by the heavy,. the thoracic and sacral by the light portions of the line. The approximate position where a line joining the centers of the two acetabula would cut the median plane is represented at “ a.” For Embryo II, in which the skeleton of the leg is not yet differentiated the position of the future acetabula. is deduced from Embryo CLXIII, 163 length 9 mm. (See Fig. 2.)

The line passing in each instance from “.‘a” and terminating in an arrow point represents the long axis of the femur. For Embryo II, this line is pointed toward the centre of the tip of the limb-bud. From “a” in each instance a perpendicular is dropped to a line connecting the two extremities of the sacral region. The numbers refer to the following embryos:

2 , II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Length 7 mm.

109, CIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 11 “

144, CXLIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 14 “

108, CVIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 20 “

145, CXLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 33 “

184, CLXXXIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . “ 50 “ Ad. Adult.

Plate XI

Fig. 45. Longitudinal section through the center of the limb-bud of Embryo CLXIII. 163 14 diam. Compare with Fig. 2.

fiGS. 46-52. A series of cross—sections through the right leg of Embryo CIX, 109 length 11 mm.

Fig. 53. Outline of the blastemal skeleton with the regions marked through which the sections 46-52 pass. 14 diam. Compare with figs. 3 and 4.

Plate PLATE XII

Fig. 54. Section from Embryo CXLIV 144, length 14 mm., showing the pubic, iliac and ischial cartilages. 14 diam.

Fig. 55. Section passing longitudinally through the femur and tibia of Embryo CLXXV, length 13 mm. A portion of the foot-plate is shown cut obliquely. 14 diam.

Fig. 56. Longitudinal section through the ilium, femur, and tibia of Embryo XXII, 22 length 20 mm. 14 diam.

Fig. 57. Section through the pubis, ilium, ischium and head of the femur of Embryo CCXXVII 227, length 30 mm. The hip-joint cavity shows well. It does not extend into the region of the ligamentum teres. 14 diam.

Fig. 58. Section through the ilium, ischium and head of the femur of Embryo LXXIX, length 33 mm. Calcification is beginning in the ilium.

Plate XIII

Fig. 59. Section through the leg and foot of Embryo XVII 17, length 18 mm. The section does not pass through the cartilage of the 1st metatarsal.

Fig. 60. Section through the pubis, ischi-um, femur, fibula, calcaneus, cuboid and the 4th metatarsal cartilages of Embryo LXXIV, length 16 mm. 1}; diameters.

figs. 61-65. Sections through the knee-joints of several embryos. 14 diam; 61, CCXXIX 229, length about 20 mm.; 62, LXXXVI, length 30 mm. ; 63, LXXV, length 30 mm.; 64 and 65, CXLV, length 33 mm.

Fig. 66. Longitudinal section .through the knee-joint, tibia. and foot-plate of Embryo CLXXV, length 13 mm. 175

Fig. 67. Section through the foot of Embryo CXLIV,144 length 14 mm.

Fig. 68. Section through the foot of Embryo LVII, length 23 mm. 62