Talk:Intermediate - Cardiac Abnormalities

From Embryology

--Mark Hill 13:24, 28 October 2009 (EST) Have another go at the formatting for this page please. See my modification below. I would also like all the image files to be renamed from the existing "HeartILP_draft_vsd.jpg" to a more consistent nomenclature so the images can be used in other pages/projects. Also there should be information on the image page that opens.

For example: "HeartILP_draft_vsd.jpg" would become "Heart abnormality - ventricular septal defect 001.jpg" (do not use ampersands in file names)


--Phoebe Norville 11:23, 29 September 2009 (EST) Content added:

Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is a broad term for a variety of cardiac and vasculature pre-natal defects. They affect about 8-10 of every 1 000 births in the United States. Heart and vascular abnormalities make up around 20% of all congenital malformations. Some of the more common abnormalities are outlined in the table below, in order of frequency.


Diagram Abnormality Epidemiology Description
100px Ventricular Septal Defect 25% of CHD; more frequent in males Growth failure of the membranous IV septum or endocardial cushions resulting in a lack of closure of the IV foramen. 30-50% close spontaneously; large VSDs result in dyspnoea and cardiac failure in infancy.
100px Tetralogy of Fallot 9-14% of CHD Classic group of defects: pulmonary stenosis, VSD, dextroposition of aorta, RV hypertrophy. Results in cyanosis.
100px Transposition of the Great Vessels 10-11% of CHD Aorta arises from the RV with the pulmonary trunk arising from the left. Most common cause of cyanotic heart disease in newborns; surgically corrected.
100px Atrial Septal Defect 6-10% of CHD; more common in females Most commonly patent foramen ovale; can also be an ostium secundum defect, and endocardial cushion defect with ostium primum defect, sinus venosus defect, common atrium. Results in cyanosis due to right-to-left shunt.
100px100px Pulmonary Atresia & Pulmonary Stenosis 10% of CHD Unequal division of trunks causes cusps to fuse to form a dome with a narrow/non existent lumen. Heart-lung transplantation may be the only therapy
100px Patent Ductus Arteriosus 6-8% of CHD; 2-3 times more common in females; common in preterm newborns Failure of contraction of the muscular wall of the DA. Spontaneous or surgical closure.
100px Aortic Stenosis 7% of CHD Persistence of tissue that normally degenerates. Results in LV hypertrophy, heart murmurs.
100pxHeartILP draft funchlh.jpg Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome 4-8% of CHD RV maintains both pulmonary and systemic circulations aided by an ASD. Infants usually die within weeks.
HeartILP draft coarctationoftheaorta.jpg Coarctation of the Aorta 5-7% of CHD Aortic constriction. Treatment aims at maintaining the ductus arteriosus via prostaglandins.
100px100px Partial/Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection <4% of CHD; more common in females Total or partial lack of connection of the pulmonary veins with LA. They open into RA, one of the systemic veins or both. The overloaded pulmonary circuit leads to cyanosis, tachypnoea and dyspnoea. Treatment is via surgical redirection
100px Tricuspid Atresia 1-3% of CHD Complete lack of formation of the tricuspid valve with absence of direct connection between the right atrium and right ventricle. Results in cyanosis.
100px Double Outlet Right Ventricle 1-1.5% of CHD Both great arteries arise wholly or in large part from the right ventricle. Arrangement of the atrioventricular valves and the ventriculoarterial connections are variable. Clinical manifestations variable.
HeartILP draft interruptaorticarch.jpg Interrupted Aortic Arch Very rare Gap in ascending and descending thoracic aorta. Treated with prostaglandin to maintain ductus arteriosus followed by surgery.