Talk:Book - Normal Plates of the Development of Vertebrates 11

From Embryology

Volume: Hft.11

Normal Plates of the Development of Necturus maculosus.





Dr. Bles - Glasgow , Dr. Boeke- Helder, Holland, Prof. Dr. Brächet -Brüssel, Prof. Dr. B. Dean -Columbia University, New York, U. S. A., Dr. H. FUCHS-Strassburg, Dr. GLAESNER-Strassburg, Prof. Dr. O. GROSSER-Prag, Prof. Dr. B. HENNEBERG-Giessen, Prof. Dr. HuBRECHT-Utrecht, Prof. J. GRAHAM KERR-Glasgow, Prof. Dr. KoPSCHBerlin, Dr.THH.O KRUMBACH-Breslau, Prof. Dr. LUBOSCH-Jena, Prof. Dr. P. MARTIN-Giessen, Dr. NiERSTRASZ-Utrecht, Prof. Dr. C. S. MiNOT-Boston, U. S. A., Prof. Dr. NICOLAS-Paris, Prof. Dr. PETER-Greifswald, Prof. ReighardAnn Arbor, U. S. A., Dr. SAKURAi-Fukuoka, Japan, Dr. SCAMMON- Harvard Medical School, Boston, U. S. A., Prof. Dr. Semon- Prinz- Lud wigshöhe bei München, Prof. Dr. SOBOrrA- Würzburg, Prof. Dr. SOULIE -Toulouse, Prof. Dr. TANDLER-Wien, Dr. TAYLOR-Philadelphia, U. S. A., Prof. Dr. TOURNEUX, Toulouse, Dr. VOELKER-Prag, Prof. Whitman- Chicago, U. S. A.


Prof. Dr. F. KEIBBL, LL. D. (Harvard),











Alle Rechte vorbehalten.


The preparation of the normal tables and plates on Nedurus was begun several years ago by Professor C. O. Whitman but on account of unavoidable circumstances the work was delayed. It was later taken up by Professor Eycleshymer upon the suggestion of both Professor Whitman and Professor Keibel. While Professor Whitman has not directly participated in the later work, he has furnished the senior author with material and Information without which it would have been impossible to complete the work. In the completion of the work the senior author has been fortunate in having the able Cooperation of Professor James M. Wilson.

Table of Contents

  • Description of illustrations
  • Introduction to tables
  • Tables
  • Some variations in external structures
  • Cleavage
  • Gastrulation
  • Closure of neural folds
  • Appearance of optic vesicles
  • Neuromeres (?)
  • Somites
  • Lateral curvature of body
  • External gills
  • Limbs
  • Pigmentation 29
  • Variations in internal structures
  • Notochord
  • Eye
  • Ear
  • Nose
  • Epiphysis
  • Paraphysis
  • Hypophysis
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen
  • Thymus
  • Trachea — lungs
  • Bibliography
  • Introduction
  • A. Alphabetical arrangement of titles according to authors
  • B. Alphabetical arrangement of authors under topics
  • Plates.

Description of lllustrations

The series of eggs, embryos and larvae of Necturus, from which the following descriptions and the appended illustrations were made, were collected May I5th, 1903 and kept at a water temperature of 17o — 18o C. The illustrations are copied from the original water colored pictures which were made by Mr. Leonard H. Wilder, under the direction of the senior author. It should be emphasized that the ages, measurements and illustrations are all made from the living objects.

Fig. I. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 1 day 4 hrs. after deposition. The first cleavage groove has reached the lower pole of the egg. Second grooves extend to level of the equator of the egg.

Fig. 2. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 1 day 8 hrs. after deposition. The second cleavage grooves have reached the equator. The grooves of the third cleavage pass in meridional planes, but have not yet reached the equator.

Fig. 3- (X 10.)

Side view of egg 1 day 12 hrs. old. Five cleavage grooves have reached lower pole, dividing lower hemisphere into six segments.

Fig. 4. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 1 day 16 hrs, old. The greater number of cleavage grooves pass in meridional planes, many are latitudinal and some nearly radial. The upper surface of the egg shows sixteen segments, the lower nine.

Fig. 5. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 1 day 20 hrs. old. The upper surface of the egg shows some fifty segments, the lower nine.

Fig. 6. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 2 days 2 hrs. old. The upper surface of the egg shows more than one hundred segments, the lower twelve.

Fig. 7. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 2 days 7 hrs. old. The upper surface of egg shows about two hundred cells. The lower portion is in about same stage as described in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8. (X lo.)

Side view of egg 2 days I2 hrs. old. The upper surface of egg shows some five hundred cells, the lower about forty.

Fig. 9. (X lo.)

Top view of egg 4 days 4 hrs. old. Segmentation cavity shows through thin translucent roof. Blastopore not präsent.

Fig. 10. (X 10.)

Bottom view of egg 6 days 16 hrs. old. Crescentic blastopore. Line of invagination sharply separates large yolk cells from small cells of blastodisc.

Fig. II. (X 10.)

Dorso-lateral view of egg 10 days 10 hrs. old. Large circular blastopore; faint indication of embryonic anläge.

Fig. 12. (X 10.)

Side view of egg 10 days 16 hrs. old. Large circular blastopore. Anlage of mesial portion of embryo above dorsal lip of blastopore. Segmentation cavity faintly outlined.

Fig. 13- (X 10.)

Top view of egg 13 days 3 hrs. old. Small circular blastopore. Embryonic anläge triangulär in outline ; lateral boundaries indistinct. First appearance of neural groove. Roof of segmentation cavity thinner, making its boundaries distinct.

Fig. 14. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 14 days 4 hrs. old. Blastopore smaller, lateral margins of anterior portion of embryo bounded by short broad ridges which are the beginnings of the lateral portions of the neural fold. At anterior margin of embryo there is a transverse crescentic ridge which is beginning of transverse portion of neural fold. Neural groove deep but does not extend either to transverse portion of neural fold or to blastopore. Segmentation cavity crescentic.

Fig. 15- (X 10.)

Top view of egg 14 days 19 hrs. old. Blastopore much reduced, circular. The yolk plug is not visible in this egg. Lateral and transverse portions of neural fold united to form continuous fold around anterior portion of embryo. Lateral boundaries of posterior portion of embryo not defined. Neural groove not as long, nor as distinct as in preceding stage. Dark crescentic area in front of embryo is segmentation cavity.

Fig. 16. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 15 days 15 hrs. old. Blastopore small, circular; yolk plug visible. Neural fold prominent, its free ends extend nearly to blastopore. Neural groove deep and narrow at anterior end, broad and shallow at posterior end, fades out just in front of blastopore. A part of the segmentation cavity is still apparent in front of the embryo.

Fig. 17. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 16 da3's 6 hrs. old. Blastopore reduced to a very minute circular aperture. Neural plate narrower than in preceding stage. Neural fold prominent, its free ends coalescing at blastopore. Neural groove extends to transverse portion of fold but does not reach blastopore. Segmentation cavity no longer visible in surface views.

Fig. 18. (X 10.)

Top view of embryo 17 days 2 hrs. old. Blastopore an elongated narrow aperture between ends of neural fold. Neural plate narrower than in preceding stage. The constricted portion represents in a general way the division between head and trunk. Neural fold most prominent in head region.

Fig. 19. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 17 days 17 hrs. old. Blastopore no longer visible. Neural plate narrowest posteriorly; broad in head region, showing boundary zone between head and trunk. Lateral portions of fold coalesced at posterior end of embryo. At anterior end of embryo a deep groove partially separates the two halves of the neural fold.

Fig. 20. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 18 days 13 hrs. old. Lateral portions of neural fold almost united except in head region where they are still widely separated. In the antero-lateral portions of the fold are slight evaginations which are the beginnings of the optic vesicles.

Fig. 21. (X 10.)

Top view of egg 18 days 15 hrs. old, 3 or 4 pairs of myotomes. Lateral portions of neural fold widely separated in head region, more closely approximated in anterior trunk region, coalesced in taii.

Fig. 22. (X 10.) Dorso-lateral view of embryo 20 days 10 hrs. old, length 6 mm, 6 pairs of myotomes. Outline of body conforms to curvature of egg. Head end of embryo shows three longitudinal ridges; middle ridge lies slightly above level of lateral ridges. The middle one is common anläge of fore, mid and bind brain. The lateral ones are the common anläge of the optic vesicles and branchial arches. Anus formed.

Fig. 23. (X 10.)

Side view of embryo 21 days 2 hrs. old, length 7 mm, 10 — 12 pairs of myotomes. General outline of body conforms to curvature of egg. Head slightly raised above surface of yolk. Slight enlargement at end of tail. A distinct enlargement of anterior end of head shows optic vesicles; just posterior to this enlargement is the anläge of the branchial arches. Anus shows just below tip of tail.

Fig. 24. (X 10.)

Dorso-lateral view of embryo 22 days 17 hrs. old, length 8 mm, l6~i8 pairs of myotomes. Embryo much curved laterally. Anterior half of head free from yolk. Caudal enlargement more prominent. Optic vesicles and mandibular arch well defined. The hyoid and first branchial arches are discernible ; also the common anläge of the second and third branchial arches.

Fig. 25. (X 5-)

Side view of embryo 23 days 10 hrs. old, length 9 mm, 20 — 22 pairs of myotomes. General outline of the body straighter. Head free from yolk. Caudal enlargement becoming free. Optic vesicles and forebrain much larger. Mandibular, hyoid, first branchial, and common anläge of second and third branchial arches well defined. Otic vesicle visible above hyoid arch.

Fig. 26. (X 5-)

Side view of embryo 24 days 22 hrs. old, length 10 mm, 23 — 24 pairs of myotomes. General outline of body of embryo straighter, less curved laterally. Head and caudal extremities free from yolk. Yolk becoming oval. Optic vesicles prominent. Ear better defined. Olfactory pits present. The mandibular, liyoid and first branchial arches are distinct. The second and third branchial arches are not yet differentiated, a slight process on the first branchial indicates the beginning of the gill bar. The anläge of the heart is visible just beneath the arches.

Fig. 27. (X 5.)

Side view of embryo 26 days old , length 1 1 mm , 26—27 myotomes. General outline of body straighter than in preceding stage. Head projects some 3 mm beyond margin of yolk; tail projects 1.2 mm, is thinner laterally but broader dorso-ventrally. Eye, ear, nasal pits and mouth well defined. Maxillary process discernible. Mandibular arches longer, but ventral ends widely separated. Second and third branchial arches formed. Gill bars present on three branchial arches. Anterior limb buds indicated; faint anläge of posterior limb buds. Yolk pear-shaped. Heart prominent. First surface capillaries present although not indicated in figure.

Fig. 28. (X 50

Side view of embryo 30 days 8 hrs. old, length 13 mm, 30 — 31 myotomes. The trunk of the embryo is nearly straight. At level of the posterior gill there is a pronounced neck bend and at the level of the posterior limbs a striking downward bend of the tail. The epiphysis shows in surface views. The lens is discernible. The ear is still vi.sible. The external nasal openings are sharply defined. The boundaries of the mouth are better outlined owing to the approximation of the ventral ends of the mandibular arches. The hyoid arch is becoming obscured. The gill bars are prominent on the three branchial arches. The anterior limb buds project dorsally about .5 mm above the surface of the bod3\ The posterior limb buds are but slight elevations. The yolk is pear-shaped with its dorsal surface much flattened. The auricular and ventricular portions of the heart are apparent. The surface of the yolk is covered by a dense network of capillaries which for the most part convey blood antero-ventrally to the abdominal vein. Considerable pigment is present in the trunk region although but little has reached the outer portion of the dermis.

Fig. 29. (X 5)

Side view of embryo 36 days 16 hrs. old, length 16 mm, 36-38 myotomes. In general outline the embryo shows a numljcr of striking changes. The neck bend is not so pronounced. The tail bend is scarcely noticeable. There is a striking increase in dorso-ventral width of tail. The cerebral hemispheres are well defined. The eye is now prominent and the lens better defined. The ear is no longer visible in surface views. The mouth is well defined. The ends of the mandibular arches are closely approximated but not united. The hyoid and branchial arches are more obscure. Anlagen of gill fiiaments present on gill bars. Anterior limbs project dorsally. Posterior limbs are short ridges extending in horizontal plane. The yolk is elongated and reduced in diameter both dorso-ventrally and laterally. Surface blood vessels as in preceding stage, excepting that they are now apparent in the gill bars. The chromatophores are most numerous in the anterior and dorsal portions of the head.

Fig. 30. (X 5-)

Side view of einhryo 40 days 20 hrs. old, length 18 mm, 44—46 myotomes. The outline of the body shows a marked ventral curvature of the trunk, less pronounced neck bend, and further increase in the dorso-ventral width of the tail. The eye is very prominent owing to the pigment in the retina. Ear not visible externally. Nasal openings very small. The mandibular arches have coalesced. The boundaries of the other arches are no longer discernible. Gill filaments well developed. Anterior limbs about i mm long project dorso-posteriorly. The yolk is elongated oval. Abdominal vein and branchial blood vessels prominent. Pigment present in dorsal portion of head, also along dorsal and lateral portions of trunk and tail. The yolk is unpigmented excepting along dorsal margin.

Fig- 31. (X 5.)

Side view of larva 49 days old, lergth 21 mm. General outline of body decidedly different. Head bend obliterated, slight upward curve in trunk. Tail broader. Eye more deeply pigmented. Gill bars very long, extending to level of end of anterior limb. From three to five lateral filaments on each gill bar. Anterior limbs project postero-ventrally ; three digits formed. Posterior limbs directed caudad ; no trace of digits. Yolk much elongated. Network of capillaries denser. Large lateral arteries, at level of upper margin of yolk, very prominent. Well defined longitudinal bands of pigment.

Fig: 32. (X 5.)

Side view of larva 61 days old, length 25 mm. General outline of body shows less dorsal curvature of trunk. Tail much longer in proportion to length of trunk and much broader dorso-ventrally. Gill bars longer, each posessing six to eight lateral filaments. Anterior and posterior limbs directed postero-ventrally. Anterior 3 mm long, posterior 2 mm long. Each limb shows four digits. The distribution of pigment is essentially similar to that observed in the 21 mm larva, the bands however are more sharply defined. Chromatophores in the gill bars and limbs and beginning to extend over the dorsal surface of the yolk.

Fig. 33. (X 5.)

Side view of larva 70 days 4 hrs. old, length 28 mm. The general outline of the body is slenderer than at any time preceding. The rapid absorption of the yolk has brought its ventral surface nearly to the level of the ventral surfaces of the head and tail. The gill bars curve dorsally and possess fi;om ten to twelve pairs of lateral filaments. The tail is somewhat constricted at the level of the posterior limbs. The limbs and digits are better developed and are now used in locomotion. Pigmentation is denser than in 25 mm larva, but same general arrangement of bands prevails.

Fig. 34. (X 50

Side view of larva 97 days old, length 34 mm. In general outline the larva begins to resemble the adult. The yolk is well absorbed. The tail is very broad and now used as a powerful caudal fin in swimming. The gill bars project dorsally and have a large number of filaments. The legs project far below the ventral surface of the body. In color the same general pattern prevails as in the 28 mm larva. There are some minor changes, the Hght band is broader and better defined, and extensions of pigment over the yolk have been so uneven that a number of irregulär oval areas are left unpigmented, causing a mottled appearance in this region.

Fig. 35. (X 5-)

Side view of larva 126 days old, length 39 mm. The young Nedurus now conforms in outline to the adult. In color hovvever it is decidedly diiferent.

Introduction to Tables

The material upon which the normal tables are based was collected in 1903. At the time the illustrations were made from the living material, several specimens of the same stages were fixed in various Solutions. Among these 10 7o formalin caused the least distortion. This formalin -fixed material proved most satisfactory for work not involving cytological study. The material was stained in toto with haematoxylin, imbedded in paraffin and counterstained on the slide with weak picric acid, orange G or eosin. Unless otherwise stated the above fixation and staining have been used. Each of the stages designated in the following tables was sectioned in transverse, horizontal and sagittal planes. Besides these series many others have been consulted in which the material was fixed and stained by other methods. The total number of series at our disposal was upwards of 250.




























I day 4 hrs. I day 8 hrs. I day 12 hrs.

1 day 16 hrs.

2 days 2 hrs.

2 days 7 hrs. 2 days 12 hrs.

6 days 16 hrs. 10 days 16 hrs.

13 da3's 3 hrs.

14 days 4 hrs.

14 days 19 hrs.

15 days 10 hrs.

16 days

16 days 10 hrs.

17 days

17 days 17 hrs.

iS days 15 hrs.






20—24 80 — 100



Lower portion six surface grooves.

Lower portion nine surface grooves; none reach center of egg.

Lower portion twelve surface grooves ; few reach center of egg.

Lower surface as above excepting several grooves reach center of egg.

Lower portion forty surface grooves; yolk much segmented.

Normal Plates ol the Development of Necturus maculosus.

Segmentation cavity

Blastopore. Anus

Archenteron. Enteron. Mesoderm. Chorda

Neurenteric canal

Nervous System. Optic vesicles. Somites


Präsent , large ; roof Single layer thick.

Large, roof in nart two layers thick.

Segmentation cavity

larger, roof in part

two layers thick.

Segmentation cavity

large, roof in part

three layers thick.

Roof thinner , four

layers around peri phery, single layer in


Well formed.

Smaller. Smaller.

Quite small.

Very small.

Very small.

Very small. Not present (?).

Small, well defined. (?)

Present as large spaces among yolk cells.

Crescentic fissure on ventro-lateral portion of egg Horse-shoe-shaped.


Small, circular, yolk plug externally visible.

Very small, circular, yolk plug externally visible.

Elongated dorso - ventrally; yolk plug not externally visible.

Yolk plug not present.

Archenteron just beginning.

Archenteron extends over about 20" Peristomal mesoblast present at dorsal lip of blastopore.

Archenteron extends over about 45°.

Dorsal wall posteriorly two layers.

Peristomal mesoblast well defined in

ventral lip of blastopore.

Archenteron nearly complete; dorsal wall two layers anteriorly. Mesoblast around entire blastopore. Anlage of chorda.

Archenteron very nearly complete; Single layer in mid-longitudinal axis; this layer is beginning of chorda Paraxial mesoblast co-extensive with chorda.

Lateral walls of enteron three layers

Somatic and splanchnic layers well

defined. Chorda well defined in head


Enteron single-layered dorsal wall; mesoblast extends ventrally over onehalf of egg. Chorda narrower, thicker.

Walls of enteron as above. Meso

blast extends to ventral portion of

egg; well defined coelom. Chorda

anteriorly a rod of cells.

Chorda oval or round in cross section

througliout head and trunk regions.

undifferentiated in tail.






Small canal

VVidely open.

Anus perforate.

Enteron as above. Mesoblast over Closed (?). ventral surface of egg. Chorda well defined in head and trunk regions.

Broad neural plate of thicke

ned ectoblast; shallow neu

ral groove.

Low neural ridges present, deep neural groove.

Higher neural ridges, deep neural groove.

Prominent neural folds ap proaching each other, deep

neural groove.

High neural ridges approxi

mating, but nowhere in


Neural ridges meet in anterior head region. Beginning of optfc vesicles.

Neural ridges not closed in head region but coalesced in posterior trunk region and in tail. Optic vesicles better defined.

Neural folds closed throughout entire length of embryo. Optic vesicles prominent, outer wall single layer of cells. Three or four somites






NormentafelD lur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere. XI.


Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.







100 Trans.

101 Trans.

102 Trans.

103 Sag.

105 Trans.


6 mm


6'/j mm

7 mm

8 mm

106 Trans.

107 Sag. HO Front

20 daj's 10 hrs.

21 days 2 hrs.

22 days 18 hrs.

9 mm

Body Form

23 days 10 hrs.

Outline of body conformstocurvature of egg; extends over 160" of circumference of egg.

Extemally 6 pairs of Segments, those in anterior trunk region roughly triangulär in cross sections. Myo coele präsent. Muscle plate and cutis plate well defined. Clear zone at ends of muscle plate.

Body Covers 180" of circumference of egg.

Head end of

embryo slightly

elevated above

surface of yolk

Distinct en largement of

anterior end

shows optic

vesicles. Tail

end enlarged to

form slight


Embryo curved laterally. Anterior half of head free from yolk. Optic vesicles well defined.



Nervous System

Extemallyio to 1 2 pairs of myotomes. In anterior trunk region muscle and cutis plate better defined, otherwise as in 6 mm stage.

Notochord anteriorly a solid rod of cell Extends slightly in front of ear. Posteri orly not free from ectoderm orentoderm.

Extemally 14 to 16 pairs myotomes.

Head end elevated. Optic vesicles larger Mandibular, hyoid, first branchial and common anläge of second and third branchial arches well defined. Caudal enlargement morc pronoun ced. Embryo in

contact with

yolk over 140".

Curved late


Externally20 to 22 pairs of


In anterior trunk region, muscle plate nearer notochord. Clear zones at ends of plate

wider, fibrillacpresent in myobl.-ists.

Well defined through out anterior and middle portion of body; extends slightly in front of level of ear. Anterior portion lies in contact with medullary tube. Long tract of mesenchyma be tween anterior end of chorda and hypophysis; fused with entoderm and ectoderm in posterior portion. Anlage of sheath. Indications of hypochorda

Extends from a point slightly in front of ear to tip of tail. Vacuolated anteriorly, not

posteriorly. Sepa rated from neural tube, fore gut and hypo physis by mesenchyma. Posteriorly notochord, neural tube and entoderm fused into common mass. Unsegmented. Hypochorda well defined.



Neural tube closed throughout entire length ; enlarged at anterior end Fore brain, mid brain and hind brain indicated. Anlage of telencephalon Fore brain nearly at right angles with mid brain; prominent, oval ni transversa section; walls thin, cavit}' large Mid brain long; oval in transverse section ; canal narrow transversely Optic stalk .short, hollow. Chiasma well defined. Torus transversus small Infundibulum moderate size. No plexus. No commissures. Anlage of trigeminal ganglion, also acusticus, facialis and vagus. Spinal cord long oval in section. Anlage of spinal ganglia. Caudally, notochord, dorsal wall of gut and neural tube fuse into common mass of cells.

Cranial flexure well marked. Divisions of brain better defined. Medulla longer than fore brain and mid brain together. In roof of fore brain, paraphysial arch, postvelar arch and epiphysial arch formed. Beginning of velum transversum. Trigeminal nerve forming branches. Roof of meduUa a siegle laver of flattened cells ; nerve fibers forming in Gasserian ganglion. Spinal cord oval in section. Canal Wide, constricted at sides. Roof plate thinner than floor plate. Cells still contain large yolk granules. Spinal ganglia have grown down nearly to middle of side of cord.

Flexure showing in mid brain. Hemi spheres well developed ; walls thinner ; ventricle very large. Beginning of epiphysis. Velum transversum deeper. Infundibulum forming. Optic chiasma well defined, also torus. Roof of mid brain thin, ventricle widest in dorsal portion. Auditory nerve well developed. Trigeminal ganglion has two branches, one running over eye, other anterior to first gill. Peripheral band of nerve fibers on ventral and lateral surface of medulla. Spinal cord elongated oval in transverse section. Canal wide. Roof plate thin, well defined. Ganglia larger. Undifferentiated mass of cells at caudal end of spinal cord.

Primär}' optic vesicles better defined; grown slightly backward ; outer wall flattened and thickened forming anläge of retina ; open

widely into third ventricle. Anlage of lens as slight thickening of ectodemi. No mesoderm between lens and vesicle.

Vesicle larger.

Beginning of optic cup. Inner

layer thinner; outer or retinal

la3'er slightly

concave. Optic

stalk somewhat


Otic vesicle just closed,

spherical, lies between ectoderm and

hind brain.

Cells elongated in ventral parttheir

inner ends

free from

yolk. Acus tico-facialis ganglion lies ventro-cephaladof vesicle and is nearly as large as vesicle.

Vesicle completely closed, slightly pear-shaped, smaller end dorsal. In contact with ectoderm.

Optic cup shal low. Optic stalk better defined contains small tubulär lunien which connects third ventricle of brain and cavity of optic vesicle. Lens consistsof spherical mass of cells arranged radially ; still in connection with ectoderm and containing cavity.

Vesicle pear-shaped, smaller end dorsal, detached from ectoderm. Anlage of ductus endolymphaticus as Short dorsal evagination. Thin

layer of mesenchyma between vesicle and ectoderm, also between vesicle and hind brain.

Normal Plates of thc Development of Necturus maculosus.





Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea,


Urinogenital System

Anlasje of

nasal organ as

thickening of

internal layer

of ectoderm.

Anlage of hypophysis

as a long wedgeshaped mass of cells the inner end of which is 2 or 3 layers thick,

outer end a single layer continuous with deeper layer of ectoderm. No Capsula. Lies some distance from anterior end of notochord. Wall closely applied to singlelayered wall of infundibulura. Yolk granules less numerous than in underlying entoderm.

Position of

mouth indi cated by


of ectoderm

Heart and Blood Vessels


Gut extends from level of posterior portion of eyes to a point slightly beyond posterior end of embryo. Distended anteriorly to form branchial Chamber: short postanal gut.

Thickening of internal layer

of ectoderm more pro nounced and more definitely circumscribed

Slight concavity in surface of ectoderm. Thickness of wall ot

nasal organ equal to that of wall ot forebrain. Narrow layer of mesenchymabetween

nasal organ and forebrain. External laj'er

of ectoderm can be traced only to margin of nasal organ

Anlage of thyroid

as median out growth in anterior portion of floor of iDranchial cavity, in close relation to


arch. No external

indications of gill





ducts present

as two short



Anlage of liver.

Single layer ot

long flat cells


coarse yolk


Anlage of heart in Thickened form of a rod of greatly over cells lying below head. Over the Pharynx and body long flat between the ven- cells intersper tral borders of the sed with many pericardialcavities. large oval cells.

Mass of cells close under infundibulum 4—5 cell layers thick. Slight indications of cavity. Has lost connection with ectoderm.

Surface in vagination a broad transverse groove.

Thyroid evagination deeper. Out

growth longer.

Mandibular hyoid

and common an läge of third,

fourth and fifth

arches visible




Gut extends from anläge of mouth to junction of tail end of embryo with yolk; here it runs ventrad and extends somewhat further over the yolk than in the preceding stage. Extends laterally far beyond bounds of embryo at level of anterior portion of yolk. Diverticulum of gut just behind liver extends ventrally half way to ventral surface. Pharyngeal Chamber large. Midgut narrow dorso-ventrally, wide' laterally. No distinction between midgut and hindgut. Wall of Pharynx and dorsal wall of midgut consist of single layer of columnar cells, heavily laden with yolk granules. Ventral wall of midgut irregulär yolk cells. Liver pear-shaped evagination

Mandibular, hyoid,

first branchial and

common anläge of

fourth and fifth

arches visible


Pronephric ducts coiled, open anteri

orly. End

posteriorly about 10" or 11" Segment End in mass of mesoderm in close proximity to


Pericardial cavity large. Heart has

become a tube.

Endothelium dis

tinct. Division into

auricular and ven

tricular portion re

cognizable. Lateral

blood vessels

appearing, also

branchial arches

and sinus venosus.

Thickened over

fore and mid



Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.




111 Trans.

112 Sag.

113 Front.


116 Trans.

117 Front.


118 Trans.

119 Sag.


12 mm


120 Trans.

125 Sag.

126 Front.



24 days 22 hrs.

26 days

28 days 2 hrs.

13 mm

Head more elevated. Optic

vesicies prominent. Embryo less curved ventrally and laterally. Tail end enlarged, beComing free from yolk. Yolk becoming oval

in outline.



Outline of body

straighter. Anterior limb

buds indicated. Yolk pear shaped. Heart prominent.

Embryo less curved dorsoventrally and laterally. Head end free to anläge of heart Tail end projects further from yolk. Markedcephalic flexure. Ends of mandibular

arches near median line but still separate. Yolk changed from oval form to pear-shaped, small end anterior. Capillaries appearing in yolk.


Externally 23

to 24 pairs of


Muscle plate

much wider

laterally, ex tends further

ventrally. Myo coele small.


Sheath well defined, a Single layer of cells. Vacuolated throughout excepting a small portion at posterior end. Hypochorda well defined.

Nervous System



Externally 26 to 27 myotomes. Inanteriortrunk region muscle plate and cutis

plate further dififerentiated;

muscle plate

extends ventrally to level of ower margin of notochord. Myocoele nearly obliterated. Septa between myotomes forming by ingrowing


Externally 28

to 29 myotomes


Extent as above.

Separated from neural

tube by mesenchyma

throughout head and

trank. Separated from

gut by mesenchyma

and dorsal aorta.

Hypochorda better


Extends to level of ear anteriorly. Separated from neural tube by mesenchyma throughout entire length except at caudal end. Separated from gut by mesenchyma and dorsal aorta.

30 days 8 hrs.

Externally 30 to3l myotomes.

Flexure in mid brain more pronounced. Cerebral hemispheres better defined. Neuromeres in medulla well marked. Paraphysis indicated as thickening in epithelium. Spinal cord oval in transverse section. Layer ofj fibres well defined in ventrolateral portion of cord. Spinal ganglia better defined. Many nerve fibers beginning to grow out from ganglion cells.

Epiphysis better defined; paraphysis a slight evagination; walls of both a single layer of cells. Velum transversum also a Single layer of cells.

Optic cupconcave; Vesiclepearouter pigment wallj shaped. a Single layer of Ductus endocells; inner wall orjlymphaticus retinal layer thick. better develInner ends of cells oped.

becoming clear. Optic stalk narrower. Lens spherical, hollow, not

completely detached from inner layer of ectoderm. Mesoderm extending between lens

and wall of cup.

Optic cup more Vesiclepear concave, cavity shaped; very small. Lens lateral pordetachedfromecto-tion of wall jderm ; inner wallthinner,inner thicker than outer. portion thick,

No cellular ele- Iventral porments in cavity ofi tion very

lens. Mesoderm thick. Ductus also extending be- endolympha

tween lens and optic cup.

Paraphysis a well marked Pigment wall of narrow diverticulum. Spinal optic cup very thin.

cord cells still arranged radially. Layer of fibers better defined.

Extends from otic vesicle to fjosterior end of spinal cord. Vacuolated throughout^ greater portion of its

extent. Separated from neural tube and gut throughout entire

extent. No mesenchyma between notochord and neural tube. Separated from gut by mesenchyma and dorsal aorta. Hypochorda not present(?).

a Single layer of flat cells. Optic stalk more constricted. Lens larger, nearly fiUs optic cup ; cavity

in lens larger. Mesoderm between lens and ectoderm A few mesoderm ceUs in optic cup behind lens,

Cervical flexure well marked. Diencephalon and mesencephalon nearly at right angles to medulla. Velum transversum much deeper. Infundibulum and hypophysis larger, also optic chiasma and torus. Commissure in torus recognizable. No plexus. Diencephalon still projects in front of prosencephalon. Ganglion oftrigeminal very large. Peripheral laj'er of fibers developed in ventral and lateral wall of mid brain. Beginning of plica rhombomesencephalica. Spinal cord oval in section , compressed laterally ; canal a narrow slit. Spinal ganglia large, well developed.

ticus bemg constricted.

Optic cup has outer

margin in close contact with ectoderm. Cavity ob literated except at outer margin. Pigment wall and retinal layer as above.

Lumen of optic stalk smaller. Choroidal groove deep Walls of lens of uniform thickness.

Vesicle flattened on mesial surface; walls of saccular portion notably thicker than remaining

portion. Mesoderm separates vesicle from ectoderm, also from hind brain. Ductus longer, constricted.




Digestive Sj'stem , Liver,

Pancrcas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid, Thymus, Trachea, Lung

Urino-genital System

Heart and Blood Vessels





Disk-like depression on surface deeper. Nasal epithelium thicUer, separated from forebiain by thin layer of mesenchyma.

Invagination deeper, cuplike. In free ends of cells forming

bottom of cup, yolk is entirely absorbed leav ing clear Zone.

Nasal pit formed ; organ oval in outline.

An oval loosely arranged mass of cells contain ing irregulär cavities.Anteroventral wall thinner than dorsal. Yolk not absorbed.

Gill bearing arches recognizable as divisions in a common enlargenient from which they develop. Anlage of external gills as slight proliferations. An läge of trachea as longitudinal groove in median line of thickened ventral wall of Oesophagus. Gill clefts indicated by deep evagin ations of pharyngeal and corresponding mvagination of surface ectoderm. No ectodermal invagination between fourth and fifth arches.

Gill bearing arches better developed. Ectodermal invagination between fourth and fifth arches. Tracheal groove deeper; wall a single layer of columnar cells.


much coiled at

anterior end;

sanie caliber

throughout ;

widely open

anteriorly into

coelom; posteriorly open into

cloaca. No

trace of mesonephros.

Epithelium of mouth shovvs as columnar layer of cells, although yolk is not absorbed in mouth cavity.

Nasal pit a short cylin der. Epithelium thicker. Clear Zone at free ends of cells broader

An oval mass of cells closely

applied to intundibulum.

Contains cavity.

Capsule begin ning to be formed.

Anlage of gall bladder. Anlage of dorsal pancreas.

Heart somewhat twisted. Endothelium and mesothclium defined. Blood vessels prescnt in anterior branchial arches. Truncus arteriosus for med. Beginnings of vitelline veins as irregulat Spaces on ventral surface of yolk. Anterior and posterior cardinal veins forming. Blood capillaries appearing over surface of yolk. No blood vessels in tail.

Gill bearinCT arches better defined. Gill bars prominent but no gill fila ments. Pharyngeal portion of gill clefts extends two thirds distance to exterior, meeting ectodermal invaginations. Walls of clefts closely apposed.

Thyroid extends backward to anterior wall of pericardium. Tracheal evagination deeper, tubulär.

Generally two layers.

Cuticular margin well developed. Shows Stratum corneum and Stratum

germinativum, each

a Single layer of cells. Many large

oval cells


"Leydig" cells).

Heart placed transversely. Large abdominal vein formed communica ting with sinus venosus.

Pronephric tubules still widely open into coelom. Posterior portion nar rower than ante rior. No mesonephros.

Heart S-shaped, twisted Auricular portion tubulär. Ventricie constricted where itopens intoconus. Conus and truncus not differentiated. Endothelium of ventricie and of pericardial cavity a single layer of flattened cells. Anterior and posterior cardinal veins formed. Large abdominal vein running through the liver Beginning of portal circulation.

Cuticular margin thicker. Anlage of lateral line Organs.







Anterior limbs more prominent. Posterior limb buds just discernible.




Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.




127 Trans.

128 Sag. 130 Front.


131 Trans.

133 Sag.

134 Front.


135 Trans.

138 Sag.

139 Front.


14 mm

15 mm

16 mm


32 days 10 hrs

34 days 12 hrs.

36 days 16 hrs.

Trunk of embryo

straight when viewed from side. Cephalic flexure still pronounced. Neckbend marked. Pronounced ventral band in tail at level of posterior limbs. Lateral curvature pronounced,

Yolk elongated, pear-shaped. Flattened on dorsal surface ; large abdominal vein. Considerable pigment in trunk.

Body Form


Externally 31

to 32 myotomes.

In anterior

trunk region

myotomes much

elongated dorso-ventrally, extend below level of notochord. Muscle plate Covers one

half distance between notochord and ecto derm. Cutis plate recognizable. Septawell differentiated, fibrillae fiU one half of muscle cell.

Shows 32—34 myotomes.

Trunk and tail straight line. Neck and cephalic flexures less pronounced. Tail greatly

widened dorsoventrally at level of posterior limbs. Yolk mucli elongated, ventral surface convex, dorsal slightly concave in profile view. Mandibular arches strongly developed, ventral ends enlarged , not yet united. Pigment present in trunk and dorsal portion of head. Anterior

limb buds prominent, posterior shght elevations.

Horizontal section shows 36-38 myotomes. In anterior trunk region muscle plate extended ventrally to level of pronephric ducts. Cutis plate obscure.


Nervous System

mesenchyma inter vening.

Anterior end close

to hj'pophysis, äome mesenchyma intervening; posterior reaches end of spinal cord. Anterior end slightly enlarged. Yolkabsorbed in central

portion. Caudal end still in contact with neutral tube. Sheath better developed, not seg mented. Hypochorda not present.

Extends almost to hypophysis, some mesenchyma intervening. Knobbed

at anterior end. Greatest diameter at level of anterior

margin of yolk. Vacuolated throughout except near ends. In head and trunk considerable mesenchyma between notochord and neural tube. Sheath better developed. Mesenchymal thickenings in sheath indicate beginnings of intervertebral disks.


Extent as above. Epiphysis a small flattened Anterior end al- jvesicle; cavity in stalk obmost in contact 'literated. Posterior commiswith hypophysis, asure indicated. Lumen in small tract of optic stalk very small. Dorsal wall of diencephalon a Single layer of cells. Paraphysis and epiphysis both surrounded bj' mesench^'ma. Plica rhombomesencephalica a deep invagination. Infundibulum larger; ventral pro cess extending caudad, posterior wall single laj'er of cells, closely applied to antero-ventral wall of medulla. Cord oval in outline in cross section, ventral half narrower than dorsal. Layer of fibers on outside ot ventral half well defined. Yolk granules have nearly disappeared.

Velum transversum a single layer of cells. Beginning of choroid plexuses as two invaginations, one in front of paraphysis, other behind it. Posterior and anterior commissure appear. Infun^ dibulum extended laterally Commissura habenularis forming.

Walls of telencephalon differentiated into three layers, an outer fibrous layer, a niiddle laj'er of loose cells, and an inner layer of more compact cells. Chiasmacon tains few fibers. Paraphysis widely open, pear-shaped, some lateral diverticula. Anterior and posterior choroid plexuses formed. Posterior larger and more convoluted. Anterior and posterior commissures present. Anlage of

cummissura habenularis. Recessus lateralis small ; dorsal, lateral and median longitudinal zones well defined. Tuberculum |>o.sterius formed; contains commissure

Margins of optic cup are in close contact with ectoderm. Wall of retina thicker at bottom of cup, thinner at margin. Pigment layer thinner, consisting of a single layer of flat cells. Optic stalks longer, diameter smaller, lumen still present. Choroidal fissure present. Inner wall of lens thicker than outer, projecting into disk-like cavity.

Margin of optic cup more constricted. Cavity of optic ve siele still present in

margin of cup Optic stalk smaller, longer, communicates with third ventricle by very

narrow Channel. Lens more com pletely fills optic cup ; outer wall a Single layer of cells; inner wall much thickened. Mesen^ chyma increasing between lens and ectoderm. A few scattering mesen chyma cells in optic

cup. Choroidal

fissure nearly



Optic cup more constricted at margin coming in contact with lens. Retina much thickened excepting at margin where it is

abruptl}' tliinned indicating ora serrata. Pigment beginning to be formed in retina. Clearzone in retina next to vitreous. Indications of eye muscles.

Vesicle further

flattened on mesial surface and elongated antero-posteriorly. Ductus elongated, narrowed and more constricted at base; extends well up on sides

of medulla.

External wall a

Single layer of

flattened cells;

mesial wall


Beginnings of

lagenaandsemicircular canals.

Normal Plates of the Development of Nectunis mnculosus.





Digestive System, Liver Pancreas, Spleen

Nasal tube curvesdorso


Nasal Organ

an elongated

oval. Beco

ming sepa rated from


ectoderm by




layer of


around or gan indicates


of fibrous


Nasal tube deeper. Na

sal organ

elongated oval. Con densation of mesenchyma around peri phery of organ niore


Entirely free from

foregut. Lies close


infundi bulum. Surroun ded by

connective tissue

capsule. Yolk ab sorbed. No trace

of division into lobes. No







of mouth.

Roof and

floor of

oral ca vitj'clear ly defined but

cavity liUedwith

yolk bearing


Dorsal pancreas further

evaginated. Anlage of

s])leen as a small mass of

mesenchymal cells in

dorsal mesentery of


Walls of pliarynx consist of one or two layers ot flattened cells excepting posteriorly where still co'umnar. Oesophagus open. Stomach spindle-shaped, its walls composed of long columnar cells filled with yolk granules ; surrounded by two or three layers of densely packed mesenchymal cells representing the beginnings of its muscular walls. Midgut small, dorsal wall fairly well defined, ventral wall irregulär yolk cells. Cloaca a Wide chamber,yolk nearly absorbed in its dorsal wall. Liver further extended laterally, consists of 15 to 20 hepatic cords separated by sinusoids. Cells heavily laden with yolk. Gall bladder small but well defined. Cystic duct and hepatic duct open in common into the wide ductus choledochus and this opens widely into the intestina.

Gills, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea,


Gill-bearing arches

less prominent Gill bars better developed. Gill fila ments recognizablc

as slight buds.

Third and fourth

clefts perforate.

Tracheal evagina tion deeper, distal

end dilated, becom

ing pear-shaped.

Wall a Single layer

of cells.

Posterior portion of thyroid shows beginning of division into two parts. Tracheal diverticulum pear-shaped

lying in mesenchyma in median line below Oesophagus ; cells columnar; yolk being rapidly absorbed. Just anterior to tracheal diverticulum marked thickening in ventral wall of gut.

Gill bars longer. Gill filaments beginning. Second cleft between

hyoid and first branchial perforate,

third cleft perforate, fourth per forate, fifth not per forate. Anlage of thymus as proliferations of epithelium of dorsal portions of gill arches. Tracheal evagination longer more dilate'3 at distal end. Anlagen of lungs as lateral diverticula of distal end of trachea. Dorsal wall of

trachea thicker than ventral.

Urino fenital ystem

Heart and Blood Vessels

Proneph rostomic


constric ted.


tubuleslie opposite

2" or 3" somites. Mesone phros be gins in 9" Segment

from front and extends to

17". Best devel oped anteriorly. Posteriorly not metameric.

Branchial arches all contain blood vessels.

Partition separating auricles nearly complete. Truncus arteriosus larger. Primitive aortae large. Hepatic vein very large. Blood vessels present in anterior limb buds.

Auricle small and nearly spherical; lies just dorso-cephalad from ventricle. Ventricle turned to the right. Constriction indicates valves between auricle and ventricle. Sinus venosus verj' large ; it receives ductus Cuvieri, posterior cardinals and pronephric brauch ; also vein formed by internal and external jugulars. Vitelline vein very large; enters liver. Abdominal vein large, passes through liver, joins hepatic vein and other veins to form hepatic portal sj'stem , then enters sinus venosus. Large vessel on either side. Small vessels in posterior limbs. Vessels around nose and eye; also in pia mater. Dorsal aorta formed. Also subclavian and brachial arteries.


Pigment appearing. Anlage of basement membrane. Sense Organs developing.


Skull shows anläge of trabe culae in Condensed mesenchyma.

Anlage of trabe culae, Meckel's cartilage palato quadrate, basal

plate, hyoid arch, l", 2" and

3" branchial arches, first

basibranchial and faint indi cations of second basibranchial, also of occipital arches, all in Condensed

mesenchyma. Mandibular bars separated from each other ventrally also separated from basi cranial plates. Quadrate closely applied to Meckel's cartilage.

Cartilage appe^ aring around

outer portion of otic capsule.


Anterior limbs roject orsally. Posterior imbbuds more prominent.




better de veloped;




limb buds

slight ele


long axis

in hori





Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.





140 Trans.

144 Sag.

145 Front.


147 Trans.

156 Sag.

157 Front.


17 mm

18 mm


Body Form

38 days

40 days 20 hrs.

159 Trans.

160 Sag. 162 Front.

19 mm

43 days


164 Trans.

173 Sag.

174 Front.

20 mm



section shows

40 — 42 myo tomes.

Trunk and tail slightly concave in profile. Cervical flexure still präsent.

Cephalic flexure less marked. Tail very wide dorso ventrally. Yolk

more elongated, convex on ventral

surface, slightly concave on dorsal margin. Pigmentation more pronounced. Mandibular arches coalesced. Boundaries of other arches no longer visible.

46 days 2 hrs.


section shows

44 — 46 myo tomes.


Nervous System

Yolk not absorbed in anterior end. Vacuolated throughout. Mesenchyma between anterior

end and hypophysis. Posteriorly rests against neural tube. Not segmented. Beginnings of neural arches in cartilages.


Plexuses much less marked. Anterior end of brain formed by hemi-| spheres. Paraphysis well, developed; plexus extends into lateral ventricles and diencephalon. Lamina terminalis thick. Anterior commissure well defined, also commissura: habenularis. Lamina cere bellaris recognizable. Ganglion of trigeminal divided into two parts. Spinal cord rounder ; canal . shorter dorso-ventrally. Ganglia very large ; nerve roots well developed; nerve fibers appearing in ventral nerve roots. Anlage of pia mater.



section shows

48 — 50 myo tomes.

Optic cup flattened laterally, surrounded, except on outer surface, by Condensed mesenchyma. Retina

divided into two layers; contains some pigment. Anlage of iris present. Optic stalk smaller , cavity very small. Lens larger, spherical , inner wall fiUs cavitj- except narrow cleft. Anterior! wall a Single layer of cells. Lens fibers forming.

Dorso-ventrally compressed. Yolk granules still present in peripheral

portion. Neural arches better developed anteriorly.

Ear more extended antero-posteriorly. Utriculo-saccular partition beginning. Ductus endolymphaticus extends over lateral margins of meduUa toward median line; dilated at

distal end to form Saccus. Anlagen of lagena and semicircular canals. Periotic capsule forming in Condensed mesenchyma.

Pigment increased in posterior layer of optic

Spinal cord shows well defined layer of fibers entirely around it. Layer cup. Retina in three appear on exter is thicker in ventral half,

Periotic capsule beginning to

thin on dorsal portion. Transverse diameter of cord greater than dorsoventral. Around central canal a layer of cells

radiates from canal.

Nerve fibers numerous in

ventral roots of spinal


Cephalic flexure reduced. Axis of tail coincides exactly with axis of

trunk. Yolk reduced dorso - ven trally, more elonga ted, more pointed

at anterior end Dorsal and ventral

surfaces convex Pigment Ijetter developed.

Anterior end close

to hypophysis;

slightly knobbed.

Portion anterior to

heart much smaller

than remaining

portion; greatly

enlarged at level of

anterior margin of

yolk. Segmenta tion well marked

excepting in caudal

portion. Neural

arches in anterior

trunk region extend

dorsally to level of

middle of spinal


layers. Optic stalk still presents minute lumen; fibers bednning to be formed in its walls. Lens spherical ; posterior wall fills entire cavity; epithelium a Single layer of cuboidal cells

nai ventral side of ear.

Three la}xrs well defined in walls of fore brain Epiphysis a large oval vesicie with thin dorsal wall ; communication into third ventricie nearty cut off. Walls of paraphysis irregulär. Choroid plexus 1 extending into ventricles. Lateral lobes of infundibulum extended to level of mid brain. Cerebral peduncles formed in ventro - lateral walls of mesencephalon.


section shows

some 50—55

myotomes. In

anterior trunk

region muscle

plate wider,

extending ven trally over


margins of yolk.

Septa thicker.

Two thirds of

myoblast fibril


Optic cup flattened laterally. Ora serrata better defined. Beginnings of iris and ciliary body. Fibers in optic nerve better developed. Lens cells ar ranged concentrically; jfibers numerous ; marked chromatolysis in central portion.

Periotic capsule extends further dorso-mesially.

At level of anterior limbs notochord is much larger than spinal cord, at level of posterior limbs much smaller. Yolk not quite absorbed around periphery. Neural arches m anterior trunk region extend dorsally to top of spinal cord, not united; beginning in posterior trunk region ; in anterior caudal region indicated in procartilage.

Olfactory nerve connected with fibrous areas in hemispheres.

Layers of retina well defined ; pigment more dense. Lumen of optic stalk obliterated near

brain wall; exceedingly minute distally; fibers more numerous. In Center of lens nuclei

have nearly disappeared. Epithelium of lens a layer of cuboidal cells. Fibers well defined, more numerous, concentricallj' arranged. Eye muscles better developed.

Utriculo-saccular partition extends well into vesicle. Anterior semicircular canal better developed than the others. Macula acustica sacculi well defined. Periotic capsule surrounds ear except mesial surface.




Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gill, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea,


Urino fenital ystem









Nasal organ connected with surface ectoderm by short stalk. Clear zone in cells much wider. Organ nearly in contact with cerebral hemispheres , separated only by a very thin

layer of mesenchyma. Fibrous capsule denser. Tube much longer; narrowed along distal half; stalk extends

dorso-caudally ; body extends directly caudally. Ven tral portion of wall

Vi thickness of dorsal.

First indications of olfactory nerve.

A solid mass of cells; detached from ectoderm.


not yet




well de fined but


yolk bearing


Organ further elongated caudally. Depressions forming around exterior indicating beginning of lobulation. Capsule not so well detined as in preceding stage. Organ connected with anterior end of foregut by a solid cord of cells. Pigment beginning to grow around stalk. Olfactory nerve in connection with brain.

Great elongated transversely.

Mouth a


trans verse



still mied

with cells.

Oesophagus occluded. Liver lies for most part on right side of body. Tubules widely separated by sinusoids. Spleen consists of two masses of cells one lying on each .side of mescntery

Evaginations in wall of stomach indicate beginning of glands. Gall bladder shows as well defined vesicie with columnar epithelial walls.

Lumen of stomach sharply marked. Epithelium long columnar cells, still laden with yolk granules. Muscular walls beginning to be formed. Yolk nearly absorbed in posterior end of cloacal walls. Liver further developed ; contains larger number of tubules more compactly arranged. Sinusoids smaller. Gall bladder larger and better defined. Cystic duct and ductus chole^ dochus formed. Dorsal pancreas narrower, its lumen, where it enters gut, constricted to form a duct. An lagen of ventral pancreases appear as dorso-lateral evaginations of ductus choledochus.

Groove Boundary between stomach and intesdeeper. tine sharply marked owing to greater

Anlage ofabsorption of yolk in epithelium of teeth. stomach and formation of muscular

Anlage of wall of stomach. Intestine now much tongue. coiled. Cloaca differentiated from intestine by greater absorption of yolk. j Oesophagus occluded. Faint sacculations indicate beginning of glands in wall of stomach. Hepatic cords widely scattered, separated by large sinusoids. Cells filled with yolk granules. Gall bladdersmall,lined with columnar epithelium. Empties by cystic duct into ductus choledochus. Dorsal pancreas well differentiated; duct larger except where it enters intestine. Ventral pancreases contain few tubules. Theirtwo Short ducts j oin cystic duct as it emerges from liver to enter ductus choledochus.

Gill filaments more prominent. Division of thyroid deeper making two lines of cells at di.stal portions. Anterior thymus beginning to be detached from gill arches. Distal portion of tracheal evagination lying closely against ventro-mesial portion of anterior end of stomach. Anlagen of right and left lungs in form of tubular evaginations lying in mesenchyma below lateral margins of Oesophagus. Tulses

extend caudally to level of posterior portion of heart.

Gill bars much elongated. Gill filaments

better developed. Lungs show now as pair of lateral tubular diverticula ; epithelium low columnar, nuclei occupying peripheral Position. Anlage of pleura as layer of cuboidal cells. Some mesenchyma between lungs and Oesophagus




Open into



Thyroid divided into

two portions which are

Seen in transverse

sections as small

groups of cells lying

just dorso-laterally from the sterno-hyoid muscle. Lungs slightly longer.

Gills longer; many filaments. Tltymus, first and second portions detached from gill arches, third still

connected. Lungs longer, further evaginated, lumina larger Epithelium low columnar, heaviljr laden with yolk granules. Tips reach nearly to level of anterior margin of liver.


ends me sonephric





and in folded.




Pronephros beginning to degenerate Mesonephros extends over 8 Segments,

beginning with the 9". Not segmentally arranged. as tubules.

Pronephric tubules still open into coelom. Anlage of bladder as slight evagination of ventral wall of cloaca.

Beginnings of trabeculae in ventricle.

Thickened to 4 layers over head.

Glands and Sense cells developed. Few

Pigment cells in


Cells of co rium slightly flattened.


begin ning to



con dition.

Walls of ven tricle


thin ;


few tra beculae

Ear liest



in mid


region. Sense Organs developed.

Skin glands

in dorsal regioii well developed. Corium cells flattened. Basement membrane formed.

Trabeculae extend forward to optic nerve; curved downward at anterior end; caudally are continuous with ba sal plate; at level of posterior margin of ear they come together at sides of notochord and grow up on each side of meduUa. Labial cartilages small, united in me' dian line. Anlage ofse^ cond basibranchial. Earliest tracesofossification in base of skull. Layer of Condensed mesenchyma around nasal pits. Otic capsule extending me sially over dorsal and ventral surface of ear.

Walls of otic capsule chondrified except on

median and dorsal sides. Neurapophyses appearing in anterior

portion of trunk region. Pectoral girdle

chondrified ; narrow scapular portion extending to level of notochord ; larger ventral portion (coracoid) about half as long as scapular. Humerus chond rified; radius and ulna in procartilage.

Beginningdifferentiation of hypohyal and cerato hyal, also of first hypobranchial and ceratobranchial. Second basi branchial developed. Antorbital process formed. Condensed mesenchyma indicates position of inner nasal plate. Anterior ends of Meckel's cartilage uni ted by procartilage; also lateral margins ofposte rior arches. Occipital processes fused with wall of otic capsule.

No cartilage in pelvic girdle. Anlage ofneurapophysis throughout trunk region, none in tail. Neural arches in anterior portion extend dorsallv to top of spinal cord; not united. Caudally neural arches indicated in procartilage. Ossification beginning around extremities of Meckel's cartilage.

Anterior and posterior limbs short stumps.

Anterior limbs I mm long; project dorsocaudally. Posterior limbs .5 mm long

Anterior limbs project caudally;

anläge of digits Posterior limb buds pointing caudally.






175 Trans.

180 Sag.

181 Front.


182 Trans.

183 Sag.

184 Front.


21 mm

22 mm

49 days

Axis of head, trunk and tail coincide with line slightly arched upward overyolk. Yolk elongated, narrowed dorso-ventrally; narrowest portion anterior; viewed from above pear-shaped, narrow end anterior. Tailvery wide dorso-ventrally. Irregulär band of pigment along side of body. Anterior limbs project postero-ventrally three digits formed. Posterior limbs ]iroject caudad.

52 days

Body Form



186 Trans. 188 Sag. 191 Front.

23 mm

55 days

Caudal portion filamentous with slight knob at extreme end ; still rests against neural tube. Mesenchymal thickenings in sheath present in caudal portion.

Nervous System



Flexures less marked. Hemispheres extendi far in front of diencephalon. Epiphysis and paraplu'sis large. Plica rhombomesen-' cephalica well defined.

Lamina cerebellaris

Short; commissura superior and posterior

and habenularis all well developed. Spinal

ganglia very large.

Nerves well developed.

Anterior end of notochord separated from hypophysis by thinlayerof mesenchyma. Surrounded by very dense membrane. Slightlj' constricted at level of mesenchymal condensations indicating boundaries of vertebrae. Indications of ossification in sheath. Anlage of haemal arches in anterior portion of tail.

Ganglionic layers of retina marked off from inner layer; layer of rods and cones indicated by layer of elongated celis. Pigment pro miiient in iris. Epithelium of lens flat on outer surface, cuboidal on inner,

Paraphysis shows few

lateral diverticula. Ganglion habenulare and tuberculum posterius well defined. Commissura cerebellaris formed, also commissura anterior and commissura pallii anterior. Layer of fibrous matter around cord thicker. Band of cells on dorsal border of cord larger, dorsal half of central canal nearly closed. Pia mater better defined.

Does not quite reach posterior end of neural tube. Yolk absorbed except at extreme anterior end. Sheath strongly developed. Constrictions better marked. Neural arches developed throughout body; meet dorsally in trunk region but not in tail. Ossification beginning in anterior neural arches. Haemal arches better defined in tail. Where neural processes are given off notochord is compressed laterally giving it a triangulär outline in cross section.

Rods and cones recognizable. Iris more deeply pig mented; lies close against epithelium oflens. Optic nerve well differentiated ;

still contains minute lumen near eye. Anlage of Cornea as single layer of mesenchymal cells.

Utriculo-saccu lar partition extends about half way across vesicle. Semicircular canals

partially enclosed in cartilage. Periotic capsule entirely surrounds ear.

Rods and cones better defined; outer and inner nuclear layers indicated ; ganglionic layer well defined. Pigment dense in

retina and iris; some pigment in choroid. Lens epithelium flatter. Sclerotic indicated band of dense mesenchyma.



Organ longer, becoming slightly concave on ventral surface. Further indications of lobulations.

Nasal duct

opens into

Pharynx on

one side.


tissue and

blood vessels

extend into

ventral wall

giving it a

much lobulated appearance;


wall also



Nasal tubes

open into

Pharynx on

both sides.

Mouth Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea, Lung


cavity still


Mouth broken through.

Posterior median portion of cavity still contains yolk-bearing cells. Papulae of teeth formed.

Glands better defined. Nu dilTerentiation into

pyloric and cardiac glands. Liver roughly triangulär in section, has extended cautially. Uall bladder still small, lining still a Single layer of columnar cells filled with yolk granules. Hepatic cords more definite owing to absorption of yolk. Dorsal pancreas lumen and duct snialler. Several small tubulär evaginations Coming off from it. Ventral pancreas lobules not distinct. Spleen an elongated massot cells compressed dorso • ventrally Ij'ing in mesentery just above stomach.

Dorsal pancreas smaller, tubules fewer. Yolk absorbed in cells. Pro zymogen granules ab undant.

Posterior portion of liver has extended dorsally to level of posterior portion of stomach; contains few bile ducts. Cells loaded with 3'olk. Tubules much more compact; sinusoids narrower, changing to capillaries. Gall bladder larger, cells in wall low columnar or cuboidal, free from yolk. Dorsal

pancreas 6 — 8 tubules. Ventral as above. Spleen

larger, more vascular.

Gills further devel oped showing

greater numl)er of

filaments. Gill

clefts open be tween hyoid and

first branchial

arches, between

first and second

archesand between

second and third

branchial arches

but fifth cleft not

open. Lumina of

lungs still larger.

Tips of lungs reach

anterior margin of


Trachea larger and

longer. Lungs longer, caudal ends behmd heart, over anterior portion of liver. Walls better defined, epithelium

cuboidal. Yolk nearly all absorbed.

Trachea smaller, lining layer of cells flat. Lungs much farther distended laterally, extending to extreme lateral

margins of the liver. Pleura consist of layer of closely apposed cuboidal cells.

Urinogenital System

Glome ruli well






Pronephric tuljules reduced

Heart and Blood Vessels

Auricles further

developed. Cavity of ven tricle large, walls thin,many

trabeculae. Walls oftruncus much thicker than those of Conus. Valves beginning to be formed between Conus and ventricle ; also between Conus and truncus.


Cells of Stratum germinativum


Glands and

sense organs





larger; sunk

below level

of epider mis; contain

lumen. Cells

of Stratum

germina tivum elongated flattened.

Procartilage present in Anterior

pclvic girdle and in limbs feniur. Ossification in project side walls of brain case, caudoalso in base. Anlage of vcntrally; dentale as ossified plate digits on external surface of plainly Meckel's cartilage. Be- defined. ginning of angulare as[ Posterior thin plate of bone. Indi- limbbuds cations of mento-mandi- project bulare. Ossification be- caudad. ginning in premaxilla and in quadrate.


Occipital arch growing up from sides of notochora ; below uniting posterior

ends of parachordals. Parachordals fused with basal plates. Traceoftrabecular crest to which process of quadrate is attached. Short otic process fused with otic capsule. Coracoid process extends nearly to ventral margin of liver; scapular extends to upper margin of notochord. Humerus

larger; glenoid cavity very deep. Ulna and radius chondrified. Anlage of carpals and metacarpals. Pelvic girdle chondrified ; consists of dorsal iliac portion and ventral pubic portion. Femur chondrified; anlagen of tibia and fibula.

Floor of otic capsule nearly complete. Ossification beginning in parasphenoid also in parle tals and frontajs. Anlage of vomer. Neural arches

developed throughout body; meet dorsal!}' in trunk, not in tail. Haemapophyses appearing in anterior portion of tail. Ossification beginning in neural arches. Bone well developed around

Centers of vertebrae. Traces of ossification in

scapula and humerus.






192 Trans.

196 Sag.

197 Front.


198 Trans.

199 Sag.

200 Front.

24 mm


58 days

Body Form

25 mm

61 days



Nervous System

Flexures as In anterior above, yolk trunk region elongated, dia-j myotomes meter reduced wider occudorso-ventrally pying four

Anterior end in contact with parasphe noid but does not reach level of hypophysis. Constrictions

opposite bases of neural arches more

marked anteriorly. Ossification well marked around sheath. Haemal arches approximating ventrally in tail. Anlage of lateral basal process in cartilage in anterior portion of body.

Paraphysis with many

lateral diverticula; still

opens into third ventricle

Eminentia Pallii medialis

well defined, also corpus

striatum (?). Pallium and

subpallium differentiated

Septum ependymale

present. Beginning of

taenia fornicis.

and laterally. Tail broader, less pointed. Surface more

fifths of Space between notochord and

deeply pigmen-skin; extented;bandsmore ded venmarked. Roth trally to

anterior and lower margin posterior limbs of j'olk.

possess four Myoblasts in digits. Pigment upper por bands more tion of myosharply defined. tome completely filled withfibrillae.



201 Trans.

204 Sag.

205 Front.

26 mm

64 days 4 hrs.

In anterior portion much compressed late rall}', more compressed at bases of neural processes. At level of anterior limbs

smaller than spinal cord; in trunk region and at level of pos terior limbs large as

cord; in tail about twice the diameter of cord. Yolk all absorbed. Haemal arches well developed, free ends coalesced. Ossification very considerable in neural arches

and notochordal sheath. Lateral basal processes better developed throughout trunk region.

Compressed dorso- All divisions of brain ventrally in anterior clearly defined. Plexuses


Ductus endolymphaticus extends over dorso-lateral walls of medulla;stalkvery narrow but still widelyopeninto sacculus. Semicircular canals

better developed ; all partially enclosed in

cartilage. Lagena a more extended evagination. Anlagen of pars neglecta and macula acustica neglecta. Macula acustica sacculi two layers of cells thick.

part of body, laterally in posterior part. Anterior end surrounded by hone.

extending from hemi spheres tomeduUa. Optic nerves verj' small, hollow near brain. Mid brain

Short, slightly arched. Ganglia habenulae large, symmetrical. Velum transversum contains numerous large blood vessels. Infundibulum wider than mid brain.

Cerebellum extremely small. Spinal cord oval in section. White matter on outside thickest in lateral portions. Dorsal colunins large, broader anteriorly. Central canal very small nearh' circular in section. Some yolk granules still present in cells of cord. Pia mater well developed.

Eye not so much flattened laterall}'. Retina shows la\'er of rods and cones, outer nuclear layer, outer reticular layer, inner reticular layer, ganglionic layer. External limiting membrane well defined. Choroid better differentiated; pigment layer closely apposed to pigmented layer of retina.

Lens spherical, surrounded by a capsule of a isingle layer of flattened cells. Fibers well develjoped. No nuclei in center. Posterior Chamber contains a few mesenchymal cells. Corneal epithelium

in two layers. Eye muscles weil developed.

Normal Plates of the Development of Necturus maculosus.




Wall of




of two

layers of



Antero lateral

wall very

thin. Lobula tions prominent. Epithelium of dorsal wall ciliated. Olfactory nerve clearly defined,

Lies against floor of


surroun ded by

a connec tive

tissue capsule.

More lobulated.

Blood vessels growing

into it.


Entire mouth open. Oesophagus open. Teeth projecting


into mouth cavity,


Tongue better developed.

Glands in stomach well lormed. In anterior half numerous, flaskshaped ; in posterior half tubulär. Both kinds unbranchedJ Yolk absorbed in epithelial cells of stomach also in hindgut; midgut cells still heavily laden. Oesophagus open. Liver extends further caudally and dorsally. Hepatic cords more closely approximated. Yolk partially absorbed. Both dorsal and ventral pancreases larger, showing greater number of tubules. Spleen lies pressed against dorsal wall of body cavity; surrounded by thm layer of connective tissue; shows numerous dividing cells; much connective tissue.


transver sely.

Divided into two portions

composed of

cells of different

staining capacity,

anterior partmore






and more


Unicel lular glands in epithelium of mouth




exten ding into




well defined.

Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea,


Urino-genital System

Yolk nearly absorbed in liver.

Unicellular glands present m mouth, pharynx, Oesophagus and hindgut. Extreme anterior portion of stomach contains no glands. Pyloric glands much branched. Intestine lies in to 5 transversa coils. Cavity of small intestine widely open Muscular walls better develo ped. Epithelium consists of Single layer of long columnar

yolk-laden cells. Hindgut larger; yolk absorbed; anterior part shows evaginations (glands of Lieberkühn?). Liver lies closely in contact with dorsal wall of coelomic cavity. Yolk all absorbed. Gall bladder very large, surrounded by a layer of connective tissue, epithelium flat. Dorsal pancreas hasgrown caudally and containsso or more tubules ; ventral contains about 12 tubules, is about Va size of dorsal. Ducts of both lined with cubical epithelium.

Trachea longer reaching to caudal region of heart be fore dividing. Lungs longcr, walls better defined, still very thick. Caudal ends detached from intestinal wall except for Short thin mesentery. Epithelium becoming flattened. Mesenchyma less compact. Lungs extend over anterior two thirds of liver later ally to dorsolateral margins of liver. Posteriorly attached by band of mesenchyma to lateral margins of wall of stomach.

Gills more prominent; filaments

much branched. All clefts perforate

excepting fifth. Lateral portion of

thyroid contains

small irregulär

vessels. Pleura proximally layer of

flattened cells. Some mesenchyma

between pleura

and epithelium of



reduced in size.

Tubules cut off

from coelom ? Duct

(Ureter) opens into

cloaca. Meso nephric tubules

greatly convol uted ; extends from

g" to 17" somite.

Bladder comes off

from cloaca near

point where Ureters

enter. Sexual cells, a Single row of cells containing large yolk granules. Opposite 15" Segment.

Thymus consists of three spherical

epithelial patches on each side. Two lie close together opposite posterior portion of ear.

Anterior largest; posterior much the smallest. Trachea much larger, walls thinner, epithelium flatter. Lungs much

larger, tapering caudally to end at level of posterior limbs; are attached to intestinal wall and to liver by short

mesentery. Left

lung larger than

right and extends

further caudad.

Heart and Blood Vessels

Glands appearing in ventral region, anteriorly and posteriorly; numerous in lateral portion. Sense Organs more numerous.




Pronephros dege nerating. Extends from middle of 3" Segment to middle of 4", hanging down into body cavity. Duct very small. No openings into body

cavity discernible. Mesonephros extends from 15" to 20" Segments. Ducts open into cloaca. Bladder oval, thick-walled, much folded, opening into cloaca by Short Urethra, surrounded by connective tissue. Sexual glands two rods of large oval cells extending from 13" to 18" Segment, just ventrad of mesonephros.


nearly same

size in trans verse




very large.



divided lon gitudinally.


appearing in

walls of





sinus and



cells and sense Organs more numerous. Sensory

hairs evident. Stratum corneum very flat



germina tivum



Skin glands present in abdominal region. Stratum corneum a layer of

squamous cells. Basement membrane dense.

Supra-scapula well

fornied in cartilage extending dorsally to level of spinal cord. Tibia and tibula chondrified; no tarsals or metatarsals. Ilium and pubis larger. Mesenchyme around nasal pits. Ossification beginning around margin of trabeculae. Parasphenoids forming as long plates on lower margin of basal plates extending forward to region of eye. Vomer ossified. Frontal ossified at sides and posterior end. Neural spines beginning to appear

anteriorly. Indications of ossification in

femur. Ossification

beginning in neural

processes and in

haemal arches.

Basilar plate continu ous with capsular floor and trabeculae. Jugular foramen formed elongated. Otic process of quadrate united with otic capsule. Antorbital process further developed. Haemapophyses well developed; not united ventrally. Ossification in phalanges of anterior limb, also in iliac process.



Limbs better

defined; anterior reach ventrally

to border

of yolk. Digits better defined

in both.


Internasal cartilage connects trabeculae

anteriorly. Pubic bones united in median line. Tarsals and metatarsals chondrified. Palatopterj'goid and sphenoid ossified

in posterior portion.



Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.





Body Form



Nervous System




206 Trans.

207 Sag. 209 Front.

27 mm

67 days


210 Trans.

211 Sag.

212 Front.

28 mm

70 days 4 hrs.

General coutour of body much changed, owing to rapid absorption of yolk. Tail broader dorso ventrally. Constricted at level of

posterior limbs.

Yolk very long oval, flatter on ventral surface. Pigmentation extend ing down over one half of lateral

surface of yolk.


213 Trans.

214 Sag. 216 Front.

2g mm

74 days 12 hrs.


217 Trans.

218 Sag.

219 Front.

30 mm

78 days

In anterior trunk region

myotomes wider occupying nine tenths of Space between notochord and skin;

extend ventrally to median line where they coalesce.

Chorda more compressed laterally at points where neural arches come in con tact. In trunk region and in region of posterior limbs transverse diameter equals that of spinal cord; in tail region diameter twice as great as that of cord. Beginning ossi fication in haemal arches.

Much constricted in region where cartilages are in contact with body of verte-; brae. Thickenings of sheath to form inter-, vertebral disks betterj marked. Cartilagesj lie between layer of

bona and sheath. Ossification beginning in lateral basal processes. Cartilaginous ribs present.

Brain and cord nearly in straight line. Groove present between diencephalon and mesencephalon. Deep groove in front of cerebelluni Plexuses large filling greater

portion 01 3^ ventricle extending into lateral ventricles and into 4'!' ventricle. Distal end of paraphj'sis lies on level with epiphj'sis. All commissures better defined. Brain fills brain case at anterior end, not posteriorly. Spinal cord does not nearly fill canal. Dorsal columns of cord well defined; gray commissure present between them and gray matter of cord. Central canal very small, circular in section

Ear much extended antero-posteriorly compressed dorsoventrally. Ossification beginning in external portion ofotic capsule.

Endolvmphatic sac wider; duct narrower. Cristae acusticae of canals formed. Macula

acustica sacculi a thickened area of epithelium three rows

deep. Semicircular

canals enclosed in cartilage. Ossification

more extended on

lateral surface of peri otic capsule.




Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea, Lung

Urino-genital System

Hoart and Blood Vessels





Intestine crosses ab- Lungs reach to dominalcavityö— 7time.s. level of caudal

Dorsal portion of liver

connected by narrow band with ventral portion. Hepatic cords closer to gether. Few hepatic ducts. Dorsal and ventral pancreases not in

contact )'et. Tubules more numerous in dorsal.

Caudal portion of liver occupies over one half of coelomic cavity. Numerous hepatic ducts. Dorsal and ventral pancreases in contact. Dorsal much the larger. Spleen longer; compressed dorso - ven trally between intestine and dorsal body wall Connective tissue more abundant.

end of liver.

Walls oftrachea and lungs very

thin; surroun ded by mass of

mesenchyma. Lungs flattened

against stomach. Epi thelium thinner; pleural cover ing very thin

Gills better developed, pig' mented. Filaments greatly increased in number. Second, third and fourth gill clefts widely open to exterior; first and fifth imperforate.

Under lip

marked by a

very deep


groove. No

Upper lip.


being cut off

on ventral

surface by

deep lateral

constric tion.

Extreme anterior end of

stomach contains no glands except unicellular. In anterior portion flaskshaped glands are larger

and more numerous. Middle and posterior portion contains branched tubulär glands. Intestinal

epithelium better de^ fined; still contains yolk granules. Hindgut contains branched glands

Long process of liver extending posterior to gall bladder; another in median line extending over dorsal wall of gut.

Right lung lies against margin of liver; caudal end in contact with spieen.

Pronephric ducts smallbut still open

Mesonephros begins 3 or 4 seg ments behind pronephros and extends over about 10 Segments. Bladder epithelium short columnar cells, en closed in connective tissue. Walls

much folded. Sexual glands ex tend from 14" to 20" Segments. Yolk granules present in posterior portion.

Unicellular gland and sense Organs very numerous. Sensory

hairs projecting bey ond surface.

Ossification be ginning in haemal arches.

Ossification well defined in haemal arches.

Pericardium well defined, very thin, detached from muscular wall. Auricles widely in communication with each other. Blood passes into ventricle by Single opening on left side. Valves present in this opening. Semilunar valves between ventricle and Conus appear as extended proliferations of wall. Valves also present between conus and truncus.

Mucous glands larger, abundant, none on ventral surface. Unicellular glands more nu




pigmen ted, both


func tional.





on each.

All the carti lages of carpus andtarsusmeta

carpus and metatarsus and

phalanges formed. Middle

portion of Meckel's cartilagesurrounded by bone. Premaxillae and frontals well ossified. Cartiläge appearing

in center of

body of verte brae.








Body Form



220 Trans.

221 Sag. 223 Front.


224 Trans.

225 Sag.

226 Front.

31 mm

82 days 12 hrs.

32 mm


227 Trans.

229 Sag.

230 Front.

33 mm

87 days

92 days


Nervous System



In caudal region larger than spinal cord. Moreconstricted in Centers of vertebrae. Intervertebral cartilages more prominent. Layer of bona thicker.


231 Trans.

232 Sag.

34 mm

97 days

General form of body resembles adult. Ventral surface of head and trunk nearly in straight line. Anterior and posterior limbs project far below ventral surface of body. Pigmentation bands more precisely marked. Dorsal median dark band, below this a light band, then a broad dark band.

Bone surrounding anterior end thicker.

Ribs better developed ; extend one half of distance to lateral surface of body.

Neural arches at base more completely ossified.




Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Gills, Thyroid, Thymus, Trachea, Lung

Urino-genital System


and Blüod Vessels





Compressed anteriorly

between in fundibulum

and floor

of skull;



Much lobulated.

Liver still larger in caudal portion occupying

Tip of lung at caudal end of liver. Dorsal walls

'/j of body cavity. Has of lungs in region anteseveral hepatic ducts jrior to liver very much

entering cystic duct. Gall thinner than ventral wall

bladder removed some distance from ventral pancreas. Dorsal and

ventral pancreases have

united into a continuous mass.

Lumen of intestine

larger; epithelium a

Single layer of poorly

defined cells. Muscular

wall very thin, a single

layer of cells. Few

hepatic ducts seen in

body of liver; a few

enter the cystic duct.

Dorsal pancreas tubules

compactly arranged.

Lungs very much larger, owing to thinness of walls

very much collapsed. Tips of lungs still show

embryonic condition Cartilages formed in walls of trachea. Epithelium of lateral walls of trachea much thicker than dorsal

and ventral walls. Trachea in anterior por

tion shows columnar cells; ciliated ? At level of heart epithelium flat

Pronephros compres sed dorso- ventrally; extends over one seg ment. Mesonephros extends over about 10 Segments.

Posterior portion of liver

divided by transverse fissure into smaller dorsal and larger ventral portion. Gall bladder very laige;

extends far caudal of liver; lined with flattened epithelium. Cystic duct larger and longer. Pancreas large extending around dorsal and lateral

portion of intestine.

Ducts open into cystic

duct; show numerous

branches with tubules

emptying into them.

Spleen larger, more


Intestine forms 6 or 7 transverse folds. Intestinal cavity very large Muscular wall of midgut consists of two or more layers of cells. In hind gut unicellular glands very numerous. Dorsal and ventral pancreases more intimately united ; dorsal larger and contains

greater number of tubules. Spleen lies just to left of median line in concavity in dorsal wall ot stomach.

Sexual glands extend far forward ; begin to project down into body cavity; more distinctly separated from mesonephros.

Trar.heal cartilages better developed at | anterior end. Lungs on either side of stomach. Walls irregularly folded. Left lung still notably shorter than right and lying nearer mesial plane of body.

Pronephros smaller; lumina of many tubules obliterated; duct degenerating. Mesonephros extends from 9" or 10" Segment over about 13 Segments. Müllerian duct not formed yet.

Unicellular glands extremely numerous.




Scapula flattened

laterally, broad antero - posteriorly. Coracoids meet in

mid-ventral line.

Ossification beginning in pectoral and pelvic girdles, also in humerus and femur. Sphenoid ossified. Parietals ossified in median portion. Opistho ticum ossifying, also occipital arch.

Limbs much

longer. Digits





233 Sag.

48 a


234 Trans.

236 Sag.

237 Front.



Body Form

36 mm

38 mm

39 mm

110 days

126 days

Has practically reached adult condition except in color ation. Same bands prominent as in preceding stage. Lateral band mottled.



Anterior end at level of hypophysis, some times beyond it.

Intervertebral carti lages thicker. Bodies

of vertebrae more

constricted. Layer of

bone around cord


Nervous System

Ossification very

complete in neural

spines and basal pro cesses in ribs, and in

haemal arches; be

ginning in haemal




Eye nearly spherical, slightly flattened laterally. Retina as in

26 mm excepting

ganglionic layer is one cell thick. Othei layers together with external and internal

limiting membrane sharply defined. Iris, choroid, Cornea and sclerotic as in 26 mm.

Lens capsule cells

much more elongated









Digestive System, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

Compressed ; extended laterally. Contains

many tubules.

Epithelium of pharynx con sists of 2 or 3 layers of flat cells containing numerous unicellular glands. Oesophagus thrown into numerous longitudinal folds; epithelium columnar, ciliated, with unicellular glands. Muscular wall very thin. Liver very large. Lies on right side. In frontal section outline is long triangle, in transversa section an equilateral triangle. Posterior end shows several irregulär processes. Pancreas elongated cephalocaudallj'. Anterior portion flattened and closely applied to dorso-mesial wall of mtestine. Posteriorly greatly thickened and roughly triangulär in shape. Posterior end lies on right side.

Anterior wall of stomach thin; circular band of inus cular fibers very thin, in creasing in thickness toward pylorus. Epithelium columnar. Submucosa developed. Extreme anterior end free from glands. Flask-shaped glands confined to anterior portion. Enlarged part of glands consists of a Single layer of very flat cells ; duct, cuboidal or columnar. Middle and posterior portion of stomach contains branched tubulär glands. In pyloric portion epithelium is thrown into longitudinal folds. Inner ends of cells form a striated border which extends into intestine. Liver

contains numerous bile

ducts. Hepatic cords well

defined. Highly vascular.

Gills. Thyroid,

Thymus, Trachea,


Urino-genital System

Heart and Blood Vessels



far into





in front.

Taste buds well developed in epithelium of tongue.

Intestine shows strong circular and longitudinal bands. Walls thrown into longitudinal folds. Lumen greatly expanded at level of posterior limbs forming rectum? Epithelium columnar. Unicellular glands more numerous posteriorly. Gall bladder large oval, extends caudally beyond liver. Walls formed of a single layer of flat cells. Cystic duct large. Pancreas composed of branched tubules. Dorsal portion opens by a single duct just caudally of stomach : ventral portion smaller, opens by two ducts. Spleen lies on left side, in frontal or sagittal section long, oval pointed in front. Arrangement of cells suggesting tubules.

Gills all developed. Second, third and fourth arches perforate, first and fifth not broken

through. Thyroid small, halves widely separated; consists of 20 — 30 large vesicles. Lies close against first epibranchial. Many vesicles filled with colloidal material. Trachea at caudal end much larger than Oesophagus. Divides at level of glenoid cavity. Lungs much longer extending some distance behind liver. Right lung larger than left and extends further caudad. Epithelium very thin and flat.




Lumina of many

tubules obliter ated. Duct



extends from 9'

or 10" Segment

over about

13 Segments.

Müllerian duct

not formed. Bladder large, wide transversely, thin-walled, extending

well forvvard

beyond pelvis

Sexual glands

nearly coexten sive with


Heart well developed. Auricles well defined folded over ventricle. Imperfect ventricular septum. Ventricle with numerous muscular trabeculae. Truncus arteriosus thick walled : conus thin. Branchial arteries well developed. Pulmonary arteries and veins very small. Hepatic veins very large; they unite to form sinus venosus which erapties into the right auricle. Internal and external jugulars present;

jugular sinus well

marked. Splenic, gastric

and mesenteric veins

formed. Caudal vein

gives off' branches to

form renal portal system.

Arteries and veins in

limbs complete.

Skeleton Limbs Stage

Internasal cartilage

well defined. Lateral and dorsal wall of brain Capsula now a thin layer of bone. Bone in whole extent of lower jaw. Nasal capsule formed in

cartilage. Hypo hyal much larger.

Second hypobran chial still very

small. Cartilage appearing around orbit. Membrane

bones of skull generally formed. Tibia and fibula, tarsals and meta tarsals ossified.


48 a


Some Variations in External Structures.

Before the individual variations are considered in detail it should be stated that a given nest contains but few eggs that are in precisely the same stage of development. The difFerences are inost obvious in the early stages up to the closure of the neural fold. PVom the closure of the neural folds to the 39 mm larva the variations are not so pronounced, yet there are innumerable minor variations.

In the following descriptions the principal variations observed in the external features are first recorded, then those observed in the sections.


In the cleavage stages, from the second on to late cleavage, there is so much Variation in the Position, extent and rate of progress of the various grooves that it is impossible to record them. Some of the variations have been described elsewhere (1904 b) by the senior author.


Some Variation is found in the position of the first line of invagination which forms the dorsal lip of the blastopore. Its first appearance may be along a line equidistant from the equator and the vegetative pole or it may form nearer the equator and again sometimes nearer the vegetative pole. The first line of invagination may be nearly straight and again it may be decidedly crescentic. The maximal diameter of the yolk plug may equal one half the diameter of the egg. The closure of the blastopore usually occurs in about six days but it may close in five days.

Closure of neural folds.

Variations in the closure of the neural fold are frequently observed. The coalescence of the lateral portions of the fold usually begins at the posterior end. Sometimes they first coalesce along the middle portion of the embryo. Usually the transverse portion of the fold is continuous ; at other times it shows a deep transverse groove which separates it into right and left halves. Cf. Figs. 18, 19, 20, 21. Wide variations exist in depth, width and extent of the neural groove.

Appearance of optic vesicles.

The optic vesicles are usually present before the complete closure of the neural fold. Sometimes they are present as disc-like depressions in the neural plate before the lateral portions of the fold have begun to coalesce; again, but rarely, they are not visible until the folds have closed.

Neuromeres (?).

There are frequently observed in the cephalic region well marked serial elevations and depressions along the inner margins of the lateral folds and across the neural plate. In other embryos there is not the slightest trace of either.


In some embryos three myotomes are differentiated before the neural folds are closed, while in others there are no traces of myotomes until the folds are closed. The number of myotomes early becomes exceedingly variable in the tail. It is here impossible to count them accurately either in surface views or in sections. In the trunk i. e. betvveen the limbs from the 15 — 16 mm larva up to the 39 mm they seem to be fairly constant numbering 18—20. In the tail however they are variable, so that in larvae of identical lengths there may be a Variation of 1—5 myotomes. It should be emphasized that the number in the tail is determined with great difficulty since the most caudal are but slight thickenings in the mesoderm.

Lateral curvature of body.

In the embryos of 8 — 15 mm there is much Variation in the lateral curvature of the body. In some rests as high as 80 7o of the embryos have the head and tail curved to the right. Other nests show a like percentage in which the head and tail are curved to the left. Out of 328 eggs, taken from five nests, 174 had the concave side on the right and 154 on the left.

External gills.

In most embryos of 9 mm (Fig. 25) the fourth and fifth arches are a common mass with no indications of the line of division; in some the line of invagination is distinct. In the later stages (e. g. 25 mm) there are usually five or six filaments on the middle gill bar, in others there are eight or nine. This variation is even more pronounced in the 26 — 39 mm larvae.


Some variations have been noted in the time of appearance of both the anterior and the posterior limb buds. The anläge of the anterior limb is usually discernible in the 11 mm stage (Fig. 27), but sometimes not until the larva measures 12 mm. The posterior limb buds are usually beginning in the 12 mm stage, sometimes are not present until the larva measures 13 mm. In the formation of the digits variations are found. Three are usually present on the anterior limbs in the 20—21 mm larva. In some three are not present until the larva is 23 mm long. The same Variation is observed in the time of formation of the fourth digit on the anterior limb. Similar variations are found in the time of formation of the posterior digits.


Although little Variation is observed in the position of the bands there is much Variation in the degree of pigmentation. These differences are most pronounced in the larvae between 19—25 mm. In some the chromatophores are densely aggregated while in others they are sparsely scattered. In some (25 mm) they have extended over the dorsal portion of the yolk only, while in others they have extended over one half of the lateral surface of the yolk.

Variations in Internal Structures.

In the study of the variations of internal structures only tliose which are most obvious have been recorded.


There is considerable Variation in the anterior extent of the notochord in nearly all stages. This Variation is more obvious in the earlier than in the later stages. Usually a considerable tract of mesenchyma lies between the anterior end of the chorda and the hypophysis. Frequently this tract is short and sometimes only a narrow band.


In sections the optic vesicles show the same variations which have been recorded under variations in external features. The appearance of pigment in the retina and iris shows considerable Variation. In the 17 mm embryo series 140, 141, 145 show considerable pigment in the retina and its first appearance in the iris, while 146 shows the beginning of pigment in the retina and none in the iris. The time of first appearance of pigment in the choroid is likewise variable. In the 18 mm embryo series 152, 155 show considerable pigment, series 146, 151 show but little pigment, while in series 147, 149, 150 there is no pigment in the choroid.


In the 6 mm embryo, series loo, there is a cup-shaped invagination of the inner layer of the ectoderm while in series loi there is a vesicle. In the 7 mm embryo, series 102, shows the otic vesicle just closed, while in .series 103 it is not quite closed. In the 18 mm larva, series 146 and 147, the endolymphatic duct extends over the medulla to about one half the distance to median line; in series 151 it extends over the lateral margin of the medulla; in series 149 it does not extend over the lateral margin of the medulla.


In the 9 mm stage series 106 shows the anläge of the nose as a shallow invagination of the ectoderm. In series 107 there i.s no invagination. In 108 it is slightly cup-shaped. In series 109 thickened ectoderm, in series iio thickened ectoderm.


In the 9 mm stage series 106, 109, 108 show the epiphysis to be a slight cup-shaped evagination in the dorsal wall of the fore-brain. In series 107, iio the evagination is deeper and somewhat pear-shaped.


In the II mm embryos, series Il6, the paraphysis is a very shallow evagination in the postero-dorsal wall of the telencephalon. In 117 the paraphysis is a deep pit-like evagination.


In the 9 mm embryo, series lo6, 107, the anla<i^e of the hypophysis is two layers of cells thick, in 108 it is but a single layer, while in 109 it is three or four layers thick.


In the 9 mm embryo, series 106, 107, 108, 110 the anläge of the liver is shown as a wide evagination of the gut; while 109 shows two or three tubules.


The dorsal pancreas seems to grow very slowly and to show much Variation. Series 118 and 119 show the dorsal pancreas as a slight evagination of the dorsal wall of the gut. In series 120 it is in about the same stage. In series 125 the evagination is vesicular. In the 13 mm embryo series I2I, there is a cup-shaped evagination. In 122, 124 the evagination is vesicular. In the 14 mm stage it varies from cup-shaped evagination in series 127, 130 to vesicular in 129.


In the 15 mm embryo, series 131, 134 show the anläge of the spieen as a small mass of mesenchymal cells in the dorsal mesentery of stomach. In series 132 there is no indication of spleen. In 133 there is a well defined mass of mesenchymal cells.


In the 16 mm embryo, series 137, 138, 139 the thymus begins as a small mass of cells in close proximity to the 3rd branchial cleft. In 136 the thymus anläge is not yet present.

Trachea — Lungs.

In the 10 mm embryo series lll, II2 show the beginning of the trachea as a short groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. Series I13 shows a deeper vesicular evagination.


The literature comprises the papers on those forms which belong to the Ichthyoidea (Claus) including the Perennibranchiata (Proteus, Siren, Necturus) and those of the Caducibranchiata belonging to the family Derotremata (Ampliiuma, Menopoma, Cryptobranclms).

It includes all (?) the papers on the embryology, nearly all those on the anatomy and histology.

Most of the systematic, zoological and paleontological papers are also given.

A. Alphabetical arrangement of titles according to authors

1873 Abbott, Charles C, Our largest Salamander (Menopoma alleghaniensis). Science Gossip, 1873, p. 271 — 272. 1878 Albrbciit, Paul, Ueber einen Processus odontoideus des Atlas bei den urodelen Amphibien. Centralbl. f. d.

med. Wissensch., 1878, p. 578—579. Nachtrag, p. 705—706. 1903 Allis, E. P., On certain features of the cranial anatomy of Bdellostoma dombeyi. Anat. Anz., Bd. 23, 1903,

p. 259—281, 321—327. 1901 Ancbl, P., Etüde du developpement des glandes de la peau des Batraciens et en particulier de la Salamandre

terrestre. Arch. de Biol., T. 18, 1901, p. 257 — 289, 2 pl. 1892 Anderson, 0. A., Zur Kenntnis des sj-mpathischeu Nervensystems der urodelen Amphibien. Zool. Jahrb., Bd. 5,

1892, p. 184—210, 4 pl. 1896 Andres, Angblo, La Salamandra gigantescha del Giappone (Megalobatrachus niaximus Boul.). Atti. Soc. Ital.

Sc. nat., Vol. 35, 1896, p. 201—218, 1 fig. 1898 Andrews, E. A., Filose activity in metazoan eggs. Zool. Bull. Boston, Vol. 2, 1898, p. 1 — 13, 5 fig. 1898a Andrews, E. A., Seme activities of polar bodies. Ann. Mag. Nat. Eist., Vol. 1, 1898, p. 109—116, 5 fig. 1849 Baikd, Spencer F., Revision of the North American tailed batrachians with descriptions of new genera and

species. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philad., Ser. 2, Vol. 1, 1849, p. 281—294.

1826 Barnes, Daniel H., An arrangement of the genera of the Batrachian animals with a description of the more

remarkable species including a monograph of the doubtful reptiles. Amer. Journ. Sei. and Arts, Ser. 1, Vol. 11, 1826, p. 268—297.

1827 Barnes, Daniel H., Note on the doubtful reptiles. Amer. Journ. Sei. and Arts, Ser. 1, Vol. 13, 1827, p. 66—70.

1807 Barton, Benj. Smith, (Scientific notes). Philad. Med. and Physical Journ., Suppl. 2, 1807.

1808 Barton, Benj. Smith, Notices of Siren lacertina and of another species of the same genus. Philadelphia 1808. 8". 1812 Barton, Benj. Smith, Some account of the Siren lacertina and otber species of the same genus of amphibious

animals. Philadelphia 1812. S". 1812a Barton, Benj. Smith, A memoir concerning an animal of the class of Reptilia or Amphibia, wbich is known in

the United States by the names of Alligator and Hellbender. Philadelphia 1812. 8". 1 pl. 1885 Bauk, G., Einige Bemerkungen über die Ossifikation der „langen" Knochen. Zool. Anz., Bd. 8, 1885, p. 580 — 581.

1888 Baur, G., Beiträge zur Morphologie des Carpus und Tarsus der Vertebraten. Teil 1. Batrachia. Jena 1888.

1889 Baur, G., On the morphology of the vertebrate skull. 1. The otic Clements. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 3, 1889,

p. 467—474. 1891 BAtiii, G, The pelvis of the Testudinata, with notes on the evolution of the pelvis in general. Journ. Morphol.,

Vol. 4, 1891, p. 345—359. 1894 Bawdrn, H. H., The nose and Jacobson's organ with especial reference to the Amphibia. Journ. Comp. Neurol.

and PsychoL Vol. 4, 1894, p. 117—152, 8 pl. 1878 Beale, Lionel S., The microscope in medicine. 4. ed. London 1878. 1799 Beauvoik, Memoir on a new species of Siren [operculata]. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, Vol. 4, 1799, p. 277—281.

1902 Becker, Victor, Untersuchungen an der Mundschleimhaut von Cryptobranchus japonicus. Diss. Phil., Berlin

1902, p. 60.

1903 Beddard, f. E., Normally unequal growth as a possible cause of death. Nature, Vol. 68, 1903, p. 497.

1904 Beddard, F. E., On some points in the anatomy chiefly of the heart and vas-system of tbe Japanese Salamander,

Megalobatrachus japonicus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Vol. 2, 1904, p. 298—315, 7 fig. 1899 Beer, Th., Die Accommodation des Auges bei den Amphibien. Arch. Ges. Phys. Pflügbr, Bd. 73, 1899, p. 501-534, 14 Fig.

1835 Bell, Tuomas, Amphibia. In Tonn's Cyclopaedia of anatomy and physiology, Vol. 1, London 1835/1836, p. 90—107. 1907 Bender, Otto, Die Honiulogie des Spritzloches der 8elachier und der Paukenliülile der Amphibien, Sauropsiden

und Säugetiere auf Grund ihrer Innervation. Anat. Anz., Ergänzungsheft zu Bd. 30, 1907, p. 38 — 44. 1907a Bendbk, Otto, Die Schleimhautnerven des Facialis, Glossophar^-ngeus und Vagus. Studien zur Morphologie des

Mittelohres und der benachbarten Kopfregion der Wirbeltiere. Denkschr. Med.-naturw. Ges. Jena, Bd. 7,

19(77, p. 341—454. 1900 Bensley, R. R., The oesophageal glauds of Urodela. Biol. Bull., Vol. 2, 1900, p. 87 — 104, 8 Fig.

1898 Bekry, John M., A comparison of the phagocytic action of leucocytes in Amphibia and Mammalia. Trans. Amer.

Micr. Soc, Vol. 19, 1898, p. 93—116, 5 pl. 1860 Bettziech, Beta H., Der Riesensalamander von Japan (Megalobatrachus maximus). Natur, Bd. 9, 1860, p. 211 — 212. 1846 Bidder, f. H., Vergleichend-anatomische und histologische Untersuchungen über die männlichen Geschlechts- und

Harnwerkzeuge der nackten Amphibien. Dorpat 1846. p. 1 — 74. 1889 B.JELBTZKIJ, N. F., Phj'siologische Bemerkung über den Riesensalamander (Russian). Arb. d. Naturf. Ges. Charkow,

Bd. 15, 1889, p. 173—206. 1871 Blanchard, Emile, On a new gigantic Salamander (Sieboldia davidiana Blanch.) from Western China. Ann.

Mag. Nat. Hist, Ser. 4, Vol. 8, 1871, p. 212 — 214. 1871a Blanchard, Emile, Note sur une nouvelle Salamandre gigautesque (Sieboldia davidiana Blanch.) de la Chine

occidentale. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sc. Paris, 1871, p. 79 — 80. 1891 Blanchard, Raph., Evacuation de noyaux cellulaires Simulant une helminthiase et une coccidiose (Proteus

anguineus). Bull. Soc. Zool. France, T. 16, 1891, p. 22—23. 1874 Blbyer, E., Magenepithel und Magendrüsen der Batrachier. Inaug.-Diss. Königsberg, 1874.

1881 Boas, J. E. V., Ueber den conus arteriosus und die Arterienbogen der Amphibien. Morphol. Jahrb., Bd. 7, 1881,

p. 488—572, 3 Tai 1826 BoiE, H., Merkmale einiger japanischer Lurche. Isis, 1826, p. 203 — 216.

1899 BoLAU, Herm., Glandula thyroidea und Glandula Thymus der Amphibien. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Anat., Bd. 12,

1899, p. 657—710, 11 Fig. 1832 Bonapaete, Carlo Luciano, Fauna Italica. Roma 1832—1841, T. 2, Tab. 131.

1838 Bonaparte, Carlo Luciano, Iconografia della Fauna Italica. Bibl. Ital., 93, 1838.

1839 Bonaparte, Carlo Luciano, Amphibia europaea ad systema nostrorum vertebratorum ornitata. Turini 1839. 4. p. 72. 1876 Böttger, Oskar, Ueber die äußeren Kiemen Öffnungen bei jungen Exemplaren des japanischen Riesenmolchs.

Zool. Garten, Bd. 17, 1876, p. 432—435.

1882 Boulenger, G. A., Catalogue of the BatracLia gradientia s. caudata and Batrachia apoda in the Collection of

the British Museum. 2. ed. London 1882. 8«. p. 8-127, 9 pl. 1907 Brächet, A., Recherches sur l'ontogenese de la tete chez les Ampbibiens. Arch. de Biol., T. 23, 1907, p. 165 — 257. 1907 Braus, H., Ueber Frühanlagen der Schultermuskeln bei Amphibien und ihre allgemeinere Bedeutung. Anat.

Anz., Erg.-Heft, Bd. 30, 1907, p. 192—219.

1900 Bridge, T. W., The air-bladder and its connection with the auditory organ in Necturus borneensis. Journ.

Linn. Soc. Zool., Vol. 27, 1900, p. 503-540, 2 pl.

1903 Broili, J. f., Zur Fortpflanzung des japanischen Riesensalamanders (Megalobatrachus maximus). Natur und Haus,

Bd. 12, 1903.

1901 Broman, J., Notiz über das „Halsstück" der Spermien von Pelobates fuscus nebst kritischen Bemerkungen über

die Nomenklatur der Spermienschwanzfäden. Anat. Anz., Bd. 20, 1901, p. 347 — 351, 3 Fig.

1904 Broman, J., Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Bursa omentalis und ähnliche Receßbildungen bei den Wirbeltieren,

Wiesbaden 1904. p. 611, 650, Fig. 20 PI.

1902 Buchs, G., Ueber den Ursprung des Kopfskelettes bei Necturus. Leipzig 1902. 8". Also Morph. Jahrb., Bd. 29,

1901, p. 582—613.

1873 BuGNioN, E., Recherches sur les organes sensitifs qui se trouvent dans l'epiderme du Protee et de l'Axolotl. Bull.

Soc. Vaudoise de Sei. nat. Lausanne, T. 12, 1873.

1874 BuGNioN, E., Sur Proteus anguineus. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sei. nat. Lausanne, T. 12, 1874, p. 193—194.

1874a BuGNioN, E., Sur le Systeme nerveux du Proteus anguineus. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sei. nat. Lausanne, T. 13, 1874,

p. 441—443. 1896 BuMPUS, H. C, A contribution to the study of Variation. Skeletal Variation of Necturus maculatus Raf. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 12, 1896, p. 455—484, 2 pl.

1904 BussY, L. P. DE, Eerste ontwickkelingsstadien van Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Amsterdam 1904.

1905 BussY, L. P. de, Die ersten Entwicklungsstadien des Megalobatrachus maximus Schlegel. Zool. Anz., Bd. 38, 1905.

1883 Camerano, Lorenzo, Intorno alla neotenia ed allo sviluppo degli Anfibi. Atti. Acc. Tor., T. 19, 1883, p. 84 — 93. 1883a Camerano, Lorbnzo, Ricerche intorno alla vita branchiale degli Anfibi. Zool. Anz., Bd. 6, 1883, p. 685—687.

Normeatafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere. XI. 5

1803 Camper, Petr., Du Dugon du comte de Buffon et de la Sirena lacertina de chevalier Linnaeus. Oeuvres., T. 3,

Paris 1803. 1886 Carlson, A. J., Untersuchungen über Gliedmaßenreste bei Schlangen. Bihang tili K. Svenska Vet. Akad. Hand lingar, Bd. 11, 1886. 1[)06 Carlson A. J., Die Ganglienzellen des Bulbus arteriosus und der Kammerspitze beim Salamander (Necturus

macülatus). Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bd. 109, 1906, p. 51—69, 3 Fig. 1879 Chapman, Henrv C, Notes on the Amphiuma. Proc. Aoad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia 1879, p. 144 — 145. 1893 Chapman, Henry C, Observations on the Japanese Salamander Cryptobranchus maximus (Suhlegel). Proc. Acad.

Nat. Sei. Philad., 1893, p. 227—233, 2 pl.

1883 Chauvin, Marie von, Vorläufige Mitteilung über die Fortpflanzung des Proteus anguineus. Zool. Anz., Bd. 6,

1883, p. 330—332. 1883a Chauvin, Marie von, Die Art der Fortpflanzung des Proteus anguineus. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool, Bd. 38, 1883, p. 671 — 685, 1 Tai

1884 Chauvin, Marie von, Ueber die Färbung des Männchens von Proteus anguineus. Naturforscher, Bd. 16, 1884, p. 480. 1840 Chiaje, Stefano dellb, Ricerche anatomico-biologiche sul Proteo serpentino. Napoli 1840. 21 p. £<". 5 pl. 1897 Chohonshitzky, Boris, Entstehung der Milz und des dorsalen Pankreas beim Necturus. Compt. Rend. XII. Congres

intern, med. Moscow, Vol. 2, 1897, p. 115—120. 1900 Choronshitzkv, Boris, Die Entstehung der Milz, Leber, Gallenblase, Bauchspeicheldrüse und des Pfortadersystems

bei den verschiedeneu Abteilungen der Wirbeltiere. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 13, 1900, p. 363 — 623, 85 Fig. 1882 Claus, C, Lehrbuch der Zoologie. 2 Bde. 4. ed. Leipzig 1882.

1893 Claypole, Edith J., An investigation of the blood of Necturus and Cryptobranchus. Proc. Amer. Micr. Soc,

Vol. 15, 1893, p. 39—76, 6 pl. 1896 Claypole, Edith J., Notes on the comparative histology of blood and muscle. Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc, Vol. 18,

1896, p. 49—70, 5 pl. 1895 Clemens, P., Die äußeren Kiemen der Wirbeltiere. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 5, 1895, p. 51 — 156, 4 Taf., 5 Fig. 1821 Configliachi, P., and Rusconi, M., Observations on the natural histor}' and structure of the Proteus anguinus.

Edinb. Phil. Journ., Vol. 4, 1821, p. 388—406, and Voh 5, p. 84—112.

1885 CoPE, E. D., Amphibia. In Standard Natural History, Vol. 3, Boston 1885, p. 303—347.

1886 CoPB, E, D., The retrograde metamorphosis of Siren. Amer. Nat, Vol. 19, 1886, p. 1226 — 1227. 1886a CoPE, E. D., On the structure and affinities of the Amphiumidae. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1886. 1889 CoPB, E. D., The Batrachia of North America. Bull. 34 U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington 1889.

1889a CoPE, E. D., On the relations of the hyoid and otic elements of the skeleton in the Batrachia. Journ. Morphol.,

Vol. 2, 1889, p. 297—310, 3 ph 1895 CoPE, E. D., A careless writer on Amphiuma. Amer. Nat., Vol. 29, 1895, p. 1108—1110. 1860 Crisp, Edwards, Note on the blood-corpuscles of the Japanese gigaiitic Salamander (Sieboldia maxima). Proc.

Zool. Soc London, 1860, Part 28, p. 203—205. 1800 CuviER, G., Sur le Siren lacertina. Bull. des. Sei. Soc. Philom., An. 8, T. 2, p. 106—107. 1827 CuviER, G., Sur le genre de Reptiles batraciens nomme Amphiuma et sur une nouvelle espece de cet genre

(A. tridactylum). Men. du Bluseum, T. 14, 1827, p. 1—14, 2 pl. 1831 CuviER, G., Regne animale. Translated by Edward Griffith and others, London 1831, Vol. 9, p. 412. 1853 Dalton, Inc. C, Some account of the Proteus anguinus. Amer. Journ. Sei., Ser. 2, Vol. 15, 1853, p. 378 — 393.

1894 Davison, Alvin, Amphiuma tridactyla. Princeton Coli. Bull., 1894.

1894a Davison, Alvin, The arrangemeut of muscular fibers in Amphiuma tridactyla. Anat. Anz., Bd. 9, 1894, p. 332 — 336.

1895 Davison, Alvin, A contribution to the anatomy aud phylogenj' of Amphiuma means (Gardner). Journ. Morphol.,

VoL 11, 1895, p. 375—410, 2 pl.

1896 Davison, Alvin, The tentacular apparatus of Amphiuma. Amer. Nat., Vol. 30, 1896, p. 684 — 689, 4 fig.

1897 Davison, Alvin, A preliminary contribution to the development of the vertebral column and its appendages. Anat.

Anz., Bd. 14, 1897, p. 6 — 12, 7 Fig. 1834 Deen, J. van, Over de zijdelingsche takken van de zwervende zenuw (Nervus vagus), van den Proteus anguineus.

Tijdschr voor natuurl Geschied., Bd. 1, 1834, p. 112—129. 1842 De Kay, James E., Zoology of New York. Part 3. Reptiles and Amphibia. In Natural History of New York,

Albany 1842. 4». 1859 DowLER, B., Natural history of the Amphiumidae with remarks on Crocodilian hibernation and instinct. New

Orleans Med. and Surg. Journ., Vol. 16, 1859, p. 14—37. 1901 Drüner, L., Studien zur Anatomie der Zungenbein-, Kiemenbogen- und Kehlkopfmuskeln der Urodelen. 1. Thl. Zool. Jahrb., Bd. 15, 1901, p. 435—622, 7 Taf.

1903 DhCnbr, L., Ueber die Muskulatur des Visceralskelets der Urodelen. Anat. Anz., Bd. 23, 1903, p. 545 — 571, 16 Fig.

1903 Drzbwina, Anna, Sur le tissu lymphoide du rein du Proteus anguineus Lauu. Note preliiniiiaire. Compt. Reud.

Soc. Biol. Paris, T. 55, 1903, p. 1091 — 1092. 1890 DiiBois, Rai'h., Sur la perception des radiations lumineuses par la peau ches lea Protöes aveugles des grottes de

la Carniole. Compt. Read. Ac. Sc. Paris, T. 110, 1890, p. 358—361. 1834 DüQfis, A., Rechercbes sur rosteologie et la myologie des Batraciens. Paris 1834. 1834 DuMERiL, And. Mae. Const., et Bibuon, G., Erpetologie generale, ou histoiro naturelle complele des Reptiles.

8 Vol., Paris 1834—1844. 8«. Avec. pl. 1847 DuvERNOv, G. L., Ueber die Geschlechts- und die Harnorgane der dauerndgeschwänzten Batrachier. Fkokibps

Not. 1847, No. 203. 1859 Ecker, A., Notiz über den 01m Proteus anguinus Lauuenti. Corresp.-Bl. d. Naturf. Ver. Riga, Bd. 11, 1859,

p. 123—124. 1902 EcKEL, E. 0., and Paulmiue, F. C, Catalogue of the Reptiles and Batrachians New York State. N. Y. State

Museum Bull., Vol. 10, 1902, No. 51, p. 353—358, 410—414, 1 pl.

1904 Edinger, Ludwig, Vorlesungen über den Bau der nervösen Zentralorgaiie des Menschen und der Tiere. 2 Bde.

7. ed. Leipzig 1904, 1908. 1862 Ehbbnberg, Chr., Ueber die Nahrung des Proteus anguinus. Sitzungsber. d. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1862.

1867 Ehrenbbrg, Chr., Ueber den seit 7 Jahren lebend gehaltenen Proteus anguinus. Sitzungsber. d. Ges. naturf.

Freunde Berlin, 1867, p. 1.

1868 Ehrenbeeg, Chr., Ueber den fast 9 Jahre in der Gefangenschaft gehaltenen Proteus anguinus. Sitzungsber. d.

Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1868, p. 14 — 15. 1870 Ehrenbbrg, Chr., Ueber den in Gefangenschaft gehaltenen Proteus anguinus. Sitzungsber. d. Ges. naturf. Freunde

Berlin, 1870, p. 2. 1872 Ehrenbbrg, Chr., Ueber den seit 1859 lebend gehaltenen Proteus anguinus, und über den seit 1860 beobachteten

Triton lacustris. Sitzungsber. d. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1872, p. 17 — 18.

1874 Ehrenberg, Chr., Ueber den seit 1859 lebend erhaltenen Proteus anguinus. Sitzungsber. d. Ges. naturf. Freunde

Berlin, 1874, p. 9—10.

1899 Eigbnmann, C. H., A case of convergence. Science, Vol. 9, 1899, p. 280—282, 3 fig.

1900 Eigenmann, C. H., The eyes of the blind vertebrates of North America. 2. The eyes of Typhlomolge rathbuni Stbj.

Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc, Vol. 21, 1900, p. 49—60. 1900a Eigenmann, C. H., Degeneration in the eyes of cold-blooded vertebrates of the North American caves. Science,

Vol. 11, 1900, p. 492 — 503, 14 fig. 1900 Eigenmann, C. H., and Dennt, W. A., Eyes of blind vertebrates of North America. 3. The structure and outogenic

degeneration of the eyes of the Missouri Cava Salamander. Biol. Bull., Vol. 2, 1900, p. 33 — 41, 9 fig. 1900a Eigenmann, C. H., and Dbnny, W. A., Eyes of Cave Salamander (Typhlotriton spelaeus). Proc. Indiana Acad.

Sei., 1898, p. 252—255. 1899 Eisen, Gustav, Blood plates of the humau blood with notes on the erythrocytes of Amphiuma and Necturus.

Journ. Morphol., Vol. 15, 1899, p. 635.

1875 Eismann,, Der Adelsberger 01m Proteus anguinus in Gefangenschaft. Zool. Garten, Bd. 16, 1875, p. 394 — 396. 1766 Ellis, John, An account of an Amphibious Bipes (Siren lacertina). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. 56, 1766,

p. 189—192, 1 pl. 1905 Emerson, E. T., General anatomy of Typhlomolge rathbuni. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, Vol. 32, 1905,

p. 43—76, pl. 1. 1897 Emery, C, Die fossilen Reste von Archegosaurus und Eryops und ihre Bedeutung für die Morphologie des Glied maßenskelets. Anat. Anz., Bd. 14, 1897, p. 201—208, 7 Fig.

1863 Eeber, Jo.SEPH, Beobachtungen au Amphibien in der Gefangenschaft. Verh. d. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Bd. 13, 1863,

p. 129—132.

1864 Erber, Joseph, Die Amphibien der österr. Monarchie. Mit Anführung der Beobachtungen die an den in der

Gefangenschaft gehaltenen Arten gemacht wurden. Verh. d. zool. bot. Ges. Wien, Bd. 14, 1864, p. 697—720. 1877 Erber, Joseph, Ueber die Lebensweise von Siren lacertina in der Gefangenschaft. Verh. d. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien,

Bd. 26, 1877, p. 114—116. 1893 Eyclbshymbr, Albert C, Development of the optic vesicles in Amphibia. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 8, 1893, p. 189 — 194. 1895 Eycleshymer, Albert C, Early development of Amblystoma. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 10, 1895, p. 345—400. 1902 Eycleshymer, Albert C, The formation of the embryo of Necturus, with remarks on the theory of concrescence.

Anat. Anz., Bd. 21, 1902, p. 341—353. 1902a Eycleshymer, Albeet C, Nuclear changes in the striated muscle cell of Necturus. Anat. Anz., Bd. 21, 1902, p. 379— 885. 1904 Eycleshymer, Albert C, The cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in the striated muscle cell of Necturus. Amer.

Journ. Anat., Vol. 3, 1904, p. 285—310, 4 pl.

1904a Eycleshymbr, Albbet C, Bilateral symmetry in the egg of Necturus. Anat. Anz., Bd. 25, 1904, p. 230 —240, 47 Tig.

1906 EycLBsm-MEK, Albeet C, The habits of Necturus maculosus. Amer. Nat., Vol. 40, 1906, p. 123 — 136.

1906a Eyclbshyjibr, Albert C, The growth and regeneration of the gills in the young Necturus. Biol. Bull., Vol. 10,

1906, p. 171 — 175, 1 fig. 1906b Eyclbshymbr, Albert C, The development of the chromatophores in Necturus. Amer. Journ. Anat., Vol. 5, 1906,

p. 309—330, 7 fig.

1907 Eycleshymbr, Albert, The Closing of Wounds in the Larval Necturus. Amer. Journ. of Anat., Vol. VII, p. 317 — 326. 1906 Favaeo, Gius., Ricerclie anatomo-embriologiche intorno alla circolazione caudale ed ai cuori linfatici posteriori

degli Anübi, con particolare riguardo agli Urodeli. Atti Accad. Sc. Veuet. Trent. Padova, Anno 3, 1906, p. 122-166, 20 fig. 1906 Felix, W., and Buhlbr, A., Die Entwicklung der Harn- und Geschlechtsorgane. Handbuch der Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere von Oskar Hertwig, Jena 1906, Bd. 3, p. 81.

1894 FiBLD, Herbert H., Sur le developpement des organes excr^teurs chez l'Amphiuma. Compt. Rend. de l'Acad.

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1902 Schapbu, A., Ueber kontraktile Fibrillen in den glatten Muskolfasern des Mesenteriums der Urodelen. Anat. Anz., Bd. 22, 1902, p. 65—82, 2 Taf., 6 Fig.

1906 Schauinsland, H., Die Entwicklung der Wirbelsäule, nebst Rippen und Brustbein. Handbuch der Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere von üskar Hertwig, Bd. 3, 1906, p. 339 — 572.

1891 ScHLAMi>i>, K. W., Die Augenlinse des Proteus auguineus. Biol. Centralbl., Bd. 11, 1891, p. 40 — 42.

1892 Schlampp, K. W., Das Auge des Grottenolmes (Proteus anguineus). Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. 53, 1892, p. 537—557, 1 Taf.

1837 Schlegel, H., Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen. Düsseldorf 1837—1844. kl. Fol. 50 Taf.

1838 Schlegel, H., Fauna Japonica. Lugd. Bat. 1838, p. 127, 2 tab.

1850 ScHMiDL, A., Notizen über die von ihm aus der Plauina-Höhle mitgebrachten und der Klasse vorgezeigten Proteen.

Sitz.-Ber. math.-nat. Akad. Wiss. in Wien, Bd. 5, p. 228—232. 1864 Schmidt, F. J. J., Goddard, Q. J., en van der Hoeven, J., Aanteekeningen over de anatomie van den Crypto branchus japonicus. Natuurk. Verh. Maatsch. Wetensch. Haarlem, Vol. 19, 1864, p. 66, 12 pl. 1878 Schmidt, H. D., The structure of the coloured bloodcorpuscles of Amphiuma tridactylum, the frog and man.

Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc, Vol. 1, 1878, p. 57—78 and 97—120.

1904 Schmidt, Victor, Studien über Ovogenese. 1. Die Wachslumsperiode der Eier von Proteus anguineus. Anat.

Hefte, Bd. 27, 1904, p. 1—71, 4 Taf. 1779 Schneider, J. G., Historiae Ampbibiorum naturales et litterariae. Fasciculus primus. Jenae 1779. 8". 1873 Schneider, 0., Ueber den 01m. Gaea, Bd. 9, 1873, p. 524. 1890 Schneider, R., Neue histologische Untersuchungen über die Eisenaufnahme in den Körper des Proteus. Sitz.-Ber.

K. Preuß. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, Bd. 36, 1890, p. 887—897.

1904 Schoenichen, Walther, Die Brutpflege bei den Amphibien und besonders bei dem japanischen Riesensalamander

(Megalobatrachus maximus). Prometheus, Bd. 16, 1904, p. 37 — 40, 52—54, 15 Fig. 1801 Schreibers, Gh., A historical and anatomical description of a doubtful amphibious animal of Germany called by Laurenti Proteus anguineus. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. 91, 1801, p. 24, 2 pl.

1818 Schreibers, Gh., Proteus anguineus. Viennae 1818. 4".

1820 Schreibers, Gh., Sur le Protze. Isis, 1820, p. 567—570.

1893 Schuberg, A., Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Amphibienhaut. Zool. Jahrb., Bd. 6, 1893, p. 481 — 490, 1 Taf.

1900 Schulz, Paul, Ueber die Anordnung der Muskulatur im Magen der Batrachier. Arch. Anat. Physiol., Phys. Abt.,

1900, p. 1—8, 4 Fig.

1861 Schulze, F. E., Ueber die Nervenendigung in den sogenannten Schleimkanälen der Fische und über entsprechende Organe der durch Kiemen atmenden Amphibien. Arch. Anat. Physiol. , 1861, p. 759 — 769, 1 Taf.

1870 Schulze, F. E., Ueber die Sinnesorgane der Seitenlinie bei Fischen und Amphibien. Arch. mikr. Anat. u. Entw., Bd. 6, 1870, p. 62, 3 Taf.

1876 Schulze, F. E., Zur Fortpflanzungsgeschichte des Proteus anguineus. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. 26, 1876, p. 350 — 354.

1905 Schulze, 0., Ueber partiell albinotische und mikrophthalmische Larven von Salamandra maculata nebst einigen Angaben über die Fortpflanzung dieses Tieres. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. 82, 1905, p. 472 — 493.

1905 Seydbl, 0., Ueber die Nasenhöhle und das JACOBSONSche Organ der Amphibien. Morphol. Jahrb., Bd. 23, 1895, p. 453—543, 22 Fig.

1828 SiEBOLD, Carol Th. Ernst, Observationes quaedam de salamandris et tritonibus. Berolini 1828. p. 6 + 30, 1 tab.

1833 SiEBOLD, Philipp Franz von, Fauna japonica. Leyden 1833 — 1851.

1904 Sieglbaubr, F., Zur Anatomie der Urodelenextremität. Arch. f. Anat. u. Entw., 1904, p. 385 — 404, 1 Taf.

1908 Smallwood, W. M., The sacrum of Necturus. Anat. Anz., Bd. 33, 1908, p. 237 — 239, 1 Fig.

1890 Smirnow, A., Die Struktur der Nervenzellen im Sympathicus der Amphibien. Arch. mikr. Anat. u. Entw., Bd. 35,

1890, p. 407-424, 2 Taf.

1900 Smith, F., Some additional data on the position of the sacrum in Necturus. Amer. Nat., Vol. 34, 1900, p. 635 — 638.

1906 Smith Bertram, G., Preliminary report ou the embryology of Cryptobranchus alleghaniensis. Biol. Bull., Vol. 9,

1906, p. 146-164, 1 pl.

1898 Smith Hugh M., On the occurrence of Amphiuma, the so-called CoDgo Snake in Virginia. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 21, 1898, p. 379—380.

1832 Smith, J., Isis, 1832, p. 1088.

1828 Smith F. Aug., Account of the dissection of a Proteus of the Lakes (Menobranchus) with remarks ou the Siren intermedia. Ann. Lyc. Nat. Eist. New York, Vol. 2, 1828, p. 259—263.

1897 Sobotta, J., Die Purcliung des Wirbeltiereies. Ergeb. Anat. Entw., Bd. 6, 1897, p. 493—593, 38 Fig.

1902 Sobotta J., Ueber die Entwicklung des Blutes, des Herzens und der groGen Gelaßstämme der Salmoniden, nebst Mitteilungen über die Ausbildung der Herzform. Anat. Hefte, 1902, Heft 63, p. 579 — 688.

1869 Spicer, W. W., Proteus anguineus. Sei. Gossip, 1869, p. 135.

1892 Stejneger, Leonhard, Preliminary description of a new genus and species of blind cave Salamander from North America (Typhlotriton spelaeus). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 15, 1892, p. 115—117, 1 pl.

1896 Stejneger, Leonhard, Description of a new genus and species of blind tailed Batrachians from the subterrauean waters of Texas. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 18, 1896, p. 619—621. ]

1907 Stejneger, Leonhard, Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Washington 1907. 8".

1907a Stejneger, Leonhard, Specific name of Necturus maculosus. Science, Vol. 25, 1907, p. 190.

1906 Stöhr, Philipp, Histology arranged upon an embryological basis by Frederic T. Lewis. Philadelphia 1906. •

1870 Strauch, Alexander, Revision der SalamaudridenGattungen nebst Beschreibung einiger neuen oder weniger j bekannten Arten dieser Familie. Mem. Ac. Sc. St. Petersburg, T. 16, 1870, p. 109, 2 pl. j

1872 Stricker, S. (ed.), Manual of humau and comparative histology. Tr. by Henry Power. 3 vols. London 1872. '^

1892 Strong, Oliver S., The structure and homologies of the cranial nerves of the Amphibia as determined by their peripheral distribution and internal origin. Anat. Anz., Bd. 7, 1892, p. 467 — 471.

1895 Steong, Oliver S., The cranial nerves of Amphibia. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 10, 1895, p. 101—230, 6 pl.

1888 Strube, K. W., [Ueber den japanischen Salamander]. [Russian.] Nachr. d. Kais. Ges. d. Freunde d. Naturwiss. Moskau, Bd. 50, 1888.

1874 Studee, Th., Ueber die Epidermis der Amphiuma didactyla [means]. Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1874, p. 48.

1897 Studniöka, F. K., Studien über den Bau des Sehnerven der Wirbeltiere. Jen. Zeitschr., Bd. 31, 1897, p. 1 — 28, 2 Taf.

1909 Takauasiii, Katashi, Histogenesis of the lateral liue System in Necturus. Thesis, Chicago 1909.

1838 Temminck, C. J., and Schlegel, H., Fauna Japonica auctore Ph. Fe. de Sibbold. Reptilia elaborantibus 0. J. Temminck et H. Schlegei-. Cum mappa geographico-zoologica et tabulis lithogr. XXVIII. Lugduni Batavorum, ex officin. lithogr. auctoris et typis J. G. Lalau, 1838. Fol. XXII -j- 144 pp. -\- doublepage map -f 9 + 10 + 8 pl.

1904 Terry, Robert J., Two skulls of larval Necturus. Amer. Journ. Anat., Vol. 3, 1904, p. XI.

1906 Terry, Robert J., The nasal skeleton of Amblj'stoma punctatum (Lin.). Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sei., Vol. 16,

1906, p. 95—124, 4 pl.

1875 Tommasini, M., Sulla diffusione del Proteus. Bellet. Soc. Adriat. Sc. nat.. Vol. 1, 1875, p. 152 — 156.

1882 Townsend, Chas. H., Habits of Menopoma. Amer. Nat., Vol. 16, 1882, p. 139—140.

1820 Treviranus, De protei anguinei encephalo et organis sensuum disquisitioues zootomicae. Commentationes societatis regiae scientiarum Gottingensis recentiores, Göttingen 1820, Vol. 4.

1837 TsciiüDi, J. J., Ueber den Homo diluvii testis (Andrias Scheuchzeri). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde, Stuttgart 1837, Heft 5, p. 545 — 547.

1838 TscHUDi, J. J., Classification der Batrachier mit Berücksichtigung der fossilen Tiere dieser Abteilung der Reptilien. Mem. Soc. Sei. nat. de Neuchätel, Vol. 2, 1838.

1903 TuERCKHEiM, W., Ueber das Rückenmark von Cryptobranchus japonicus. Leipzig 1903. p. 21, 9 Taf.

1862 Vaillant, Leon, Note sur la structure du noyau des globules sanguins, et la composition de Tencephale chez la Sirene lacertine. Compt. Rend. et M^m. Soc. d. Biol. Paris, Ser. 3, T. 4, 1862, p. 4 — 6.

1863 Vaillant, Leon, Memoire pour servir ä l'histoire anatomique de la sirene lacertine. Ann. Sei. nat. Zool., Ser. 4, T. 19, 1863, p. 295—346, 3 pl.

1863a Vaillant, Leon, Note sur l'anatomie de la sirene lacertine. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sc. Paris, T. 56, 1863, p. 839.

1837 Valentin, G., Bruchstücke aus der feineren Anatomie des Proteus anguineus. Repert. 1. Anat. u. Physiol , Bd. 1,

1837, p. 282—294.

1841 Valentin, G., Ueber die Samentierbündel und die Afterdrüse des Proteus anguineus. Repert. f. Anat. u. Physiol., Bd. 6, 1841, p. 353—358.

1903 Van Peb, P., Recherches sur le ddveloppement des extr^mites chez Amphiuma et Necturus. Compt. Rend. Assoc. Anat. Sess. 5. Lifege, 1903, p. 37—42.

1903a Van Pke, P., Ueber die Entwicklung der Extremitäten bei Amphiuma und Necturus. Verh. Anat. Ges. Heidelberg,

1903, p. 83—86.

1904 Van PfcK, P., Les membres chez Amphiuma. Anat. Anz., Bd. 24, 1904, p. 47G — 482 4 Fig.

1837 ViATOK (?), On the Proteus anguineus. Chaulkswotii's Magaz. Nat. Hist., Vol. 1, 1837, p. 625 630.

1894 ViKCiiow, Hans, Einige embryologischo und angiologiscLe Erfahrungen über nordamorikanischo Wirbeltiere. Sitz.-Ber. Ges. naturf. Freunde Berlin, 1894, p. 33—44.

1904 ViuK, A., Sur quelques expt^riences eflectuees au laboratoire des Catacombes du Älus^um d'Histoire naturelle. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sei. Paris, T. 138, 1904, p. 70G— 708.

1828 Waglek, Jon., Descriptiones et icones Amphibiorum. Stuttgartiae 1828 — 1833. fol. 36 tab.

1830 Waglbk, Jon., Natürliches System der Amphibien mit vorgehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. München 1830. 8».

1880 Wagner, Franz, Der 01m (Proteus anguineus). Isis Russ., Bd. 5, 1880, p. 411—412.

1837 Wagner, Eud., Notes on Proteus anguineus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Vol. 5, 1837, p. 107 108.

1897 Waitk, f. C, Variations in the brachial and lumbo-sacral plexi of Necturus maculosus Rafinesque. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Univ., Vol. 31, 1897, p. 69—92.

1907 Waitb, f. C, Specific name of Necturus maculosus. Amer. Nat., Vol. 41, 1907, p. 23 30.

1887 Walter, Feüdinand, Das Visceralskelett und seine Muskulatur bei den einheimischen Amphibien und Reptilien Jen. Zeitschr., Bd. 21, 1887, p. 1 — 45, 4 Taf.

1905 Warren, John, The development of the paraphysis and the pineal region in Necturus maculatus. Amer. Journ. Anat, Vol. 5, 1905, p. 1—27, 23 fig.

1881 Wbinzettl, V., Zur Kenntnis des weiblichen Proteus anguineus. Sitz.-Ber. K. böhm. Ges. Prag, 1881 p. 297—303, 1 Taf.

1878 Weismann, A., and Wiedersiibim, R., Zwei noch junge Siren lacertina. Aus dem zoologischen und anatomischen Institut der Universität Freiburg i. Br. Zool. Anz., Bd. 1, 1878, p. 6.

1890 Welikij, W. N, Ueber Mehrzahl der Lymphherzen bei Proteus anguineus und Rana temporaria. Trav. Soc. Natur. St. Pötersbourg, Sect. Zool., Vol. 20, 1890.

1906 Whipple, Inez, The ypsiloid apparatus of Urodeles. Biol. Bull., Vol. 10, 1906, p. 255 — 297.

1885 Wiiitman, C. 0., Methods of research in microscopical anatomy and embryology. Boston 1885. S". p. 255.

1888 Wiiitman, C. 0., The eggs of Amphibia. Amer. Nat., Vol. 22, 1888, p. 857.

1888a Wiiitman, C. O., Some new facts about the Hirudinea. Journ. Morphol, Vol. 2, 1888, p. 585 — 599.

1899 Wiiitman, C. 0., Animal behavior. Biological Lectures from the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Holl, Mass.,

1898, Boston. 8». p. 285—338.

1896 Whitman, C. 0., and Eycleshymbr, A. C, The egg of Amia and its cleavage. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 12, 1896, p. 309-356, 1 pl.

1865 Wibd-Neuwied, Prinz Maximilian zu, Verzeichnis der Reptilien, welche auf einer Reise im nördlichen Amerika beobachtet wurden. Nov. Acta Acad. Leop.-CaroL, Vol. 32, 1865.

1877 Wiedersheim, R., Zur Fortpflanzungsgeschichte des Proteus anguineus. Morphol. Jahrb., Bd. 3, 1877, p. 632.

1877a WiBDERSHEiM, R., Das Kopfskelett der Urodelen. Morphol. Jahrb., Bd. 3, 1877, p. 352—448, 5 Taf., 1 Fig.; p. 459—548, 4 Taf., 5 Fig.

1877b WiEDERSHBiM, R., Ueber Neubildung von Kiemen bei Siren lacertina. Morphol. Jahrb., Bd. 3, 1877, p. 630 — 632.

1890 Wiedersheim, R., Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte von Proteus anguineus. Arch. mikr. Anat. u. Entw., Bd. 35, 1890, p. 121—140, 2 Taf.

1892 Wiedersheim, R., Das Gliedmaßenskelett der Wirbeltiere mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Schulter- und Beckengürtels bei Fischen, Amphibien und Reptilien. Mit 40 Figuren im Texte und einem Atlas von 17 Tafeln. Jena 1892. 8». p. 267.

1909 Wiedersheim, R., Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbeltiere. 1909.

1874 Wilder, B. G., Menobranchus edible. Amer. Nat., Vol. 8, 1874, p. 438.

1883 Wilder, B. G., On the habits of Cryptobranchus. Amer. Nat., Vol. 16, 1883, p. 816—817.

1891 Wilder, H. H., A contribution to the anatomy of Siren lacertina. Zool. Jahrb., Bd. 4, 1891, p. 653 — 691.

1892 Wilder, H. H., Die Nasengegend von Menopoma alleghanieuse und Amphiuma tridactylum nebst Bemerkungen über die Morphologie des Ramus ophthalmicus profundus trigemini. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Anat. u. Ontog., Bd. 5, 1892, p. 155—176, 2 Taf.

1896 Wilder, H. H., The amphibian larj-nx. Zool. Jahrb., Bd. 9, 1896, p. 273—318, 3 Taf., 4 Fig.

1903 Wilder, H. H., The skeletal System of Necturus maculatus Rafinesque. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. 5,

1903, p. 387—439, 6 pl., 1 fig.

1909 Wilder, Inez W., The lateral nasal gland in Amphiuma. Journ. Morphol., Vol. 20, 1909, 1 pl., 7 fig.

1898 WiNSLOw, G. M., The chondrocranium of the Ichthyopsida. Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. 28, 1898, p. 87—140, 1 pl.

1904 WiNSLow, G. M., Three cases of abnormality in Urodeles. Tufts Coli. Stud., 1904, No. 8, p. 387—410, 2 pl.

1854 Wyman, Jeifriks, Structure of the heart and physiology of respiration in the Menobranchus and Batrachians. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Eist., Vol. 5, 1854, p. 51—52.

1888 Zbller, E., Ueber die Larve des Proteus anguineus. Zool. Anz., Bd. 11, 1888, p. 570 — 572.

1889 Zbllek, E., Ueber die Fortpflanzung von Proteus anguineus und seine Larve. Jahreshefte d. Vereins f. vaterl. Naturk. in Württemberg, 1889.

1890 Zeller, E., Ueber die Befruchtung der Urodelen. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool, Bd. 49, 1890, p. 583—601, 3 Fig.

1895 ZüCKERKANDL, E., Zur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Arterien des Unterschenkels und des Fußes. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 5, 1895, p. 207—291, 6 Taf.

1895a ZüCKERKANDL, E., Zur Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Arterien des Vorderarmes. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 5,

1895, p. 157—205.

1897 Zwick, Wilh., Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Baues und der Entwicklung der Amphibiengliedmaßen, besonders von Carpus und Tarsus. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. 63, 1897, p. 62 — 114, 4 Taf.

B. Alphabetical arrangement of authors under topics

1. General Works.

a) Systematic.

Baird 49.

Barnes 26, 27.

Barton 07, 08, 12, 12a.

Beauvois 99.

Boulenger 82.

Camper 03.

Chapman 79, 93.

Cope 85, 86, 89, 89a.

Cuvier 00, 27, 31.

Eckel and Paulwire 02.

Erber 64.

Fitzinger 26, 50.

Freyer 46.

Garnier 88.

Gibbes 50, 53.

Gray 25, 57, 73.

Hallowell 56, 58.

Harlan 27, 35, 67c.

Karting 71.

Hay 92.

Van der Hoeven 38 b, 39, 66 a,

66 b. Holbrook 36. Kingsbury 04. Kingsle}' 02. Kneeland 56. Lacepede 07, 07a. Le Conte 26, 28. Leuckart 40. Merrem 20. Rafinesque 19. Rein 84.

Rein and von Roretz 76. Schlegel 38. Siebold 33.

Stejneger 92, 96, 07, 07a. Strauch 70.

Temminck and Schlegel 38. Tschudi 37, 38. Wagler 30. Waite 07. Wied-Neuwied 65.

b) Zoological.

Abbott 73.

Andres 96.

Beale 78.

Beddard 03, 04.

Bell 35.

Bender 07.

Berry 98.

Bettziech 60.

Bjeletzkij 89.

Blanchard 71, 71a, 91.

Boie 26.

Bonaparte 32, 38, 39.

Bugnion 74.

Chiaje 40.

Claus 82.

Configliachi and Rusconi 21.

Cope 95.

Dalton 53.

Davison 94, 95, 96.

De Kay 42.

Dowler 59.

Dumeril et Bibron 84.

Ecker 59.

Ehrenberg 62, 67, 68, 70, 72,

Eigenmann 99.

Eismann 75.

Ellis 66.

Emerson 05.

Emery 97.

Erber 63, 77.

Eycleshymer 06.

Fischer, J. G. 64.

Fischer, Sigwart 00.

Frauenfeld 61.

Frear 82.

Fülleborn 94.

Gadow Ol.

Geerts 83, 84.

Gegenbaur 98.

Geyer 05.

Gmelin 06.

Grote 76, 76a.

Grube 66.

Guerne 96.

Hargitt 92.

Harlan 23, 24, 24a, 26, 26a.

Hay 88.

Heidenhain 07.

Hertwig 06.

Van der Hoeven 38, 38a, 67, 67a, 67b.

Hoffmann 77.

Humboldt 05.

Hunter 66.

Huxley 74, 75.

Hyrtl 50, 65, 65a.

Ishikawa 00, 02, 04, 08.

James 23.

Kammerer 05, 05a

Kingsley 92.

Kneeland 58.

Kölliker 89.

Kornhuber 64.

Lankes 06.

Le Conte 49.

Leuckart 21.

Lewis 04.

Leydig 53.

Linnaeus 66.

Lloyd 66.

Marchesetti 75.

Marenzeller 78.

Marshall 93.

Mayer 35.

Pompe van Meerdervoort 59.

Mettenheimer 70.

Meuron 93.

Michahelles 29, 31.

Milde 62.

Milner 74.

Minot 92.

Mitchill 22, 24, 24a.

Moesch 87.

Montgomery 80.

Moodie 08.

Morgan 03.

Müller, J. C. 32.

Müller, K. 64.

NeiU, 28, 32.

Nobbe 64.

Nussbaum 07.

Oesterdam 89.

Oken 17, 36.

Oppel 9(1, 90.

Osawa 99, 02.

Osborn 84.

Owen 66.

PLisalix 97, 97a.

Rabl 89.

Reese 06.

Rejsek 97.

Rudolphi 17.

Ruscoui 27, 28, 37, 43, 43a.

Ryder 90.

Rusconi and Contigliachi 18.

Saski 87.

Schlegel 37.

Schmidl 60.

Schmidt, Goddard en Vau der Hoeven

64. Schneider, J. G. 79. Schneider, 0. 73. Schneider, R. 90. Schreibers Ol, 18, 20. Siebold 28. Smith, H. M. 98. Smith, J. 32. Smith, F. A. 28. Spicer 69. Stöhr 06. Stricker 72. Strube 88. Tommasini 75. Townsend 82. Treviranus 20. Vaillant 63, 63a. Valentin 37. Viator 37. Wagler 28. Wagner, F. 80. Wagner, R. 37. Weinzettl 81.

Weismann and Wiedersheim 78. Whitman 85, 99. Wiedersheim 77, 90, 09. Wilder, B. G. 74, 83. Wilder, H. H. 91. Zeller, 88.

c) Embryological.

Broili 03.

Chauvin 83, 83a.

Cope 86.

Eycleshymer 02, 04, 04a.

Fülleborn 94.

Hay 88.

Kammerer 07.

Keibel Ol, 06.

Kerbert 03, 04, 05. Krainz 61. Mc Gregor 96. Morgan 97. Platt 94, 96. Rabl 98. Schoenichen 04. Schulze, F. E. 76. Schulze, 0. 05. Smith, B. G. 06. Virchow 94. Vir6 04.

Whitman 88, 88a. Wiedersheim 77, 90. Zeller 89, 90.

2. Earliest Stages.

Andrews 98, 98a.

Bussy 04, 05.

Camerano 83.

Eycleshymer 95, 02.

Ishikawa 03, 05.

Kerbert 03.

Lange 06, 07.

Schmidt 04.

Sobotta 97.

Whitman and Eycleshymer 96.

Zeller 90.

3. Skeleton.

Albrecht 78.

Baur 85, 88, 89, 91.

Buchs 02.

Carlson 86.

Cope 89.

Davison 97.

Duges 34.

Field 95.

Gadovv 95.

Gage 82.

Gaupp 04, 06.

Gegenbaur 62.

Göppert 95, 96.

Hay 89, 90.

Hepburn 07.

Van der Hoeven 66.

Houghton 03.

Howes and Davies 88.

Lucas 86.

Meyerhofer 09.

Mivart 70.

Murray 97.

Nussbaum 08.

Parker 68, 77, 96.

Peter 94, 98.

Platt 97.

Reynolds 97.

der Wirbeltiere. XI.

Ryder 79. Schauinsland 06. Sieglbauer 04. Smallwood 08. Sinith, F. 00. Terry 04.

Van P^e 03, 03a, 04. Walter 87. Wliipple 06. Wiedersheim 77, 92. Wilder, H. H. 03. Winslow 98. Zwick 97.

4. Muscies.

Braus 07. Davison 94. Drüner 03. Duges 34.

Eycleshymer 02a, 04. Fürbringer 06. Gage, S. P. 90. Göppert 94. Humphry 72. Macallum 87a. Maurer 06. Mivart 69, 69a. Platt 97. Ribbing 07. Schaper 02.

5. Blood and Vascular System.

Boas 81.

Claypole 93, 96.

Crisp 60.

Eisen 99.

Favaro 06.

Gage, S. H. 85a.

Gulliver 73.

Harting 58.

Hochstetter 06.

Van der Hoeven 41, 67a.

Joseph 05.

Kneeland 68.

Knoll 96.

Königstein 03.

Kunitomo 03.

Langerhans 73.

Macallum 92.

Mandl 39, 39a.

Marcinowski 06.

Miller 00a.

Minot 98, 00.

Owen 35, 42.

Romeisen 05.

Rooy 07.

Schmidt, H. D. 78.

Sobotta 02.

Vaillant 62. Welikij 90. Wyman 54. Zuckerkandl 95, 9Ba.

6. Respiratory System.

Böttger 76. Bridge 00. Camerano 83a. Clemens 95. Drüner Ol. Eycleshymer 06a. Göppert 98. Kneeland 56. Königstein 03a. Maurer 88, 88a. Miller 00b, 02, 05. Wiedersheim 77b. Wilder, H. H. 96. Wyman 54.

7. Digestive System.

Becker 02. Bensley 00. Blyer 74. Bolau 99. Broman 04. Choronsbitzky 97, 00. Gage-Gage 90. Gage, S. H. 85. Göppert 91, 06. Green 96, 97. Holmgren 04. Kingsbury 94. Leydig 98. Macallum 87. Mc Gill 08a.

Matbews 99.

Meckel 19.

Miller 06.

Monti 98.

Nemiloff 02.

Oppel 95.

Platt 96.

Prenant 04.

Reese 04b.

Richter 02.

Riddle 09.

Saint-Hilaire 03.

Schulz 00.

8. Nervous System.

Allis 03. Anderson 92. Bender 07a. Brächet 07. Bugnion 74. Carl.son 06. Deen 34.

Edinger 04. Fischer, J. G. 43. Galeotti 97. Herrick 93, 94, 09. Hirsch-Tabor 09. Hoffmanu 02. Humphry 72. Jelliffe 97.

Johnston, J. B. 03, 06. Kingsbury 95a.

Klaussner 83.

Kühne 86.

Kupffer 06.

Levi 97.

Lej'dig 76a.

Macallum 87.

McGill 08, 08a.

Mc Gregor 96.

Miller 00.

Blonti 99.

Nakagawa 91.

Nemiloff 02.

Neumayer 06.

Norris 05, 08, 09.

Osborn 83, 84, 86, 86a, 88.

Platt 96a.

Rubaschkin Ol, 03.

Rüge 97.

Smirnow 90.

Strong 92, 95.

Tuerckheim 03. Vaillant 62.

Warren 05.

9. Sense Organs.

Bawden 94.

Beer 99.

Bugnion 73.

Dubois 90.

Eigenmann 00, 00a.

Eigenmann and Deuny 00, 00a.

Eycleshymer 93.

Fleissig 09.

Hess 89.

Howard 08.

Kingsbury 95, 95b, 03, 08.

Kingsley 00.

Kingsley and Ruddick 99.

Kohl 89, 91.

Kuhn 79.

Lauber 02.

Leydig 68, 76b.

Loeb 05.

Malbranc 75, 76.

Mall 93.

Mihalkovics 98.

Norris 94. Okajima 06. Okasima 06. Rabl 98. Reese 05a, 06a. Rejsek 97a. Retzius 81, 04, 05. Schlamp 91, 92. Schulze, F. E. 61, 70. Seydel 95. Studnicka 97. Takahashi 09. Terry 06. Wilder, H. H. 92. Wilder, J. W. 09.

10. Integument.

Ancel Ol. Chauvin 84. Eycleshymer 06b. Grote 76. Heidenhain 93. Leydig 73, 76, 76a. Merkel 80. Niclogu 93. Rabl 95. Reese 04b, 05. Schub er g 93. Studer 74.

11. Genito-urinary Organs.

Bidder 46. Broman Ol. Drzewina 03. Duvernoy 47. Felix and Bühler 06. Field 94. Fürbringer 77. Hall 04. Heidenhain 00. Johnston, C. 76. Joseph 05a. Kampen 03. Kingsbury 95. Knappe 86. Mc Gregor 99. Meyer 75. Minot 98. Piersol 89. Rathke 25. Reese 04, 04a. Valentin 41.

12. Variations.

Bumpus 96. Howes 93. Waite 97. Winslow 04.