Talk:Book - Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates 3-10

From Embryology

A. Introduction[edit] 1. Some of the developmental problems faced by the embryo after gastrulation

a. Tubulation

b. Increase in size and antero-posterior extension of the tubulated, major organforming areas

c. Regional modifications of the tubulated areas

2. Common, vertebrate, embryonic body form

3. Starting point for tabulation

4. Developmental processes which accomplish tabulation

a. Immediate processes

b. Auxiliary processes

5. Blastocoelic space and body-form development

6. Primitive circulatory tubes or blood vessels

7. Extra-embryonic membranes

B. Tabulation of the neural, epidermal, entodermal, and mesodermal, organ-forming areas in the vertebrate group

1. Neuralization or the tabulation of the neural plate area

a. Definition

b. Neuralizative processes in the Vertebrata

1) Thickened keel method

2) Neural fold method

c. Closure of the blastopore in rounded gastrulae, such as that of the frog

d. Anterior and posterior neuropores; neurenteric canal

2. Epidermal tabulation

a. Development of the epidermal tube in Amphibia

b. Tabulation of the epidermal area in flat blastoderms

3. Formation of the primitive gut tube (enteric tabulation)

a. Regions of primitive gut tube or early metenteron

b. Formation of the primitive metenteron in the frog

c. Formation of the tubular metenteron in flat blastoderms

4. Tabulation (coelom formation) and other features involved in the early differentiation of the mesodermal areas

a. Early changes in the mesodermal areas

1) Epimere; formation of the somites

2) Mesomere

3) Hypomere

b. Tabulation of the mesodermal areas

C. Notochordal area

D. Lateral constrictive movements

E. Tubulation of the neural, epidermal, entodermal, and mesodermal, organ-forming areas in Amphioxus

1. Comparison of the problems of tubulation in the embryo of Amphioxus with that of the embryos in the subphylum Vertebrata

a. End-bud growth

b. Position occupied by the notochord and mesoderm at the end of gastrulation

2. Neuralization and the closure of the blastopore

3. Epidermal tubulation

4. Tubulation of the entodermal area

a. Segregation of the entoderm from the chordamesoderm and the formation of the primitive metenteric tube

b. Formation of the mouth, anus, and other specialized structures of the metenteron

5. Tubulation of the mesoderm

6. Later differentiation of the myotomic (dorsal) area of the somite

7. Notochord

F. Early development of the rudiments of vertebrate paired appendages

G. The limb bud as an illustration of the field concept of development in relation to the gastrula and the tubulated embryo

H. Cephalic flexion and general body bending and rotation in vertebrate embryos

I. Influences which play a part in tubulation and organization of body form

J. Basic similarity of body-form development in the vertebrate group of chordate animals