Talk:AE Practical - Neural Histology

From Embryology

cerebral infarct

zone of liquefactive necrosis, a zone of reactive gliosis (healing) and a zone of normal cerebral cortex.



Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. Baron S, editor. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. Chapter 96 Microbiology of the Nervous System


Cerebellum development and medulloblastoma

Curr Top Dev Biol. 2011;94:235-82.

Roussel MF, Hatten ME. Source Department of Tumor Cell Biology and Genetics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.


In the last 20 years, it has become clear that developmental genes and their regulators, noncoding RNAs including microRNAs and long-noncoding RNAs, within signaling pathways play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Many of these pathways were first identified in genetic screens in Drosophila and other lower organisms. Mammalian orthologs were subsequently identified and genes within the pathways cloned and found to regulate cell growth. Genes and pathways expressed during embryonic development, including the Notch, Wnt/β-Catenin, TGF-β/BMP, Shh/Patched, and Hippo pathways are mutated, lost, or aberrantly regulated in a wide variety of human cancers, including skin, breast, blood, and brain cancers, including medulloblastoma. These biochemical pathways affect cell fate determination, axis formation, and patterning during development and regulate tissue homeostasis and regeneration in adults. Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant nervous system tumor in childhood, are thought to arise from disruptions in cerebellar development [reviewed by Marino, S. (2005)]. Defining the extracellular cues and intracellular signaling pathways that control cerebellar neurogenesis, especially granule cell progenitor (GCP) proliferation and differentiation has been useful for developing models to unravel the mechanisms underlying medulloblastoma formation and growth. In this chapter, we will review the development of the cerebellar cortex, highlighting signaling pathways of potential relevance to tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID 21295689

Trends Neurosci. 2011 Mar;34(3):134-42

Development and cancer of the cerebellum. Hatten ME, Roussel MF. Source Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.


Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor and is thought to arise from genetic anomalies in developmental pathways required for the normal maturation of the cerebellar cortex, notably developmental pathways for granule cell progenitor (GCP) neurogenesis. Over the past decade, a wide range of studies have identified genes and their regulators within signaling pathways, as well as noncoding RNAs, that have crucial roles in both normal cerebellar development and pathogenesis. These include the Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, bone morphogenic proteins (Bmp) and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways. In this review, we highlight the function of these pathways in the growth of the cerebellum and the formation of MB. A better understanding of the developmental origins of these tumors will have significant implications for enhancing the treatment of this important childhood cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID 21315459


On neurokeratin (1890)

A. Ewald and W. Kuhne, Uber einen neuen Bestandtheil des Nervensystems, Vereins. d. naturhist. nicd. Yereins zu Heidelberg, n. V., Band i, 1877, p. 857.