Paper - The use of guide planes and plaster of Paris for reconstructions from serial sections

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Lewis WH. The use of guide planes and plaster of Paris for reconstructions from serial sections- Some points on reconstruction. (1915) Anat. Rec. :719-

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This historic 1915 paper by Lewis describes research techniques employed to generate models of the human embryos in the Carneige Collection embryo 460.


Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
460 E, 21 Exc. Bichlor. acetic P Transverse 40 H.&E., coch, 24.5 Male 1910 injected


Carnegie Collection - Stage 20 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
240 E, 20 Ch, 50x40x30 Poor Formol P Coronal 20 Iron H. 27 d 19??
256 E, 21 poor Alc p Sagittal 25 Coch. 23 M 1904 Tubal. Partial anencephaly
353 E, 20 Poor Alc P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 22,5 M 1906
431 E, 19 Ch, 30x25x25 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 25,5 M 1908 Tubal
437 E, 23 Ch., 80x60x50 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Coch 24 M 193?
453 E, 23 Ch, 60x40x30 Poor Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 23-5 ? 1910 Injected
460 E, 21 Exc. Bichlor. acetic P Transverse 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), coch, 24.5 M 1910 injected
462 E, 20 Ch, 50x40x30 Exc. Formol P Transverse 40 Al, coch 23.5 F 1910
635B E, 22 Poor Ale P Trans 50 Al, coch 26.5 M 1913
657 E, 25 Ch, 35x20x15 Poor Formol C Sagittal 40 Al, coch 26.5 M 1913 Tubal
966 E, 23 Ch, 51x38x13 Exc Bichlor. acetic P Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), aur, or. G 25 M 1911 Tubal
1134B E, 23 Poor Formol p Sagittal 100 Al. coch., 22 - 1915
1266 E, 23.1 Poor Formol C-P Sagittal 25 Al. coch., (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or G 20.5 F 191?
2393 Ch, 61.5x50x35 Poor
3527 E., 22 Ch. 32x30x10 Good Formol P Sagittal 25 Al. coch., 28 ? 1921
4059 E, 21.6 Good Formol P Coronal 15 Al. coch., Mallory 29.5 $ 1922
4148 E, 21 Ch. 45x34x30 Good Formol p Coronal 15 A1. coch., Mallory 19 ? 1922
4361 E, 22 Ch., 52x42x23 poor Formol 9 Transverse 20 Coch. 24 8 1923
6202 E, 21 Ch., 35x35x22 Exc Bouin P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 20.5 8 1930 Tubal
6426 E 21.5 Good Formol C—P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 21 3 1931
7274 E, 18.5 Ch., 48x44x35 Exc Bouin C—P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 20 M 1936
7906 E19.5 Exc Bouin C—P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 22 8 1941 Left renal agenesis
8517 E., 20.8 Exc. Bouin C—P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 24 8 1943
8226 E, 18.0 Exc. Bouin C—P Sagittal 10 Alan ? 3 1944
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.


Carnegie Collection - Carnegie Embryos Sorted by Stage 
Carnegie Collection - Stage 3 
Serial No. Normality No. of Blastomeres Size of Fixed Specimen (µm) Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
8663 normal 107 103x80 Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949 Hertig etal.(1954)[1]
8794 normal 58 108x86 Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1950 Hertig etal.(1954)[1]
Abbreviations
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 5 
Serial No. Stage Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
8020 5a Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Hertig and Rock (1945a)[2]
8155 5a Exc. Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Hertig and Rock (1949)[3]
8225 5a Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1944 Hertig and Rock (1945b)[4]
8004 5b Exc Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Hertig and Rock (1945a)[2]
8171 5b Exc Alc. C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Hertig and Rock (1949)[3]
8215 5b Exc Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1944 Hertig and Rock (1945c)[5]
9350 5b Exc Bouin ? ? (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1955 Heuser (1956)[6]
4900 5c Poor p P 10 p 1925 Incomplete. Streeter (1926)[7]
7699 5c Exc. Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 Hertig and Rock (1941)[8]
7700 5c Exc. Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938 Hertig and Rock (1941)[8]
7771 5c Exc. Bouin C-P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Abnormal
7950 5c Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 Hertig and Rock (1944)[9]
8000 5c Poor Alc. & Bouin C-P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Abnormal
8139 5c Exc. ? C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Incomplete. Marchetti (1945)[10]
8299 5c Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1945 Abnormal
8329 5c Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1945 Abnormal
8330 5c Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1945
8370 5c Poor Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1946 Abnormal
8558 5c Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1947
Stage 5 was originally subdivided into 3 sequential parts a, b, c.

Abbreviations

  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 Hertig AT. Rock J. Adams EC. and Mulligan W.J. On the preimplantation stages of the human ovum: a description of four normal and four abnormal specimens ranging from the second to the fifth day of development. (1954) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 603, Contrib. Embryol., 35: 199-220.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hertig AT. and Rock J. Two human ova of the pre-villous stage, having a developmental age of about seven and nine days respectively. (1945) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 557, 31: 65-84.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Hertig, A. T., and Rock, J. 1949. Two human ova of the pre-villous stage, having a developmental age of about eight and nine days respectively. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 583, Contrib. Embryol., 33, 169-186
  4. Hertig AT. and Rock J. On a normal human ovum not over 7.5 days of age. (1945) Anat. Rec, 91: 281.
  5. Hertig, A. T., and Rock J. 1945c. On a normal ovum of approximately 9 to 10 days of age. Anat. Rec, 91,281.
  6. Heuser, C. H. 1956. A human ovum with an estimated ovulation age of about nine days. Anat. Rec, 124, 459.
  7. Streeter, G. L. 1926. The "Miller" ovum—the youngest normal human embryo thus far known. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ 363, Contrib. Embryol., 18, 31-48.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hertig, A. T., and Rock, J. 1941. Two human ova of the pre-villous stage, having an ovulation age of about eleven and twelve days respectively. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 525, Contrib. Embryol., 29, 127-156.
  9. Hertig, A. T., and Rock, J. 1944. On the development of the early human ovum, with special reference to the trophoblast of the previllous stage: a description of a normal and 5 pathologic human ova. Amer. J. Obstet Gynecol, 47, 149-184.
  10. Marchetti AA. A pre-villous human ovum accidentally recovered from a curettage specimen. (1945) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 557, 31: 107-115.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 6 
Serial No. Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
6026 Poor ? ? 6? (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1929 Lockyer embryo. Abnormal. Ramsey (1937)
6734 Poor Zenker—acetic P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Yale embryo. Ramsey (1938)
6900 Poor Formol P 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Linzenmeier (1914)
7634 Poor Formol P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) etc. 1940 Torpin embryo. Kraflca (1941)
7762 Good Zenker—formol P 8 ? 1940 Wilson (1945)
7800 Exc. ? C—P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Abnormal
7801 Exc. Bouin C—P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Heuser et al. (1945)
7850 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C—P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Abnormal
8290 Exc. Bouin C—P 8 H. phlox. 1944
8360 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C—P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1944
8362 Poor p C—P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox 1944
8672 Exc. Ale. & Bouin C—P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949
8819 Exc. Formol—chrom. subl. C—P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1951 Edwards-Jones-Brewer (H1496). Brewer (1937, 38)[1][2]
8905 Poor Ale. p 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1951 Abnormal
8910 Good Formol C—P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1951
9222 Good Bouin C—P 6 & 10 Azan 1954 Abnormal. Possibly stage 7
9250 Exc. Bouin p 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1954
9595 Poor p p 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1958
10003 Good Bouin p 5 Various 1963
Abbreviations
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
Carnegie Collection - Stage 7 
Serial No. Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
7802 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Heuser et al. (1945)
8206 Good p C-P 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943
8361 Good Bouin C-P 10 p 1946 Abnormal
8602 Exc. Alc. C-P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1948
8752 Exc. ? C-P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1950
8755 Exc. Formol C-P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1950
9217 Exc. p P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1954
Abbreviations
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 8 
Serial No. Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
1399 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) etc. 1916 "Mateer embryo" described by Streeter (1920a)[1]
3412 Poor Formol P Transverse 5-15 Al. coch. E. au., or. 1921
5960 Good Kaiserling P Transverse 5 Al. coch. & eosin 1929 Heuser (1932b)[2]
6630 Poor Formol P Oblique 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1932
6815 Poor Formol P Oblique 10 Al. coch., or. G 1933
7170a and b 7545 Poor Alc. C-P Transverse 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1935 Twins
7568 Poor Formoi C-P Transverse 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938
7640 Good Formol & Bouin P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 George (1942)[3]
7666 Exc. Formol-chrom. subl. C-P Transverse 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 "H. 1515"
7701 Exc. ? C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939
7822 Good Formoi C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940
7949 Good Zenker p Sagittal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) etc. 1941
7972 Good Alc. & Bouin C-P Sagittal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942
8255 Exc. Bouin C-P Sagittal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1944 Slides showing embryo returned to Dr. Patten in 1962
8320 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1945
8352 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1946
8371 Poor Alc. & Bouin C-P Sagittal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1946
8671 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P Sagittal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1949
8725 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P Sagittal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1949 Preparation method described by Heard (1957)[4]
8727 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1949 Germ disc folded, possibly double (Hertig, 1968, fig. 180)[5]
8820 Good Zenker-formol ? Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1951 "Jones-Brewer I" (H. 1459) described by Jones and Brewer (1941)[6]
9009a and b 9123 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1952 Twins described briefly by Heuser (1954)[7]
8371 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1953
9251 Good ? C-P Sagittal 10-12 Azan, H. & phlox. 1954
9286 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 8 Azan 1955
10157 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse ? Cason 1967
10174 Exc. Bouin p Transverse 8 Cason 1967
Abbreviations
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. Streeter GL. A human embryo (Mateer) of the pre-somite period. (1920) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 272, 9: 389-424.
  2. Heuser, C. H. 1932b. A presomite human embryo with a definite chorda canal. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 433, Contrib. Embryol., 23, 251-267.
  3. George, W. C. 1942. A presomite human embryo with chorda canal and prochordal plate. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 541, Contrib. Embryol., 30, 1-7.
  4. Heard OO. Methods used by C. H. Heuser in preparing and sectioning early embryos. (1957.) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 611, Contrib. Embryol., 36, 1-18.
  5. Hertig, A. T. 1968. Human Tropboblast. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.
  6. Jones HO. and Brewer JI. A human embryo in the primitive-streak stage (Jones-Brewer ovum I). (1941) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 525, Contrib. Embryol., 29: 157-165.
  7. Heuser, C. H. 1954. Monozygotic twin human embryos with an estimated ovulation age of 17 days. Anat. Rec, 118, 310.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 9 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
1878 2-3 Embryo, 1.38
Ch., 12x10.5x7.5
Good Formol P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1917 Described by Ingalls (1920).[1]
5080 1 Embryo, 1.5
Ch., 14.5
Poor Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1926 Studied by Davis (1927).[2]
7650 2-3 Embryo, 2-3 Good Alc & Bouim C-P Transverse 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 Said to be female[3]
Abbreviations
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. Ingalls, N.W. 1920. A human embryo at the beginning of segmentation, with special reference to the vascular system. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 274, Contrib. Embryol., 11, 61-90.
  2. Davis, C. L. 1927. Development of the human heart from its first appearance to the stage found in embryos of twenty paired somites. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ 380, Contrib. Embryol., 19, 245-284.
  3. PARK WW. (1957). The occurrence of sex chromatin in early human and macaque embryos. J. Anat. , 91, 369-73. PMID: 13448995
Carnegie Collection - Stage 10 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
391 8 E, 2 Ch., 14 Good Formol P 10 Al. coch. 1907 Monograph by Dandy (1910)[1]
1201 7 E,2 Ch.. 144 Good Formol P 8 H. & or. G. 1915 Univ. Chicago No. H 87
2795 4-5 E,2 Poor Alc. P 6 Al coch,or.G. 1919
3707 12 E, 1 5 Good Formol P 12.5 I. H. 1921 Univ. Calif. No. H 197
3709 4 E. 1.4 Ch.. 14.8 Poor Formol P 10 Erythrosin 1921 Univ. Chicago No H 279
3710 12 E., 3.6 Ch., 19.0 Good Formol C-P 10 H. & or. G. 1921 Univ. Chicago No. H 392
4216 8 E, 2 Ch, 9.8 Good Formol P 15 ? 1923 Monograph by Payne (1925)[2]
5074 10 E., 3.3 Ch., 10.8 Exc. Bouin P 10 Al. coch. 1925 Univ. Rochester No. H 10. Monograph by Corner (1929)[3]
6330 7 E, 2.83 Good P 5 Ehr. H. 1931 Univ. Chicago No. H 1404
6740 12 E., 2.2 Good p C-P 8 ? 1933 Litzenberg embryo. Studied by Boyden (1940)
7251 8 E., 1.27 Good Formol C-P 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 "Singapore embryo." Univ. Cambridge No. H 98.
Studied by Wilson (1914)[4]
8244 6 E., 1.55 Ch, 8,5 Good Alc. C-P 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) phlox. 1944
9870 12 Ch, ca. 8 Good Zenker P 5 Various, chiefly carmine 1952 Univ. Chicago. No. H 637. Dicephaly
Abbreviations
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
  • All Carnegie stage 10 embryos are cut in Transverse plane.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 11 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
12 14 E, 2.1 Ch, 13 Poor P Transverse 10 Al. carm. 1893
164 18 E, 3.5 Ch, 14 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1913
318 13/14 E, 2.5 Ch, 16 Good P Transverse 25 Al. carm. 1905
470 17 E, 4.3 Ch, 16 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. carm. . 1910
779 14 E, 2.75 Good C Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1913 Dysraphism. Noted by Dekaban (1964)[5]
1182b E, 3 Ch, 15x12x5 Good Formol ? Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1915
2053 20 E, 3.1 Ch, 12 Exc. Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1918 Most advanced in group. Ag added to slide 2
Monographs by Davis (1923)[6] and Congdon (1922)[7]
4315 17 E, 4.7 Ch, 23x10.4X11 Excellent ? C-P Transverse 10 I.H. & E. 1923 Univ. Chicago No. 951. Wen (1928)[8]
4529 14 E, 2.4 Ch, 21 Excellent Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch, or. G. 1924 Heuser (1930)[9]
4783 13 E, 2.3 Fair ? ? Transverse 5 I.H. 1924 Wallin (1913)[10]
4877 13 E, 2 Ch, 15 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1925
5072 17 E, 3 Good Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1925 Tubal Type specimen. Atwell (1930)[11]
6050 19/21 E.,3 Ch, 10 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 1930 Advanced
6344 13 E, 2.5 Ch, 17 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 Al. coch. 1931 Least advanced in group
6784 17 E, 5 Ch, 16 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 I.H, or. G. 1933
7358 16 E, ? Ch, 15 Poor Alc, formol p Oblique 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936
7611 16 E., 2.4 Ch., 12 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938
7665 19 E., 4.36 Excellent ? C-P Transverse 6 1939 Univ. Chicago No. H 1516
7702 17 E, 3.7 Ch., 14 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1940 Returned to B M Patten
7851 13 E., 4.3 Ch, 18 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Slightly injured
8005 16/17 E, 3 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Tubal
8116 17 E, 14 Ch.. 17 Good Formol p Sagittal 8 Azan 1953
8962 15 E, 1.55 Good ? * Sagittal ? ? 1952 Tubal Univ. Chicago No. H 810
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. Dandy WE. A human embryo with seven pairs of somites measuring about 2 mm in length. (1910) Amer. J Anat. 10: 85-109.
  2. Payne, F. 1925. General description of a 7-somite human embryo. Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 361, Contrib. Embryol., 16,115-124.
  3. Corner GW. A well-preserved human embryo of 10 somites. (1929) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 394, 20:81-102.
  4. Wilson JT. Observations upon young human embryos. (1914) J Anat Physiol., 48(3): 315-51 PMID 17233002 PMC1288949
  5. Dekaban AS. and Bartelmez GW. Complete Dysraphism in 14 Somite Human Embryo. (1964) A Contribution To Normal And Abnormal Morphogenesis. Am. J. Anat. 115: 27-38. PMID 14199785
  6. Davis CL. Description of a human embryo having twenty paired somites. (1923) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 332, Contrib. Embryol., 15: 1-51.
  7. Congdon ED. Transformation of the aortic-arch system during the development of the human embryo. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ 277, 14:47-110.
  8. Wen IC. The anatomy of human embryos with seventeen to twenty-three pairs of somites (1928) J. Comp. Neural., 45: 301-376.
  9. Heuser CH. A human embryo with 14 pairs of somites. (1930) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 414, Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 22:135-153.
  10. Wallin IE. A human embryo of thirteen somites. (1913) Amer. J Anat. 15(3): 319-331.
  11. Atwell WJ. A human embryo with seventeen pairs of somites. (1930) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 407, 21: 1-24.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 12 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
209 ca_24 EH3 Ch.,15 Poor Alc P Coronal 50 Al. coch. 1902
250 19? E , 2 (11, 10x9x9 Poor p ? Sagittal 20 Al. coch. p
384 P E 2_5 Ch.,13 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 H.&E. 1907 Macerated. Narrow yolk stalk
486 21 E.,4 Ch., 22 Good Corros. acetic P Transverse 10 Al. Coch. 1911
1062 29 E.,4.5 Ch., 20 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1915 Transitional to next stage
2197 ? E_,5_3 Ch., 19.5 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch, or. G. 1918
4245-7 ca.24 E.,3.5 Ch., 24 Good Alc, formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1923 Caudal neuropore widely open
4479 P E.,5 .8 Ch , 17 Poor Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1923 Macerated. Upper lirnb buds not visible
4736 26 E.,3.0 Ch.,20 Good Formol P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 1924 No upper limb buds. Caudal neuropore closed
4759 ? E.,4.5 Ch.,15 Good Formol P Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1924 Neural tube folded
4784 23 E_,3 Good P P Transverse 10 p 1924
5035 25-28 E.,3.8 Ch.,18 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1925
5048 ca_25 E_,3_5 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1925 Tubal Injured
5056 25 E,,3 Ch.,12 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1925
5206 ? E.,4 Ch., 51x31x30 Poor ?? P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1926 Tubal
5300 ? E., 4.5 Ch,16.5 Poor Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1926 Autopsy. Partly macerated
5923 28 E.,4 Ch.,15 Exc. Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1929
6097 25 E,3.4 Ch., 12.5 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch, eosin 1930 Tubal Ag added to slides 1-3
6144 27 E. 3.3 Ch.,11 Good Lysol—Zenker C—P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1930
6488 28 E, 32 Ch,22 Good Formol C—P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1932
6937 26 E.,3 Ch , 12 Poor Formol C—P Coronal 10 I.H.,or.G. 1934 Tubal Caudal neuropore closed
7724 ca.29 E,3.5 Ch.,18 Good Formol C—P Sagittal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Caudal end broken
7852 25 E , 3.7 Ch,26 Exc. Formol C—P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Typical for stage 12
7999 ca.28 E,3.2 Ch , 15 Exc. Bruin C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Caudal defect
8505a 24 Ch, 23.5 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse P H. Phlox. 1947
8505b 23 Ch,24 Exc. Formol C-P Sagittal p Azan 1947 Twins
8941 28 E,4.9 Ch, 35 Exc. Zenker C-P Transverse 6 I.H. 1927 Univ. Chicago No. H 1261
8942 25 E, 38 Ch, 35 Exc. Formal-Zenker C-P Coronal 5 11-1. 1930 Univ. Chicago No. H 1382
8943 22 E. 3.9 Ch, 20.4 Exc. Formal-Zenker C-P Transverse 8 H.&E. 1934 Univ. Chicago No. H 1481
8944 25 E,4 Ch,,25 Exc. Formal-Zenker C-P Sagittal 8 I.H. 1936 Univ. Chicago No. H 1514
8963 22 E, 3.8 Ch , 14.5 Fair Formol C-P Transverse 10 I.H. 1928 Univ. Chicago. No. H 1093 Studied by Wen (1928)[1]
8964 23 E,2.8 Ch - 25 Poor Formol p Transverse 8 I.H. 1928 Univ_ Chicago No. H984 Studied by Wen (1928)[1]
9154 24 E, 5 4 Exc Formal C-P Transverse I.H. & phlox. 1953
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 13 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
1 E.,4.5 Ch., 30x30 Poor Salicylic acid P Transverse 10 Hemat. 1887 Obtained by Mall while student
19 E., 5.5 Ch., 18x14 Poor p ? Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1895
98 E., 4 Ch., 24x16x9 Poor p P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1896
76 E., 4.5 Ch., 22x20 Poor Alc. P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1897
112 E., 4 Poor p P Sagittal 10 Al. coch. p
116 E., 5 Poor p ? Sagittal 10 Al. coch. 1898
148 E.,4.3 Ch., 17x14x10 Poor Alc. P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1899 Abnormal. Nasal discs fused
186 E.,3.5 Ch., 25x20x15 Poor Alc. P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1901
239 E., 3.0 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1903
248 E., 4.5 Ch., 30x23x15 Poor p ? Coronal 50 Al. coch. 1904
407 E.,4 Ch., 14x13X7 Poor Formol ? Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1907
463 E., 3.9 Ch., 17x12x7 Good Formol P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 1910
523 E., 5 Ch., 25x25x15 Fair Formol P Transverse p Al. coch. 1911
588 E., 4.0 Ch., 19x15x8 Good Corros. acetic P Coronal 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1912 Advanced
786 E., 4.5 Ch., 19x10x10 Poor Alc. P Sagittal 15 Al. coch. 1913
800 E., 6.0 Good Corros. acetic P Transverse 10 H 1913 Curettage. Anencephaly
808 E.,4.0 Poor Corros. acetic P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1914 Tubal Incomplete
826 E., 5.0 Ch., 13x13x9 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1914 Shrunken
836 E.,4.0 Ch., 22x18x11 Exc. Corros. acetic P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1914 Less advanced
963 E.,4.0 Ch., 23x18x16 Good Formol P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1914
1075 E.,6.0 Ch., 46x32x20 Exc. Corros. acetic P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or. G. 1915 Most advanced in group
3956 E., 4.0 Poor Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1922 Tubal Incomplete
4046 E.,5 Ch., 22x20x20 Poor Formol P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 1922
5541 E., 6.0 Ch., 35x30x20 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch., eosin 1927
5682 E., 5.3 Ch., 29x25x13 Poor Formol P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1928
5874 E., 4.8 Exc. Bouin P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1929 Hysterotomy. Bromides only
6032 E., 5.8 Ch., 30x24x13 Poor Formol P P ? p 1929 Not good enough to cut
6469 E., 5.0 Ch., 25x18x18 Poor Formol P P P P 1932 Fragmented on cutting. Not saved
6473 E., 5.0 Ch, 30x30x15 Exc. Formol C-P Coronal 6 Al. coch. 1932 Less advanced. Ag added
7433 E., 5.2 Ch., 15x13x13 Exc. Formol C-P Coronal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1937 Tubal
7618 E, 48 Ch, 18x15x15 Exc. Bouin C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 Hystereaomy. Advanced. Ag added
7669 E, 5.0 Ch., 23x16x14 Good Formol C-P Coronal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1939 Hysterectomy. Least advanced in group, Ag added
7889 E, 4.2 Exc. Bouin C-P Coronal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 Hysterectomy
8066 E,53 C h , 20x18xI8 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Hysterectomy. Ag added to slide 2
8119 E., 5.3 Ch., 32x28x6.5 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Hysterectomy
8147 E., 5.2 Ch., 27x21x19 Poor Formol ? ? p p 1943 Tubal Not cut
8239 E., 4.3 Exc. Bouin C-P Sagittal 8 H. phlox. 1944
8372 E., 5.6 Exc. Alc.& Bouin P Transverse 10 Azan 1946
8581 E., 4.8 Good Kaiserling C-P Sagittal 8 Azan 1948 Most-advanced third
8967 E., 5.7 Exc. Acetic Zenker C-P Transverse 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1931 Head injured. Univ. Chicago No. H1426
9296 E,4.5 Exc. C-P Coronal 8 Azan 1955
9297 E., 4.5 Exc. C-P Sagittal 8 Azan 1955
9697 E., 5.5 Bouin 1956 not cut
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 14 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
4 E.,7 Poor p P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1892
18 E.,7 Ch., 18x18 Poor p P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1895
80 E., 5.0 Ch., 24x18x8 Good Alc. P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1897
187 E.,7 Ch., 35x30x25 Poor ? P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1902
1208 E.,7 Ch., 22x11Xx1 Poor ? P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1902
245 E.,6 Ch., 13x12x10 Poor Formol, Zenker ? Transverse 5 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1904
372 E.,7 Fair p P Transverse 10 H.-Congo red 1902
380 E,6 Ch., 20x20x14 Poor p P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1906
387 E.,7 Ch., 45x40x50 Good Formol P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1907
442 E.,6 Ch., 25x20 Poor Formol P Coronal? 50 Al. coch. 1908
552 E.,6 Ch, 40x28Xx8 Poor p P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 1911 Possible anencephaly
560 E., 7.0 Ch, 24x24 Poor Formol P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1912
676 E., 6.0 Ch, 35x20x17 Good Carnoy P Tr.-Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1913 Possible spina bifida
873 E,6.0 Ch., 35x28x16 Poor Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1914
988 E,6.0 Ch., 38x30x23 Good Formol-corros. acetic P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1914
1380 E , 5.7 Ch, 36x24x24 Exc. Formol P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1916
1620 E, 6.6 Ch, 35x30x8 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1916
?? E, 6.68 Fair ? ? Transverse 6 Al. coch., or. G 1919
2841 E , sy Ch. 35x21 Good Alc. P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or.G 1920
3360 E.6.0 Good Formol C Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or.G 1920 In myomatous uterus. Advanced.
3805 E., 5.9 Exc. Bouin P Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1921 Evans embryo No. 168. Serial bromides only
3960 E., 5.5 Good Formol C-P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1922 Blood vessels naturally injected
4154 E, 6.8 Ch., 33x31x20 Poor Alc. C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1923
4245-6 E., 7.0 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1923 Univ. Pennsylvania No. 40. Ag added
4692 E., 6.5 Ch., 32x23 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1924
4672 E,8.2 Ch., 40X34X25 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1924 Advanced
4805 E., 7.3 Ch., 15X8X9 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1924 Tubal
5437 E., 7.0 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1927 Advanced
5654 E., 5.0 Ch., 30x23x17 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch., eosin 1928 Less advanced
5787 E., 6.8 Ch., 32x30x23 Good Formol P Sagittal 10 Al. coch., eosin 1928
6428 E., 7.0 Ch., 30X28X25 Good Formol C-P Coronal 6, 10 Al. coch. 1931 Advanced
6500 E, 4.9* Good Souza? C-P Sagittal 10 Al. coch. 1931 E. Leitz, Berlin
6502 E., 6.7* Exc. Souza? C-P Transverse 5, 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1931 E. Leitz, Berlin. Ag added to slides 1-25
6503 E., 6.3* Exc. Souza? C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 1931 E. Leitz, Berlin
6739 E.,8 Poor Formol C-P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1933
6830 E,5.5 Ch., 47x23x15 Exc. Formol C-P Coronal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1933
6848 E., 7.8 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Tubal
7324 E, 6.6 Ch., 17x13x10 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936 Low implantation
7333 E, 6.3 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936
7394 E, 7.2 Ch., 45x20x20 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1937
7400 E, 6.3 Ch., 35x25x20 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1937
7522 E., 7.7 Ch., 33x16x16 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938 Natural blood injection
7598 E., 7.0 Ch., 30x30x25 Poor Alc. C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938 Macerated
7667 E., 5 Ch., 16x14x12 Fair Formol P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1939
7829 E., 7.0 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Advanced
7870 E,7.2 Ch., 25x20x13 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 On borderline of next stage. Ag added
8141 E,7.3 Ch.,33x28 Exc. C-P Coronal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Shrinkage cracks in brain
8306 E.5.3 Ch., 27 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 10, 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 1945
8308 E, 5.85 Ch., 27x18x18 Exc. Formol & Bouin C-P Sagittal 8 Azan 1945
8314 E,8 Ch.,23x22 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 8 Azan 1945
8357 E., 6.5 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 8 Azan 1946
8552 E,6.5 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P Transverse 8 Azan 1947
8999 E,6 Ch.,16x15 Exc. Alc. & Bouin C-P Sagittal 8 Azan 1952
9695 E,8.5 ? 1955 Not cut
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 15 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
2 E., 7.0 Ch., 25x25x25 Good Alc. P Trans. 15 Al. carm. 1888 Least-advanced third
88 E.,8 Ch., 30x28x15 Poor Alc. P Cor. P Al. coch. 1897
113 E.,8 241 E,6.0 Poor P p Sag. 10 Borax carmine ?
241 E,6.0 Good Formol P Trans. 10 H. & Congo red 1904
371 E,6.6 Good Formol P Sag. 10 Al. coch. 1913 Shrunken and cracked
389 E., 9 Poor p p Sag. 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1907 Tubal
721 E., 9.0 Ch., 30x20x10 Exc. Zenker formol P Trans. 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1913 Median in group
810 E., 7.0 Ch, 30x25x15 Good Alc. P Sag. 20 Al. coch 1913
855 E.,7.5 Poor Formol P Trans. 100 Al. coch. 1914 Pathological between limbs
1006 E,9.0 Ch., 37x26x22 Poor Formol P Cor. 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or. G. 1914 Operative. Most-advanced third
1091 E,7.2 Ch., 28x26x20 Poor P P Cor. 20 Al. coch. 1915 Macerated
1354 E,7.8 Ch, 35x30x25 Good Formol P Sag. 20 Al. coch. 1916 Least-advanced third
1767 E , 11.0 Ch, 41x23x5 Good Formol P Sag. 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or. G. 1917 Most-advanced third
2743 E., 7.2 Ch., 19xl8x14 Poor Formol P Trans. 20 Al. coch. 1919 Macerated. Least-advanced third
3216 E, 6.5 Ch, 30x30x5 Good Formol P Trans. 20 Al. coch. 1920 Hysterectomy. Least-advanced third
3385 E,83 Ch., 25x20x16 Exc. Corros. acetic P Trans. 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or. G. 1921 Some sections lost. Most-advanced third. Ag added
3441 E,8.0 Ch., 25x24x20 Good Formol P Sag. 10 Al. coch. 1921
3512 E,8,5 Ch., 33x28x25 Good Formol P Trans. 10 Al. coch. 1921
3952 E,6,7 Ch., 30x25x15 Good Formol P Cor. 15 Al. coch. 1922 Median in group
4602 E,9.3 Ch,, 33x30x26 Good Formol P Sag. 15 Al. coch. 1924 Medical abortion
4782 E,9.0 Ch., I4xl3x11 Poor Formol P Cor. 20 Al. coch. 1924
5772 E, 8 Poor ? P Cor. 15 Al. coch. eosin 1928
Template:CE5?92 E, 3 Good Corros. acetic C-P Cor. 10 Al. coch. phlox 1929 Transitional to next stage
6223 E ? Poor Alc. C-P Sag. 8 Or. G. 1930 Fragmented sections. Not saved
6504
6506
6508
6595
????
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 16 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
163 E., 9.0 Ch., 35x35x20 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1899 Used by Bardeen and Lewis
221 E., 7.5 Ch., 40x33x33 Poor Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1903 Macerated
383 E., 7.0 Ch., 15x15x15 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 Al. carm., H. & Congo red 1904
397 E., 8.0 Ch., 15x15x15 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1907
422 E., 9.0 Ch., 30x30x30 Poor Alc. P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1910 Tubal. Partly macerated
559 E., 8.6 Ch., 20x15x12 Good Formol P Transverse 20 H. & Congo red 1911 Cyclopia. Formerly listed as stage 17
589 E., 11 Ch., 30x13x13 Poor p P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 1912
617 E., 7.0 Ch., 18x14x12 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1912 Median in group
636 E., 10 Ch.,28x28x22 Poor Formol P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 1913 Macerated
651f E., 7 Ch., 25x20x15 Poor p p p p p 1913 Spina bifida
675 E., 10 Ch., 50x30x25 Poor Formol P Sagittal 100 Carmine 1915 Abnormal head and limbs
792 E., 8.0 Ch., 40x30x30 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1913 Advanced
887 E, 9.0 Ch., 31x28x17 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 1914 Near next stage
1121 E., 11.8 Good Corros. acetic P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1915 Operative. Median in group
1197 E., 10.0 Ch., 23x19x15 Good Formol C Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), or. G. 1915 Advanced
1544 E., 7.2 Good Zenker P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 1916 Tubal. Mechanical injury
1836 E., 11.0 Good Formol P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1917 Most-advanced third
4677 E., 9.5 Ch., 48x36x30 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1924 Median in group
5515 E., 12.0 Ch., 47x37x25 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1927 Near next stage
6054 E., 7,0 Ch., 21x17x12 Good Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1930 Least-advanced third
6507 E., 9.0* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 & 8 Al. coch. p Middle or most-advanced third
6509 E. 8.1* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Least-adianced or middle third
6510 E., 10.1* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Close to No. 6507. Ag added
6511 E, 8.1* Good Corros. acetic C-P Sagittal 10 Al. coch., iron H. p Surface injured by fixative. Most-advanced third
6512 E., 7.0* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. p Least-advanced third. Borderline
6513 E., 7.2* Good Corros. acetic C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. p Surface injured by fixative. Least advanced in group
6514 E, 9 0* Poor Corros. acetic C-P Sagittal 10 Al. coch. p Most-advanced third
6516 E., 10 5* Good Corros acetic C-P Sagittal 8 Al. coch. p Most-advanced third. Double left kidney and ureter
6517 E., 10.5* Excellent Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 8 Al. coch. ? Close to No. 6516
6686 E., 11.0 Ch., l7x17xP Poor Formol C-P Coronal 20 Al. coch. 1933 Tubal. Partly macerated
6750 E., 10.0 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 H. & phlox. 1933 Tubal. Advanced
6909 E., 11.0 Good Bouin C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Tubal. Advanced
6931 E., 8.8 Ch., 3""x 33x16 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al coch., phlox. 1934 Least-advanced third. Type specimen
6950 E.. 9 0 Ch., 3lx20x18 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1934 Tubal. Partly fragmented
7?15 E., 9.7 Exc Bouin C-P Coronal 10 H. & phlox 1935 Operative. Less advanced
7629 E., 11.5 Ch., 31x31 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch., phlox 1939 Hysterectomy. Most advanced in group
7804 E., 9.5 Ch., 26x21x16 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Least-advanced third
7897 E., 12.2 Ch., 31x24x23 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1941 Tubal. Advanced
8098 E., 10.0 Ch., 30 Good Formol C-P Coronal 6 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Tubal. Median in group
8112 E., 10.9 Excellent Bouin C-P Coronal 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Most-advanced third
8179 E., 11.9 Ch., 23x18x17 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Tubal
8436 E., 10.9 Ch., 13x15x1? Good Formol P Coronal 10 Azan 1946 Advanced
8692 E., 10 Good Bouin P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949 Rubella. Medical abortion. Mechanically damaged
8697 E., 11.3 Poor Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1949 Perhaps stage 17
8773 E, 11 Excellent Bouin P Coronal 10 Azan 1950
8971 E., 10 Ch., 20.5x14.5x13.7 Poor Formol Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1932 Synophthalmia. Univ. Chicago No. H 1439
Template:CE9055 E., ca. 10 Excellent Bouin P Transverse 20 Azan & Ag 1953 Damaged
9229 E, 9.5 Excellent Formol P Transverse 6 Ag & (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1954 Stage 15, 16, or 17? Mislaid
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 17 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
353 E, 11.0 Ch., 40x35x20 Good Formol P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1906 Very advanced
485 E, 13.0 Ch., 33x25 Exc. Formol P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1911 Injected (India ink)
544 E., 11.5 Ch., 30 Good Zenker-Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 1911 Operative Injected (India ink)
562 E, 13.0 Ch., 28x17x17 Poor Formol P Sagittal 100 Al. coch. 1912 Advanced
623 E 10.1 Good Alc. P Transverse 20 H. & Congo red 1912 Operative. Median in group
695 E, 13.5 Ch., 40x40x17 Poor Formol P Transverse 10 H. & Congo red 1913 Macerated
916 E, 11.0 Ch, 30x30x16 Good Bouin C Transverse 40 H.&E, or. G. 1915 Most-advanced third
940 E, 14.0 Ch, 28x23x21 Good Formol C Transverse 40 H.&E, or. G. 1914 Advanced
1232 E, 14.5 Ch., 35x35x30 Poor Formol P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1915 Close to No.1267A
1267A E-a 145 Ch., 35x30x26 40 Good Formol C Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin). or. G 1915 Excellent CN.S.
1267B ?? E, 125 Good Formol p Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1917 Tubal
5642 E, 11.5 Ch.. 33x30x17 Good Formol p Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1928 Right upper limb injured
5893 E.. 13.2 Good Formol C-P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1929 Most advanced in group
6258 E. 14.0 Ch 48x35x25 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1930 Median in group
6519 E.. 10.8* Exc Corrov acetic C-P Sagittal 8 Al. coch. ? Least-advanced or middle third
6520 E., 14.2* Exc. Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. P Median in group. Ag added to slides 1-25
6521 E., 13.2* Exc. Corros. acetic C-P Transverse 8-18 Al. coch. ? Sections vary in thinness
6631 E., 13.0 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1932 Tubal. Advanced
6742 E, 11.0 Ch.,50x40x15 Good Formol C-P Transverse 12 H. & phlox. 1933 Good primary germ cells
6758 E., 12.8 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 H. & phlox. 1933 Least—advanced third
7317 E, 10.0* Good P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936 His embryo “Ru." Every third section
7436 E., 13.0 Good Formol C-P Coronal 30 Al. coch. 1937 Most-advanced third
8101 E., 13.0 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Operative
8118 E., 12.6 Exc. Bouin C-P Coronal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1943 Middle third
8253 E., 11.2 Ch.,30x20x10 Good Bouin C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch., phlox. 1944 Operative. Least advanced in group
8789 E., 11.7 Exc. Bouin C-P Sagittal 10 Azan 1950
8969 E., 11.2 Exc. ? p Transverse 15 Azan 1919 Univ. Chicago No. H566
8998 E., 11.0 Exc. ? C-P Coronal 10 Azan 1952
9100 E., 12.0 Ch., 12x13x10 Exc. Formol-chrom. subl. C-P Sagittal 10 Azan 1933 Univ. Chicago No. H1475
9282 E, 12.0 Ch., 16 Good Ale. p Transverse 15 Ag 1955 Mislaid
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection Embryos - Stage 18 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Semi. ducts P.-M. duct (mm) Year Notes
109 E., 12.0* Ch.,30 Poor Alc. P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 1 0.4 1897 Tubal Least—advanced third
144 E., 16.0* Ch, 40x30x30 Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. eoch. 3 0.85 1899 Most—advanced third
175 E., 13.0 Ch, 30x25x25 Poor Alc. P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 2 0.6 1900 Tubal Partly macerated
296 E., 17.0 Poor Ale. P Coronal 20 Various 3 0.85 1905 Most—advanced third
317 E., 16.0 Good Formol P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) or. G. 2 0.7 1905 Middle third
351 E.,14.0* Good Formol P Coronal 250 Slightly carmine— 2 038 1904 Injected (Berlin blue)
406 E., 16.0 Ch., 40x40x40 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 3 0.7 1907 Operative. Most—advanced third
423 E., 15.2 Good Formol—Zenker P Transverse 50 Carmine 3 0.85 1904
424 E., 172 Good Formol P Transverse 50 Carmine 3 10 1904 Double infection. Advanced
492 E, 16.8 Ch, 40 x 40 Exc. Zenker P Coronal 40 Al. coch. v 3 0.7 1911 Injected (India ink)
511 E., 160* Ch., 3?* 32x32 Good Ale. P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 3 1.1 1911 Head injured. Most advanced in group
670 E, 12.5 Poor Ale. P Sagittal 50 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 3 10 1913 Tubal Advanced
719 E, 15.0 Ch, 50x50x50 Good Formol P Trans 40 Al. coch. 2 0.6 1913 Median in group
733 E., Ch., 4Sx40x2S ISO Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 2 0.6 1913 Median in group
841 E. 15.0 Ch., 18 x 16x9 Good Formol P Coronal & Trans, 20 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), carmine 2 0.32 1914 Operative. Head cut separately
899 E, 160* Ch. 50 x 18 x IS Good Bouin P Sagittal S0 Al. coch. 3 0,65 1914 Tubal Head injured
991 E. l?.0 Good Formal P Sag so R, V, Gieson 3 0.9 1914 Advanced
1909 E., 14.6 Good Formol P Coronal 20 Al. coch,or. G. 1 0.3 1917 Less advanced
2673 E.,15.5 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 2 0.52 1919 Median in group
4430 E., 14.0 Ch, 51 x40x21 Exc. Corros. acetic P Transverse 15 Al. coch,or. G. 3 0.9 1923 Most—advanced third
5542B E., 16.0 Ch, 37x32x25 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 2 0.7 1927 Other twin abnormal
5747 E, 15.2 Ch, 32x27x25 Poor Alc.—formol P Sagittal 25 Al. coch. 2 0.25 1928 Least—advanced or middle third
5935A E, 13.5 Ch, 40x30x30 Good Formol P Coronal 40 Al. coch. 1 0.38 1929 Other twin stunted
6522 E, 13.2* Good Corros. acetic C—P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 3 0.8 7 Middle or most—advanced third
6524 E, 11.7* Exc. Corros. acetic C—P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1 0.4 ? Least—advanced third
6525 E, 13.8* Exc. Corros. acetic C—P Sag 8 Al. coch. 2 0.42 ? Weak staining
6527 E, 14.4* Exc. Corros. acetic C—P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 2 0.67 ? Mechanical damage
6528 E, 13.4* Exc. Corros. acetic C—P Coronal 8 Al. coch. 1 0.33 ? Least—advanced third
6529 E, 15.6* Good Corros. acetic C—P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 2 0.4 .5 Middle third
6533 E, 12.5* Good Corros. acetic C—P Sagittal 6, 8, 10 Al. coch. 2 0.45 ? Middle third
6551 E, 18.0 Poor Formol p Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 3 0.8 1932 Tubal
7707 E, 14.5 Ch ,37x32 Exc. Bouin C—P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 2 0.54 1939 Operative. Middle third
8097 E, 15.5 Ch, 37x25x21 Good Formol C—P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1 0.19 1942 Least advanced in group
8172 E, 16.5 Exc. Bouin C—P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 3 0.58 1943 Operative. Very advanced
8235 E, 14.0* Good Bouin C—P Sagittal 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) Mallory 2 0.25 1944 Tubal
8355 E, 15.0 Ch, 23 Exc. Formol C—P Coronal 10 Azan 1946 Tubal. Duplicated spinal cord caudally
8812 E, 12_9 Exc Formol C—P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1950 Rubella. Medical abortion. Midbrain punctured
8945 E, 13.9 Good Zenker p Transverse 8 Borax, carm. 1952 Univ. Chicago No. H 1254
9107 E, 17.0 Ch, 38x28x22 Good Bouin p Transverse 15 Borax, carm. 1918 Univ. Chicago No. H 516
9247 E, 15.0 Exc. Bouin C—P Sagittal 8 Azan 1954 Tubal
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 19 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Score Sex Year Notes
17 E, 18 Ch, 40x30x20 Poor Alc. P 50, 100 Al. carm. 16.5 Male 1894
43 E, 16 Good Alc. P 50 Al. coch. 10 Male 1894
293 E, 19 Poor Ale. P Sagittal 50 Coch. 16.5 S 1905
390 E, 19 Good Formol? P Sagittal 20, (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 11.5 Male 1906 Tubal Injected

50

409 E.18 Ch, 50x40x40 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Copper, iron H. & erythrosin 14.5 Male 1907
432 E..18.5 Ch , 45x35x20 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 13.5 Male 1910 Tubal
576 E. 17 Ch, 60x40 Good Formol P Sagittal 15, 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 14.5 d 1912 Tubal
626 E., 21.5 Ch., 40x30x21 Good Formol P Transverse 100 Al. coch. 14_5 6 1913
6??8 E, 20 Ch, ca. 30 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 12 9 1913 Head damaged
709 E, 19 Ch. 40x35x25 Poor Alc. P Coronal 40 Al. coch, Lyons blue 15 49 1913
837 E. 21 Ch. 65x45x Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 14.5 P 1914
1324 E., 18 50x30x18 Good Formol C Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), aur, or. G 125 79 1915
1332 E., 19 Ch., 40x43x22 Poor Formol C Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or. G. 15 Male 1915
1390 E., 18 Ch, 40x38x15 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 Al. coch. 10_5 Male 1915 Tubal
1534 E., 13 Ch.,35x31x25 Poor Formol P 53% 50 Al. coch. 13.5 F 1916 Protruding midbrain
2114 E., 19.3 Ch., 49x42x33 Good Formol P Transverse 40 A1. coch. 12 M 1918
4405 E., 15.5 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Coch, Mallory 13.5 <3 1923 Midbrain injured
4501 E, 18 Exc. Bouin P Transverse 15 Coch, or. G. 14.6 1924 Cystic left kidney
5609 E., 18 Exc. Formol P Coronal 25 A1. coch. 13.5 Male
6150 E., 17 Ch., 40x39x30 Good Bouin C-P Transverse 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 16.5 Male 1930 Tubal
6824 E., 18.5 Ch., 45x40x25 Good Formol C-P Sagittal 12 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 14.5 Female 1933
7900 E., 16.5 Good Bouin C-P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 11.5 . . 1941 Tubal
8092 E., 16.3 Ch., 52 x 47 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 13 Male 1942
8913 E.,? Ch, 34 Poor Formol p Transverse 10 Alan . 7 1951 Rubella. Medical abortion. Isolated head damaged
8965 E, 19.1 Ch, 42x32x19 Good Formol—Zenker C-P Transverse 10 Borax, carm, or. G. 1952 Univ. Chicago No. H 173
9097 E, 21 Exc. Formol—glucose C-P Coronal 10 Azan ? . ? 1930 Univ. Chicago No H 1380
9113 E, 185 Ch, 24 Exc. Formol C-P Transverse 10 Alan > 6 1953 Rubella. Medical abortion
9325 E, 17.0 Ch, 32x28x20 Good Formol —acetic p Transverse 15& 8-10 Azan & Ag ? - 1955 Tubal
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 20 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
240 E, 20 Ch, 50x40x30 Poor Formol P Coronal 20 Iron H. 27 d 19??
256 E, 21 poor Alc p Sagittal 25 Coch. 23 M 1904 Tubal. Partial anencephaly
353 E, 20 Poor Alc P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 22,5 M 1906
431 E, 19 Ch, 30x25x25 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 25,5 M 1908 Tubal
437 E, 23 Ch., 80x60x50 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Coch 24 M 193?
453 E, 23 Ch, 60x40x30 Poor Formol P Sagittal 20 H. & Congo red 23-5 ? 1910 Injected
460 E, 21 Exc. Bichlor. acetic P Transverse 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), coch, 24.5 M 1910 injected
462 E, 20 Ch, 50x40x30 Exc. Formol P Transverse 40 Al, coch 23.5 F 1910
635B E, 22 Poor Ale P Trans 50 Al, coch 26.5 M 1913
657 E, 25 Ch, 35x20x15 Poor Formol C Sagittal 40 Al, coch 26.5 M 1913 Tubal
966 E, 23 Ch, 51x38x13 Exc Bichlor. acetic P Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), aur, or. G 25 M 1911 Tubal
1134B E, 23 Poor Formol p Sagittal 100 Al. coch., 22 - 1915
1266 E, 23.1 Poor Formol C-P Sagittal 25 Al. coch., (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or G 20.5 F 191?
2393 Ch, 61.5x50x35 Poor
3527 E., 22 Ch. 32x30x10 Good Formol P Sagittal 25 Al. coch., 28 ? 1921
4059 E, 21.6 Good Formol P Coronal 15 Al. coch., Mallory 29.5 $ 1922
4148 E, 21 Ch. 45x34x30 Good Formol p Coronal 15 A1. coch., Mallory 19 ? 1922
4361 E, 22 Ch., 52x42x23 poor Formol 9 Transverse 20 Coch. 24 8 1923
6202 E, 21 Ch., 35x35x22 Exc Bouin P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 20.5 8 1930 Tubal
6426 E 21.5 Good Formol C—P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 21 3 1931
7274 E, 18.5 Ch., 48x44x35 Exc Bouin C—P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), phlox. 20 M 1936
7906 E19.5 Exc Bouin C—P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 22 8 1941 Left renal agenesis
8517 E., 20.8 Exc. Bouin C—P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 24 8 1943
8226 E, 18.0 Exc. Bouin C—P Sagittal 10 Alan ? 3 1944
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 21 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
22 E, 20 Ch, 35x30x30 Good Alc. P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 34.5 Female 1895
57 E, 23 Ch., ca. 30 Poor Alc. P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 36 Male 1896
128 E, 20 Ch., 50x43 Good Formol P Coronal 50 Al. coch. 33 Female 1898
229 E, 19 Poor Alc. P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 33 Female 1903
349 E, 24 Good Zenker C Coronal 250 Unstained 36 ? 1905 Double vascular injection
455 E, 24 Ch., 42x34x20 Good Alc. P Transverse 30 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 36.5 Male 1910
632 E, 24 Ch., 60x50x30 Good Bichlor. acetic P Sagittal 40, 100, 250 Al. coch. 33 Female 1913 Injected
903C E, 23.5 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 38.5 Female 1914
1008 E, 26,4 Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 39 ?? 1914
1358F E, 23 Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 37.5 Female 1916
2937 E,, 24.2 Good Bouin P Transverse 50 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur., or. G. 39 Female 1920
3167 E., 24.5 Ch., 60x50x40 Poor Bichlor, acetic, formol P Transverse 20 Al. coch. 32 Male 1920
4090 E, 22.2 Ch.. 66x46x30 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Al. coch. 30 Female 1922
4160 E,25 Poor Formol P Sagittal 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 39 Male 1923 Tubal
4960 E.22 Ch,, 47x42x28 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch., Mallory 31.5 Female 1925
5??6 E. 215 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 34 Female 1927
6531 E,22 Poor Glacial acetic, C-P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 31.5 Female 1931 Leitz Collection
7254 E,225 Exc Bouin C-P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 33.5 Male 1936
7592 E,22-> Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 36 Female 1937
7864 E., 24 Exc, Formol C-P Frontal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 32.5 Male 1941
8553 E., 22 Exc Bouin C-P Transverse 12 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 38 Female 1947
9614 E,,22 5 Exc Bouin P Coronal 10 &15 Azan ? ? 1958 Rubella. Hysterectomy
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 22 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
392 E., 23 Ch., 45x45x25 Poor ... P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 42 Female 1907 Brödel Collection. Injected
405 E., 26 Good Formol C Sagittal 40 Carmine 42.5 Male 1907
464 E.,26 Ch., 45x40x30 Good Formol? alc? P Sag. 100 Al. coch. 44.5 Male 1910
584A E.,25 Ch., 50x42x40 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 41 ? 1913
630 E., 25 Poor Formol P Transverse 100 Al. coch. 46 Male 1913
840 E, 24.8 Good Formol P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 44.5 Female 1914
875 E, 27 Ch., 40x28x22 Good Formol P Sagittal 40 Al. coch. 45 Male 1914
895 E., 26 Ch., 67x62x54 Good Formol P Transverse 25 Al. coch. 46.5 Female 1914
1315 E.,25 Good Formol P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 40.5 Female 1915 Spina bifida and anencephaly
1458 E., 27.5 Ch, 45x45x30 Exc. Formol C Sagittal 50 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or. G. 45.5 Male 1916
1894 E, 24.6 Good Formol c Sagittal 40,80 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur, or. G. 41 Female 1917
2206 E, 27 Ch, 50x30x18 Poor Formol p Transverse 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 44.5 Male 1918
3681 E, 26.3 Ch, 36x36x34 Good Formol p Transverse 25 Al. coch. 44.5 Male 1921
4304 E,25 Ch, 66x45x45 Good Bouin p Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 44.5 Female 1923 Injected
4339 E, 24.5 Good Formol p Transverse 15 Al. coch, Mallory 46,5 Female 1923
4476 E., 26.2 Good Bouin p Transverse 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 46 Female 1923 Tubal
4638 E, 23.4 Exc. Bouin p Transverse 15,20 Al. coch, or. G. 41.5 Male 1924
6701 E, 24 Poor Formol p Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 41 Female 1933
6832 E, 25.8 Exc. Bouin C-P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 42 Female 1934
8394 E, 25.3 Ch, 48x50x34 Exc. Bouin C-P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin), Masson 44.5 Female 1946
8948 E, 26.7 Ch, 61x51x50 Poor Formol-Zenker p Transverse 15 Ag ? ? 1952
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Stage 23 
Serial No. Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
45 E,28 Ch, 40x35x20 Poor ? P Coronal/Transverse 50 Al. coch. 51.5 Female 1895
75 E,30 Good Alc. P Sagittal 50 Coch. 57 Male 1897
86 E,30 Good ? ? Coronal 50 Coch. Male 1897 May be an early fetus
100 E,27 Poor ? P Sagittal 50 Al. coch. 57.5 ? 1897
108 E, 28 (est.) Poor Piurosulph. acid P Sagittal 45 Borax carm. 52.5 Male 1897
227 E30 Ch, 60x40x20 Poor Formol P Sagittal 50, 100 Al. coch. 54 Female 1903
417 E,32 Ch., 0x60x40 Good Formol P Transverse 100 Al. coch. 58.5 Female 1907
756A E, 27 Ch. 60x45x35 Good Formol P Coronal 50 Al. coch. 56 Male 1913
882 E , 28 Ch, 80x80x40 Good Formol P Transverse 40 Multiple 53 8 1913
950 E, 29 Good Formol P Transverse 50 Al. coch. 54 Male 1914
1199 E.,26 Ch,, 60x40x30 Good Formol C Coronal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur , or. G. 54.5 Male 1915
1535 E , 28 Ch. 50x45 x15 Poor Formol P Transverse 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 495 Female 1916
1945 E., 27.3 Ch., 83x53x22.5 Good Formol C-P Transverse 50 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur., or. G. 48 Male 1917
2561 E., 27 .5 Good Formol C-P Transverse 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur., or. G. 48 .5 Male 1919
4205 E., 29.5 Good Bouin P Transverse 50 A1. coch. 55.5 Female 1923
4289 E., 32.2 Ch., 52x35x25 Good Formol P Transverse 15, 20 A1. coch., Mallory 59 Female 1923
4525 E., 30 Good Formol P Sagittal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 57 Male 1924
4570 E, 30.7 Ch., 52X50X28 Exc. Bouin P Transverse. 15 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) , phlox. 55 Male 1924
5154 E.,32 Good Bouin P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 59.5 Male 1926
5422 E., 27 Good Formol P Sagittal 40 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 52.5 Female 1927
5621A E., 27.5 Good Formol P Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 52.5 Male 1927 Other twin has spina bifida and fused kidneys
5725 E, 23 Good Formol P Coronal 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) aur., or. G. 50.5 Female 1928
6573 E,31.5 Good Bouin C Transverse 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 58.5 Female 1932
7425 E, 27 Exc. Bouin C-P Coronal 20 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 47 Female 1937 Ag added
9226 E, 31 Exc. Formol C—P Transverse 12 Azan ? Female 1954
D.122 E, 27 Exc. ? ? Transverse 19 Ag ? ? 1976 Yntema and Truex
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
Carnegie Collection - Fetal  
Serial No. Size CRL (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Point Score Sex Year Notes
95 40 catalogued as CRL 40 but development suggests 50 stage. Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1] Colon - Lineback (1920)[2]
96 50 Brain venous sinuses - Streeter (1915)[3] Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1] Brain vascular - Streeter (1921)[4] Brain weight - Jenkins (1921)[5]
142 125 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
145 33 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
184 50 34 vertebrae, 31 spinal ganglia, Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
211 33 34 vertebra, 31 spinal ganglia, Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
217 45 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
300 73 85 days, Bone ossification - Mall (1906)[7]
362 30 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
448 52 Colon - Lineback (1920)[2]
449 36 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
538
590 21 to 23 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
607 37 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
625 220 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
662 80 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
693 45 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
847 58.8 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
858 57.25 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
922 37
928 120 Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
948 45 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
972 37 34 vertebrae, 30 spinal ganglia, Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
1318 37 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
1388 51 Female Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
1455 78.5 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
1591 36 subcutaneous vascular plexus - Finley (1923)[9]
1656 67 34 vertebrae, Spinal cord - Kunitomo (1920)[1]
1686 40 Male Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
3990 49 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
4473 43 20 Spinal cord meninges - Sensenig (1951)[10]
4475 48 20 Spinal cord meninges - Sensenig (1951)[10]
5652 49 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
6581 75 Temporomandibular joint - Moffatt (1957)[8]
7218 80 20 um Spinal cord meninges - Sensenig (1951)[10]
1597b 47 Female Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
2250a 40 Female Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
2250b 36 Female Genital - Spaulding (1921)[6]
This table currently contains only has embryo number information.

Abbreviations

  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  • Stain -
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Kunitomo K. The development and reduction of the tail and of the caudal end of the spinal cord (1920) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 272, 9: 163-198.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lineback PE. Studies on the longitudinal muscle of the human colon, with special reference to the development of the taeniae. (1920) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 50
  3. Streeter GL. The development of the venous sinuses of the dura mater in the human embryo. (1915) Amer. J Anat.18: 145-178.
  4. Streeter GL. The developmental alterations in the vascular system of the brain of the human embryo. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 8:7-38.
  5. Jenkins GB. Relative weight and volume of the component parts of the brain of the human embryo at different stages of development. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash., 59: 5-54.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 Spaulding MH. The development of the external genitalia in the human embryo. (1921) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 81, 13: 69 – 88.
  7. Mall FP. On ossification centers in human embryos less than one hundred days old. (1906) Amer. J Anat. 5:433-458.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Moffatt BC. The prenatal development of the human temporomandibular joint. (1957) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 611, Contrib. Embryol., 36: .
  9. Finley EB. The development of the subcutaneous vascular plexus in the head of the human embryo. (1923) Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution No.71; 155-161.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Sensenig EC. The early development of the meninges of the spinal cord in human embryos. (1951) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 611,
Fertilization and Gestational Age - Crown-Rump Length (ultrasound
Fertilization Age
(days)
Gestational Age
GA (week.day)
Crown-Rump
Length (mm)
37 5.2 1
38 5.3 2
39 5.4 3
40 55 3
41 5.6 4
42    Week 4 6 4
43 6.1 5
44 6.2 6
45 6.3 7
46 6.4 8
47 6.5 9
48 6.6 10
49    Week 5 7 11
50 7.1 11
51 7.2 12
52 7.3 12
53 7.4 13
54 7.5 14
55 7.6 15
56    Week 6 8 17
57 8.1 18
58 8.2 19
59 8.3 20
60 8.4 21
61 8.5 22
62 8.6 22
63    Week 7 9 23
64 9.1 24
65 9.2 26
66 9.3 27
67 9.4 28
68 9.5 29
69 9.6 31
70    Week 8 10 34
71 10.1 36
72 10.2 37
73 10.3 38
74 10.4 39
75 10.5 39
76 10.6 40
77    Week 9 11 44
78 11.1 45
79 11.2 47
80 11.3 48
81 11.4 52
82 11.5 55
83 11.6 56
84    Week 10 12 57
85 12.1 58
86 12.2 60
87 12.3 61
88 12.4 63
89 12.5 64
90 12.6 65
91    Week 11 13 68
92 13.1 70
93 13.2 72
94 13.3 74
95 113.4 76
96 135 77
97 13.6 80
98    Week 12 14 81
99 14.1 84
100 14.2 85
101 14.3 86
102 14.4 87
Reference: Table data measured by ultrasound, adapted from Westerway (2015) PDF and[1]
Links: ultrasound | Fetal Development
Week: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Carnegie stage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23



Modern Notes: Carneige Collection


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The Use Of Guide Planes And Plaster Of Paris For Reconstructions From Serial Sections: Some Points On Reconstruction

Warren H Lewis
Warren H Lewis (I870 - 1964)

by Warren Harmon Lewis, M. D.

From the Anatomical Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University

Five Figures


Owing to the generosity of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, funds were made available for reconstructing the head of a 21 mm. human embryo, No. 460, Mall collection. During the process of this reconstruction, some rather helpful methods were developed, which others who are engaged in similar work may find useful, and with this in view I have been urged to publish the methods employed.


In regard to the preservation and staining of the embryos, as well as the cutting and mounting, it is assumed that these operations have been carried out in such a manner that the series is practically perfect, and that no unavoidable shrinkage has occurred during the dehydration and embedding; and that in cutting the orientation is such as to give as nearly perfect horizontal, sagittal or frontal sections as is possible. Great care must be taken in mounting the sections on the slides in order to avoid distortions. Reconstruction is undoubtedly greatly facilitated by the use of guide lines in the sections, such as are produced by the ordinary camphor black method. Unfortunately, such guide marks were not present on any of the series of sections used and it was necessary to depend for the form on photographs or camera drawing of the whole embryo, made before cutting. These should be as nearly as possible from lateral, frontal at horizontal views.

Photographs of Sections

I have been able to abandon the laborious and time—consuming method of drawing or tracing each section projected in the usual manner onto paper, and have substituted the more expensive but far better method of photographing on large plates, and using the line bromide or azo G hard (matte) prints. While this method is more expensive as regards the immediate outlay of money, it is much cheaper in the end than the old method of tracing, when account is made of the time involved. The photographs are far superior to any drawing that can possibly be made and greatly facilitate the work, both on account of the greater accuracy and the greater wealth of detail. The various structures to be reconstructed may first be colored on the photograph, thus enhancing the clearness and sharpness of the picture. The ordinary Sussner creta polycolor pencils were used. The photographs of the sections were made in a dark—room with the ordinary Zeiss projection apparatus and for ordinary diameters, 40 or 50, the Zeiss 5 cm. planar lens was used. This is an ideal lens for such work since there is no measurable distortion of the image. In the place of an ordinary are lamp, we substituted-a 250—watt mazda stereopticon bulb, a round bulb with filaments grouped together in a small ball at the center. To avoid unequal illumination from the spiral filaments a ground glass plate was interposed directly iI1 front of the light. The advantages of the mazda light over the are are (1) it remains constant. and (2) it can easily be turned on or off for time exposures.

The arrangement of the Zeiss optical bench is shown by the diagram, figure 1. I am aware that this may not be the most perfect arrangement, still we were able to obtain excellent results. The most important point consists in focusing each section by moving the slide carrier back and forth, the lens remaining fixed, instead of the usual method of moving the lens back and forth. When the magnification is once adjusted to the required diameter, the lens (7) is securely fixed in position and the plate—holder (14) likewise. Thereafter, the object or slide is brought into focus by means of a fine adjustment connected with the focusing—rod (10). Magnification is thus not altered from section to section or from slide to slide, since the sections are thus brought in the focus of the lens. This insures equal magnification of every section, the most important condition for accurate reconstruction. This method of focusing was introduced into the laboratory by Doctor Essick.

The dark-room by this method becomes the camera, in which a perpendicular board (14) with slots for the plates takes the place of the plate—holder. This board is pivoted in the center and can be freely turned at any angle in a perpendicular plane and clamped there by means of a thumb—screw at the back.

The plate—holder—board is attached to -a movable stand, which can be moved to or from the lens in a straight line only, and can be securely clamped in position when in the proper place. At 50 diameters’ magnification with the 50 mm. planar lens the plate—holder should be about 6 ft. and 8 in. from the lens. A series of holes can be so placed on the plate-board, as at a, b, c, figure 1, into which the clamp bolt can be changed and the board given a new center for different sized plates. An old plate having the same thickness as those about to be exposed was used for focusing, after having had a fine piece of white paper tightly pasted over it. An undeveloped plate is still better.


Fig. 1 Arrangement of Zeiss optical bench for photographing: 1, 150-watt mazda stereopticon bulb; 2, groundglass plate; 3. 5-in. concave, convex condensing lens; 4, 5-in.p1ano-convex lens; 5, condensing lens; 6‘, mechanical slide carrier; 7. 50 mm. Zeiss planar lens; 8, light-proof hood over entire bench with curtain on operating side; .9, optical bar, distances between the feet of the various lens. etc., shown in inches and fractions; 13 movable stands; 1./;,_‘pla.te holder board; 15, plate.


Standard orthonon and Stanley commercial plates were used. The latter are apparently just as good and much cheaper than the former. An exposure of about 5 seconds gave the best results; diaphragm of the planar ‘lens at 4. Flat negatives with very little contrast give the best prints, while ‘contrasty’ plates, which appear very beautiful, give very poor prints since the shadows and high lights are in too strong contrast. When the shadows and high lights are in strong contrast in the sections—— as was the case in the series used, since the central nervous system was deeply stained with alum cochineal and the delicate connective tissue but faintly stained—it is not easy to get negatives which will give prints showing detail in both regions. With full development, a strong light and short exposure give flatter, softer negatives than a dim light and long exposure. The diaphragm of the lens should be as wide open as is consistent with a sharp image, to increase light and reduce time of exposure. It is important to use a developer that will help to give softness to the negative and the following formula is recommended. There is a decrease in the amount of sodium carbonate usually employed for the purpose of increasing the softness of the negative:

Formulae for pyro developer

Solution No. 1 Solution No. 2 Solution No. 3. Water.... . . . . .470 cc. Water.......... . .470 cc. Water . . . . . . . . . . . .470 cc. Oxalic a.cid....700 mg. Sod. sulph.... . . 60 gms. Sod. carb..... . . .. 60 gms.

Pyrogal. acid. 30 gms.

For tank development use 30 cc. each of solutions 1, 2, 3, to 1000 cc. water; develop 20 minutes at 70° F. For tray use 60 cc. each of solutions 1, 2, 3, to 1000 cc. water; develop 5 minutes at 70° F.

Add 1 drop of a 10% solution of Potassium Bromide to every 30 cc.

l"r".'c'irLg bath formula

Hypo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 480 gms. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..1920 cc.

With acid hardener

Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 cc. Acetic acid (28%) . . . , . . . . . . . .90 cc. Sulphite soda. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..30 gms. Powdered alum . . . . . . . . . . . . ..30 gms.

The azo G hard (matte) paper should be given short exposure with bright light and developed with formula recommended for azo portrait prints. If the amount of elon is doubled and the hydrochinon decreased one-half, a still softer print with more detail is obtained. For contrast plates a still softer developer may be used for the prints with the following formula:

Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..300 cc. Hydrochinon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 gins. Elon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 4 gms. Carbonate of soda . . . . . . . . .22 gms. Sulphite of soda . . . . . . . . . . . . ..30 gms. Potassium bromide . . . . . . . . . . . 1 gm. SOME POINTS ON RECONSTRUCTION 723

Model of the External Form

With the photographs or drawings of the sections complete, our next step is to make a model of the external form of the embryo or of a large enough part of it to insure that we have as accurate a reproduction as possible. For this the ordinary Born wax plate method is used. Wax plates of the proper thickness are cut out for the external form and piled either by the orientier guide lines or according to the photographs of the external form. It is extremely important that this external form shall be as perfect as possible, for on it all subsequent reconstructions are based, as will be seen later.

The wax plates should be piled without fusing so that they can be easily unpiled later. In making this external form of a whole embryo, it is usually best to begin piling with the larger plates from the middle of the trunk towards the top of the head, and another pile from the same region towards the tail, as when horizontal sections are used. In fact, two or three piles may be used, provided the guiding curves coincide. Or one may pile the head with the trunk, then lift off the head and turn the trunk piece upside down and pile the tail end on it. In this case the guide curves will overlap.

It is a great help to use a guide curve from a negative outline in cardboard of the external form of the embryo, made by magnifying the photograph of the external form to the proper diameter, as shown in figure 2. In horizontal series this curve should be made from a direct sagittal view of the embryo, and will of course be in the same plane as the median sagittal plane of the model. It is also important to establish the relation of the plane of the sections to this enlarged outline in order to give the proper angle to the guide curve.

The sections of different embryos, for example, may be cut at somewhat different angles to the frontal plane of the embryo, as in figure 3. So if one were piling the head end of the embryo from the middle of the trunk, it would be necessary to determine the plane of the sections in relation to the whole embryo, whether in the direction of a or b or c, etc., in order that the base-line of the cardboard guide curve may coincide with the proper plane a or b or c, etc., when it rests on the baseboard. It may also happen that the sections in a horizontal series are cut obliquely to the median sagittal plane, as is often the case. In piling the plates for the external form from such a series the median sagittal plane of the plates must be made to start at a corresponding angle to the base—board, leaning either in the right or left, as the case may be. In this way the plates are piled up with their flat surfaces parallel to a horizontal base-board.

In a similar manner, the proper angle should be used in piling plates from sections cut more or less obliquely to the other planes of the embryo. It is important that the piling be done on a board with a true surface. Overhanging parts which are likely to sag should be supported from the base-board.


Fig. 2 Method of piling with cardboard outline as guide; 1, external form piled in wax plates; 2, cardboard outline guide; 3, posts for attaching same; 4, baseboard.


Fig. 3 Outline of embryo to show different arrangements of cardboard guide a, b, c, for cross-sections, cut at different angles to the frontal plane of the embryo.

Establishing Guide Planes

Since in most series there are no guide marks, it was necessary in some manner to establish guide lines on our photographs that could be used for all subsequent reconstructions. I first thought of drilling two perpendicular holes through the entire series of plates as they stood together in the piled—up form, and then by placing each plate on its own photograph the position of the hole could be traced onto the photograph and we would thus have two orientier marks on each photograph (or drawing) that could be utilized in piling plates for future models.

A somewhat different and better method was finally adopted, which has proved very successful. After the piling of the external form was complete and satisfactory and the cardboard outline removed from the head end (for example, from a series of horizontal sections) two perpendicular posts were erected from the base—board in such a manner that a line drawn between them passed along the median plane of each plate or parallel to it (fig. 4). With a straight-edge rule a line was then drawn with a needle across the top wax plate, the straight edge resting against the edges of the two perpendicular posts, and a second line was drawn at right angles to this at a given distance from one of the perpendicular posts. The top plate was then carefully lifted off and similar lines drawn on the next and each succeeding plate in turn.


Fig. 4 Method of making guide lines: I, baseboard; .9, perpendicular posts; 3, straight edge; 4, piece at right angles to it.

Care must be taken, of course, not to disturb the position of the plates until the lines are drawn. Thus there are established on each wax plate two lines, at right angles to each other, which coincide with two planes through the model or embryo that are perpendicular to the plane of the sections. One of the principal planes either coincides with the median plane or is parallel to it, while the other is at right angles to this and at a given distance from one of the perpendicular posts. With these two principal planes established, it is possible to repile the external form or any other part of the embryo with mathematical precision, since these two planes are likewise perpendicular to the plane of the sections.

After the guide lines have been drawn on each wax plate, they must next be transferred to the photographs or drawings by super—imposing each wax plate on its photograph or drawing and marking at the ends of the guide lines. The wax plate is then lifted off and the points on the photograph connected by lines similar to those on the plates. “Then the two principal guide lines are established we have found it convenient to establish secondary guide lines by drawing other lines, 5 cms. apart, parallel to those over the entire surface of the photographs.

We have introduced lately a still better method: namely the printing of lines in red ink over the photographs from a lithographic stone. These lines form squares of 1 cm. with slightly heavier lines every 5 cms. The lines are printed to correspond with the two principal guide planes. Such lines greatly facilitate not only the plastic reconstruction work but are of especial value for graphic reconstructions. These lines will of course coincide with various planes through the embryo. The advantage in having such a number of planes will become apparent when one wishes to reconstruct small structures that are limited to a particular part of the embryo. The whole section or any part of it will thus be included in rectangles or squares of various sizes depending upon the extent of the part.

Wax Mold for Plaster of Paris Cast

With the development of these guide planes we have abandoned the usual Born wax plate method of making models, and use instead wax plate negatives into which plaster of Paris is poured. The method is as follows: Structures to be modeled are outlined on wax plates in the usual manner, and at the same time, while the plate is still in proper position under the photograph, points are pricked through into the wax with a fine needle at the corners of the rectangle in which the structure or structures outlined are included. The outline is transferred from the photograph onto the Wax plate by the use of carbon paper; tracing on the photograph with a smooth glass point. Each plate is then carefully trimmed to the rectangular shape corresponding to that outlined by the four needle points The outlined structures are then cut out, leaving holes in the plates. The plates are then piled into a perpendicular rectangular corner (fig. 5). Bridges of galvanized iron wire (ordinary iron wire will rust and discolor the cast) can be placed in position as the piling progresses to hold the various parts of the cast together. Wire, string, or cloth may be inserted into the holes of the finer structures to give strength. Gates and vents to carry plaster from one part of the model to the other and to allow air to escape were cut through suitable places as the piling progressed. It is better not to smooth the inside of the mold. Owing to the fact that the plates were trimmed into rectangles, having the four sides in the same perpendicular planes, the structures which are represented by the holes in the plates must necessarily come into the proper relation with each other. If some of these structures come to the edge of the plate at any place, they would necessarily be cut ofl by one of these planes. After the piling is completed the outside edges of the plates are fused together to prevent the plaster from leaking out. A wax plate is also fused over the side of the block if any holes come to the edge. In piling the wax plates, it is necessary to measure the height of the block of plates after the addition of each new plate in order to be sure that the plates are piled properly as regards height. It is usually necessary to scrape off a slight burr which comes along the edge of the cut.

Fig. 5 Method of piling wax mold: 1, baseboard; 2, perpendicular right angle corner; 3, glass plate; 4, wax mold; 5, vent; 6', galvanized iron wire bridge; 7, gate for plaster between parts of mold.


We have often found it advisable to build up models in rather small blocks, usually about 50 mm. in thickness, and where the models are large these blocks can be limited in other directions as well and the casts later fused together or merely fitted together as a dissectable model. Such combinations can be varied to suit special conditions.

The Plaster of Paris Cast

After the piling is completed and the edges of the plates are fused, the bottom of the pile which rests on the glass plate is made fast. Plaster of Paris is then poured into mold until it rises above the top and before it has completely hardened the excess on top is usually scraped off level with the top plate.


We used a grade of plaster known as potter’s plaster. The mass consists of about equal weights of water and plaster. The latter is sifted into the water until it just begins to show dry on the top. It is then stirred a little and poured into the mold. After setting for an hour or so, the wax is melted off in boiling water. The cast is taken out and washed in very hot water and dried in the air. Plaster of Paris is wonderful material to work with and requires but little experience to handle it with considerable facility. The plaster cast of course shows the lines of the plates just as wax models do unless considerable polishing is done. It is easier to smooth off a plaster cast than a wax model. The plaster is easily trimmed with a knife or sandpaper and the angles remaining between the edge of the plates can easily be filled in with fresh plaster painted on with a brush to any desired thickness. Corrections and additions can also be made on such plaster models by cutting off and building up with fresh plaster, using wire, string, cloth, etc., if necessary. The different structures are easily tinted with water colors (suspensions in water or ordinary commercial house paint pigments; such as, ultramarine blue, yellow ochre, burnt sienna, chrome yellow, English vermillion, etc.). A better method if one wishes to polish the model, is to mix up fresh plaster by using water colored with the pigment and to do the final smoothing with this mixture. If models are made in sections there is no very great difficulty in putting these together in the proper relation to each other. Finally the entire model can be toughened by soaking in hot paraffin until all the air is driven out by the paraflin which penetrates through the plaster. It is best to have the paraffin bath somewhere between 95 and 100°C. when the model is lifted out, in order that the surface will not be heavily coated with paraflin.

Wax Plates

The wax plates were made according to the following formula:

Bees’ wax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 parts

Paraflin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 parts

White lump rosin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 parts


The ordinary 56°C. Standard Oil paraffin was used; lump rosin is much better than powdered rosin. 2000 grams poured on very hot water—surface 3 by 4 feet—gives plate 2 mm. in thickness. The hotter the wax and water the better. The air bubbles which form in the wax are driven off before the plates cool by playing a Bunsen flame over the surface.


The points which I wish to emphasize are: first, the use of photographs; second, the use of the series of guide lines which coincide with planes that are at right angles to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the sections; and third, the use of plaster of Paris. Although the preliminary steps are somewhat more complicated than those usually employed, they are nevertheless essential and in the end save both time and expense. The advantages of a plaster model are obvious to those who have worked with wax and realize the dangers of distortion and the difliculties involved in strengthening the wax and in modeling fine structures.



Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 19) Embryology Paper - The use of guide planes and plaster of Paris for reconstructions from serial sections. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Paper_-_The_use_of_guide_planes_and_plaster_of_Paris_for_reconstructions_from_serial_sections

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  1. Westerway SC, Davison A & Cowell S. (2000). Ultrasonic fetal measurements: new Australian standards for the new millennium. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol , 40, 297-302. PMID: 11065037