Talk:2009 Lecture 6

From Embryology

Background Reading

  • BMP inhibition initiates neural induction via FGF signaling and Zic genes. Marchal L, Luxardi G, Thomé V, Kodjabachian L. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19805078 | PNAS full
"We propose to merge the previous models into a unique one whereby neural induction is controlled by BMP inhibition, which activates directly, and, via FGF instructive activity, early neural regulators such as Zic genes."

"During neural induction, the embryonic neural plate is specified and set aside from other parts of the ectoderm. A popular molecular explanation is the 'default model' of neural induction, which proposes that ectodermal cells give rise to neural plate if they receive no signals at all, while BMP activity directs them to become epidermis. However, neural induction now appears to be more complex than once thought, and can no longer be fully explained by the default model alone. This review summarizes neural induction events in different species and highlights some unanswered questions about this important developmental process."

3-D reconstruction of a human fetus with combined holoprosencephaly and cyclopia Wolfgang H Arnold and Veronika Meiselbach Head Face Med. 2009; 5: 14. Published online 2009 June 29. doi: 10.1186/1746-160X-5-14. PMCID: PMC2709107

Relationship between Neural Crest Cells and Cranial Mesoderm during Head Muscle Development Julien Grenier, Marie-Aimée Teillet, Raphaëlle Grifone, Robert G. Kelly, and Delphine Duprez PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(2): e4381. Published online 2009 February 9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004381. PMCID: PMC2634972

"In vertebrates, the skeletal elements of the jaw, together with the connective tissues and tendons, originate from neural crest cells, while the associated muscles derive mainly from cranial mesoderm. Previous studies have shown that neural crest cells migrate in close association with cranial mesoderm and then circumscribe but do not penetrate the core of muscle precursor cells of the branchial arches at early stages of development, thus defining a sharp boundary between neural crest cells and mesodermal muscle progenitor cells. Tendons constitute one of the neural crest derivatives likely to interact with muscle formation. However, head tendon formation has not been studied, nor have tendon and muscle interactions in the head."

PLoS Neural Plate