Talk:2009 Lecture 9

From Embryology

Background Reading


  • Hedgehog - Paracrine Hedgehog signaling in stomach and intestine: new roles for hedgehog in gastrointestinal patterning. Kolterud A, Grosse AS, Zacharias WJ, Walton KD, Kretovich KE, Madison BB, Waghray M, Ferris JE, Hu C, Merchant JL, Dlugosz AA, Kottmann AH, Gumucio DL. Gastroenterology. 2009 Aug;137(2):618-28. PMID: 19445942
  • Sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein-4 signaling pathway involved in epithelial cell renewal along the radial axis of the intestine.

Ishizuya-Oka A, Hasebe T. Digestion. 2008;77 Suppl 1:42-7. Epub 2008 Jan 18. Review. PMID: 18204261

  • Wnt - Phases of canonical Wnt signaling during the development of mouse intestinal epithelium. Kim BM, Mao J, Taketo MM, Shivdasani RA. Gastroenterology. 2007 Aug;133(2):529-38. PMID: 17681174
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins. Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR. Growth Factors. 2004 Dec;22(4):233-41. Review. PMID: 15621726


  • Dynamic patterning at the pylorus: Formation of an epithelial intestine-stomach boundary in late fetal life. Li X, Udager AM, Hu C, Qiao XT, Richards N, Gumucio DL. Dev Dyn. 2009 Oct 29. PMID: 19877272
  • Villin: A marker for development of the epithelial pyloric border. Braunstein EM, Qiao XT, Madison B, Pinson K, Dunbar L, Gumucio DL. Dev Dyn. 2002 May;224(1):90-102. PMID: 11984877

Take the Quiz


Both blood stem cells and the endothelial lining of blood vessels arise from blood islands.



The region of the early heart tube that corresponds to the inflow and out flow respectively are:

inferior vena cava and aortic arch
portal artery and aorta
sinus arteriosus and cordus bulbus
truncus arteriosus and sinus venosus


Embryonic red blood cells only differ from adult cells in still having nuclei.



The embryo cardinal venous vessels which drain into the sinus venosus are:

anterior cardinal veins
common cardinal veins
inferior cardinal veins
superior cardinal veins


The embryonic heart rate rises throughout development.