Talk:Brain Awareness Week 2012
Cerebrum Comparative Anatomy
- All brains have a similar mechanism of early development, neural plate, tube, etc.
- All brains will have similar regions with similar functions.
- Each animal brain though will end up a different size, shape and complexity (overall and of regions).
- The information shown below is a detailed comparison of different species cerebrum development.
This Information is beyond K12 level and not part of today's demonstration.
Some fish and amphibians
(Cartilaginous fish (sharks), lobe-finned fish, amphibians)
- remains mainly devoted to olfactory sensation.
- Cerebrum divided into 3 regions.
- ventral - forms the basal nuclei, and contains fibres connecting the rest of the cerebrum to the thalamus.
- lateral - forms the paleopallium.
- dorsal - forms the archipallium.
In amniotes, the cerebrum becomes increasingly large and complex.
Neural Tube Development
|Neural Tube||Primary Vesicles||Secondary Vesicles||Adult Structures|
|week 3||week 4||week 5||adult|
|prosencephalon (forebrain)||telencephalon||Rhinencephalon, Amygdala, hippocampus, cerebrum (cortex), hypothalamus, pituitary | Basal Ganglia, lateral ventricles|
|diencephalon||epithalamus, thalamus, Subthalamus, pineal, posterior commissure, pretectum, third ventricle|
|mesencephalon (midbrain)||mesencephalon||tectum, Cerebral peduncle, cerebral aqueduct, pons|
|myelencephalon||medulla oblongata, isthmus|
|spinal cord, pyramidal decussation, central canal|
- Cerebral cortex - (grey matter, cortex) Embryonic structure that will form the cerebral cortex of the brain. Formed in sequence from neural tube, prosencephalon (primary vesicle), telencephalon (secondary vesicle) then cerebrum or cortex.
- Cerebellum - (Latin, cerebellum = little brain) Formed from the rhombencephalon (hindbrain), it is required for coordinated motor activities.
- Diencephalon - At the level of the diencephalon that the optic stalks (optic nerve) extends from the brain. The diencephalon lumen (cavity of the neural tube) will form the third ventricles.
- Encephalon - brain.
- Medulla - (medulla oblongata) A brain stem region within the central nervous system, this is the last part of the brain before becoming the spinal cord. It lies beneath the medulla.
- Midbrain - The embryonic neural tube region that will form midbrain structures of the tectum (roof of the midbrain, auditory and visual reflexes) and tegmentum (floor of the midbrain, several brain nuclei) in the adult brain. The mesencephalon is the middle of the 5 secondary brain vesicles formed from the mesencephalon of the primary brain vesicle (there are 3 primary brain vesicles). The mesencephalon lumen (cavity of the neural tube) will form the midbrain aqueduct.
- Pons - (Latin, pons = "bridge") A brain stem region within the central nervous system, it lies above the medulla.
- Telencephalon - (endbrain) The embryonic neural tube region that will form cerebral hemispheres (neocortex, basal nuclei, palaeocortex, archicortex). The telencephalon is the most anterior of the 5 secondary brain vesicles formed from division of the prosencephalon (forebrain) primary brain vesicle (there are 3 primary brain vesicles). The telencephalon lumen (cavity of the neural tube) will form the lateral ventricles.