Talk:Book - The span of gestation and the cause of birth - 1897

From Embryology


https://archive.org/details/spanofgestationc00bear

Contents

page

Preface Ill

Introduction I

I. The Critical Phase II

II. The Critical Period in Mammalia 22

III. Ovulation in Mammals 27

IV. The Critical Unit 34

V. Length of the Critical Unit 36

VI. The Length of Gestation in Eutheria 42

VII. The Duplication of the Critical Unit 56

VIII. The Influence of Lactation 63

IX. The Special Case of Man 67

X. The Meaning of Menstruation 68

XL The Human Critical Unit 77

XII. Abortions 79

XIII. The Cause of Birth 84

XIV. The Rhythm of Reproduction in Mammalia. — A summary 89 Comparative Table of Gestation-periods, Critical Units etc. 98

Appendices.

a) Summary of Tessier's observations 99

b) Remarks on the Table and on Tessier's results . . 99

c) Antithetic versus homologous alternation of generations 101

d) The critical phase or period 102

e) Eutherian versus Metatherian gestation-arrangements . 103

f) Ovulation in the cavy 104

g) The critical period of the horse 106

h) The critical unit of the pig 107

i) The critical units of dog and cat 108

k) The gestation of the hare 109

1) The views of W. Tyler Smith from his own writings no

m) The length of pregnancy in woman 1 12

n) The critical unit of man in its medico-legal aspects . 116

o) Medico-legal aspects of the length of gestation . . . 116

p) Pouchet's work on the ovulation of mammals . . . 117

q) The corpus luteum 118

r) Changes in the mammary gland at the critical period 118

s) Is the ovulation-unit ever approximately equal to the gestation-period in Eutheria? 118

t) Sizes of embryos of the critical period 120

u) Minot on menstruation 121

v) Sobotta on the reproduction of the mouse 123

w) Heape on the menstruation of apes 123

x) Selenka on the reproduction of marsupials .... 124

y) Owen on the gestation of the kangaroo (M. major) . 125

z) Bonnet and Nathusius on the reproduction and gestation of the sheep 125

Index 127


Index

page Abnormal development . . 20 Abortions 79

— connected with unusual ovulations 115

— and critical period . . 81

— and menstrual periods . 80

— in sheep 84

— Klein and Burdach on 80

— periods of 81

— periodicity of many . .81

— tables on 80

— Tyler Smith on .79. 83

— Whitehead on . . . 79 Alteration of critical unit . 41

— of ovulation-unit ... 41 Alternation of generations . 101

— antithetic 101

— homologous 101

Atrophy senile of phorozoon 21

Birth cause of . . . .84. 89

— condition of young at 27. 47. 54 • inhibition at critical period 23 Birth-period of Marsupials . 22 of Perameles ... 26

— — of Trichosurus . . 23 Birth problem of . . . .44 Bischoff on ovulation . .117

— on cavy . . • ... • 105


page Bonnet on corpus luteum 1 18

— on horse -placenta ... 49

— on pig and sheep . . . 108

— on placenta 24

— on sheep 53- I2 5

Bower on alternation of

generations 101

Burdachonmenstruation7l. 123

Cannabalism of larvae . .16

Cause of birth 84

Cat, critical unit of . . .108 Cavy, condition at birth of 27. 47

— gestation-period of . .48

— critical unit of . . 106. 120

— ovulation in 1 04

Cederschjold on pregnancy 117

Celakovski on alternation 101 Chambers on influence of

gestation 56

Climate influence of . . . 30 Cocoon, primary nature of . 14 Condition at birth how determined 60

— at birth of human foetus 54

— at birth of young ... 27 Cope on Phenacodus . . 62 Corpus luteum . . . 82. 118


— 128 —


page


Correspondence of embryo and placenta ...

— of units 34

Corresponding phases possible

Crosses gestation in sheep Critical period . . II. 19,

— — constant characters of

— — characters of . .

— — Duration of .

— — in man ....

— -- of horse ....

— — and mammae

— — placenta at . . .

— — sizes of embryos at Critical phase . . . .11

— — duration of . . .

— — pause at . . . .

— — physiological Critical unit ....

— — alteration of.

— — ancient ....

— — of cat and dog . constancy of

— — and ovulation - unit

34- 41 definition of .

— — differences in

— — duplication of

— — enlargement of

— — of horse .

increase of .

influence of number of

54

— — of large animals .

— — length in various mam mals

— — of man ....

— — of marsupials .


49


medico-legal aspects of 1 16


new

number in gestation

— — of man, sheep, etc.


9 41

55 126 102

7

103

21

77 106 118

43 120

19 21

39 24

34

4i

114

108

40

60

35 40 56 59 52 46

55 62

36

77 40


Critical unit of pig

— — of sheep .

— — of small forms . Critical units, table of


page

. 107

• 49 . 61


Dalziel on mammary func

tion

Definition of critical unit Degeneration of phorozoon

— of yolk-sac .... Development of placenta

— regularity of the . Dog, critical unit of . Duplication of critical unit 49 Duration of pregnancy . Duval on Carnivora .

— on yolk-sac of rabbit .


119

35 19 19 43 37 108

56 112 109

19


100


53


Ectoplacenta 18

Egg-purse of Elasmobranchs 14 Egg-white, nature and history

of 15

Embryos destroyed by lactation 65

— sacrifice of . . . . .47

— sizes at critical period . 120

Epigenesis 18. 116

Eutheria v. Metatheria . . 103 Eutherian gestation-length . 42 Evolution 116

— of egg-case 14

Ewart on horse-embryos

49. 107 Extinction of "kangaroo" . 103

Fleischmann on rodents 119 Flower and Lydekker

on hare 109

40 24

85 66


Food-yolk, influence of . Formation of placenta Foster on parturition . Franck on the "Ong-te"


— i2g


page

Gardner case . . 113. 116 Gastrulation, meaning of G e d d e s and Thomson

on size and gestation . Gestation abnormal . 100

— of cavy .... 48

— correspondence with menstrual cycles

— of cow 51

— duration in man

— Eutherian v. Metatherian

— fixed nature of .

— frequency in mouse etc

— of hare

— Harvey on

— of horse .... 50

— Kielmeyer on .

— length of, in Eutheria

— lengthening of .

— in man . . . • • 53

— in mouse 32

— medico-legal aspects of

— non-influence of length

— of pig . . .

— prolongation of

— prolonged

— of rabbit .

— of sheep .

— supposed irregularity of

— table of lengths of

— Tessieron

— of two ovulation-units


53- 99


Hare, gestation of .

H e a p e on menstruation 69

— on ovulation . . .74 Heat in mares ....

-• and menstruation .

— Pouchet on .

— Tyler Smith on Hensen on cavy. . 104

— on pregnancy . Hill on Perameles .

Beard, Span of Gestation.


16

62 113

I05


112

I03

44

31

109

78

99 62 42

59 112 123 117

48

99 46

113

99

125

6


99 46


109 124 124

51 118 117 no 106

"3 26


page

His on human embryos

53- 74-H5 Horse, Bonnet on placenta of 49. 106

— critical unit of . . . -49

— critical period of . . . 106

— ovulation-unit of . . .49

— E wart on 107

— gestation of. . 51. 99. 114

— small size of ancestors of 62 Human critical unit 49. 5 1 - 77

— embryos, ages of . . . 115

— ovulation-unit . . .50. 77

— pregnancy and the law . 116

Influence of climate . . 30. 66

— of food-yolk 40

— of lactation 63

Keibel on the pig . . . 108 Kielmeyer on gestationlength 62

Lactation in cat and dog . 65

— effect on embryos ... 65

— influence of 63

— in kangaroo 104

— in man 66

— in marsupials .... 104

— in mouse 123

— in pig 65

— prolonged in marsupials . 104

— Ryder on 66

Length of gestation in Eutheria 42

Loewenhardton menstruation 75

Macropus, Owen on 40. 125 Mammae and critical period 118

— limitations of . . . .28 Mammals, critical period in 22

— original 30

— ovulation in 27

9


13° —


Mammals regularity of de velopment in ...

— rhythmic development in

37 Man, special case of . Mares heat in . . . .51 Marsupials, birth-period of 22

— critical units of .

— lactation in .

— precritical nutrition of Marsupium how lost . Menstruation an abortion 71

— Burdach on .

— H e a p e on . . . .69

— Loewenhardt on .

— meaning of . . . .68

— M ino t on .


page


— nature of 71

— and ovulation .

— phenomena of .

— relation to rut of . .69

— Tyler Smith on

— Webster on.

— unusual effects of . Merino sheep, gestation of Mi not on menstruation . Metamorphosis abrupt o

Phoronis Monstrosities Mouse, gestation of

— and marsupials .

— ovulation in .

— ovulation-unit of

— Sobottaon .


.32


37


67

91

9i

40

104

22

47

95

123

124

69

95 121

95

7i

69

118

no

69

115

125

121

20

39 123 119

32 123 123


Nathusius on sheep-gestation 125

— on crossing 126

Opossum, critical unit of . .36

— Selenka on . . .40. 124 Origin of large-yolked egg . 16 Ovary, rhythm connected with

82. 97


page Ovulation, Bischoff on . 1 17

— and birth 89. 95

— in cavy 120

— effect of gestation on 28. 30

— following birth . 30. 89. 95

— Hensenon . . . .73

— lunar correspondence of . 3

— in mammals 27

— in man 73

— and menstruation . .71. 115

— in mouse 32. 120

— Pouchet on ... . 117

— suspension in gestation

28. 30. 94

— unusual . . . . 113. 115

— interval in cavy . . . 104

— — of man 78

— — of mouse 32

— unit . 41

— — alteration of. . . 41. 42 ■ ancient 114

— — and critical unit . 33. 41

— — gestation of two . . 46

— — table of 98

Owen on Macropus 40. 57. 125

Parturition, cause of . . 89. 95

— Fo ster on 85

— Harvey on . . . .86

— Spiegelbergon . . 86

— Tanner on . . . -85

— Werth on 85

Perameles, birth-period of . 26

— placenta of 44

Phenacodus 62

Phorozoon 26

— degeneration of ... 19

— life-span of . . . .21. 22

— motive of existence of .12

— as a parasite .... 17

— organisation of . . . . 13 Pig, gestation of . 53. 99

— critical unit of . . . . 107

— sizes of embryos . . .121


i3i


page Placenta, Bonnet on . . 24

— consequence of . 25. 44. 91

— development of ... 43

— and its embryo .... 9

— formation of .... 24

— functional period of . .26

— inadequate at critical period 43

— period of formation of . 25

— supposed degeneration of 44

— variations in functional period 27

Placental - span fraction of

total gestation .... 26 Pouchet on ovulation . -117

— on rut 117

Pregnancy, length of, in woman . . . . . 112. 117

Purse, evolution of ... 14

Rabbit, critical unit of .98. 120

— and hare 109

— and kangaroo .... 103

— ovulation in 120

— .sizes of embryos of . .121 Racib o rs ki on ovulation 117 Reproduction, rhythm of 89. 97

— limitations of 28. 29


Rhythm of reproduction


Robinson on degeneration


of yolk-sac


89. 97


19. 119


Sacrifice of embryos . .47. 113 Selenka on marsupial development 124

— on opossum . . . 40. 124 Semnopithecus, menstruation

of 124

Senile atrophy of phorozoon

21. 90 Sheep, Bonnet on . .53. 125

— critical period in . . .84

— critical unit of . . . 49. 98


page Sheep, gestation of 125

— Nathusius on . . .125

— gestation of merino . . 126

— ovulation-unit of . . 49. 98 Smith, W. Tyler, on menstruation . . . . no. 122

— — views of no

— - works of no

Sobotta on corpus luteum 118

— on mouse 123

— on ovulation . . . .123 Southdown sheep, gestation

of 126

Table of gestation-lengths . 98

— of critical units . . 36. 57. 98

— of number of critical units in development .


— of ovulation-units

— remarks on . Tables of Tessier Tanner on mammae


57- 98


• 99

• 99

. 118.


— on parturition .... 85 Teats in Didelphys . . 29. 124

— number of 29

— in pig 29

— reservation of . . . .29 Temperature in development 38 Tessier on gestation .50. 99

— — of cow . . . .53. 101

of horse . . . .53. 101

of pig .... 53. 101

Tessier's tables .... 99 Trickbsurus, birth-period of 23

Trochophore 102

Trophoblast 18. 90

— in mammals . . . . 22. 90

Unfolding or evolution . .116

Yariations in development and number of critical units 51

— in mammalian development 37. 100

9*


132 —


page

Webster, J. C., on menstruation 69

Woman, length of pregnancy in 112

Yolk, acquisition of . . .16 — loss of 17


page Yolk-sac, degeneration of 19. 119

— — of mouse . . . . 19. 1 19

placenta . . . . 18. 22

Young, condition at birth of 27

— excessive number of . 28. 29

— limitations in number . . 29


6 line 12 line 25 last 33 line 36 line 44 line 48 line 88 line 125 line


Errata.

16 for being read


13

line

7

5

10

20

30

5


an

Par am eles

marsupial

Parameles

Parameles

Parameles

Marsupial

Beuteltiere


bring.

a transient.

Perameles.

mammal.

Perameles.

Perameles.

Perameles.

non-placental.

Beutelfuchs.


p. 127 2 nd column for cannabalism read cannibalism.


2 line 18 following 8 insert after. 12 line 12 delete a transient.

15 line 3 „ the comma.

16 line 4 „ the first comma.

18 line 27 before phorozoon insert the. 18 line 29 delete the comma. 49 line 9 „ the comma after "with". 71 line 10 ,, the comma after "point". 71 line 15 „ the comma.