Talk:Book - Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates 3-6

From Embryology

A. General considerations

1. Definitions

2. Early history of the cleavage (cell-division) concept

3. Importance of the cleavage-blastular period of development

a. Morphological relationships of the blastula

b. Physiological relationships of the blastula

1 ) Hybrid crosses

2) Artificial parthenogenesis

3) Oxygen-block studies

4. Geometrical relations of early cleavage

a. Meridional plane

b. Vertical plane

c. Equatorial plane

d. Latitudinal plane

5. Some fundamental factors involved in the early cleavage of the egg

a. Mechanisms associated with mitosis or cell division

b. Influence of cytoplasmic substance and egg organization upon cleavage

1) Yolk

2) Organization of the egg

c. Influence of first cleavage amphiaster on polyspermy

d. Viscosity changes during cleavage

e. Cleavage laws

1 ) Sach’s rules

2) Hertwig’s laws

6. Relation of early cleavage planes to the antero-posterior axis of the embryo

B. Types of cleavage in the phylum Chordata

1. Typical holoblastic cleavage

a. Amphioxus

b. Frog (Rana pipiens and R. sylvatica)

c. Cyclostomata

2. Atypical types of holoblastic cleavage

a. Holoblastic cleavage in the egg of the metatherian and eutherian mammals

1 ) General considerations

2) Early development of the rabbit egg

a) Two-cell stage

b) Four-cell stage

c) Eight-cell stage

d) Sixteen-cell stage

e) Morula stage

f) Early blastocyst

3) Types of mammalian blastocysts (blastulae)

b. Holoblastic cleavage of the transitional or intermediate type

1) Amhystoma maculatum (punctatum)

2) Lepidosiren paradoxa

3) Necturus maculosus

4) Acipenser sturio

5) Amia calva

6) Lepisosteus (Lepidosteus) osseus

7) Gymnophionan amphibia

3. Meroblastic cleavage

a. Egg of the common fowl

1) Early cleavages

2) Formation of the periblast tissue

3) Morphological characteristics of the primary blastula

4) Polyspermy and fate of the accessory sperm nuclei

b. Elasmobranch fishes

1 ) Cleavage and formation of the early blastula

2) Problem of the periblast tissue in elasmobranch fishes

c. Teleost fishes

1) Cleavage and early blastula formation

2) Origin of the periblast tissue in teleost fishes

d. Prototherian Mammalia

e. Cleavage in the California hagfish, Polistotrema (Bdellostorna) stouti

C. What is the force which causes the blastomeres to adhere together during early cleavage?

D. Progressive cytoplasmic inequality and nuclear equality of the cleavage blastomeres

1. Cytoplasmic inequality of the early blastomeres

2. Nuclear equality of the early blastomeres

E. Quantitative and qualitative cleavages and their influence upon later development