Meckel1812-1 Anatomy 2-2

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Meckel JF. Handbook of Pathological Anatomy (Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie) Vol. 1. (1812) Leipzig.

Volume 1: General Anatomy. Part I | General Anatomy. Part II: 1 Mucous System | 2 Vascular System | 3 Nervous System | 4 Osseous System | 5 Cartilaginous System | 6 Fibro-Cartilaginous System | 7 Fibrous System | 8 Muscular System | 9 Serous System | 10 Cutaneous System | 11 Glandular System | 12 The Accidental Formations | Historic Embryology (1812)
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Handbook of Pathological Anatomy Volume I (1812)

Section II. Of The Vascular System

(1)

§ 60. The vascular system {systcma vasormn) is composed of numerous flexible ramifying canals, formed of several membranes, in which the fluid of nutrition is perfected, and carried to all the organs and to all the parts of the body, and reconveyed from all the organs. As the blood constantly returns to the place from which it started, that is, as it circulates, this system is also called the circulatory. The first name is derived from its form, and the second from its function. It comprises

(1) There are but few general works which embrace the whole of the vascular system, because it is formed of so many different portions, and so many views have been taken of it, both generally and particularly; both in its outer and inner form, we study its properties, functions, and its changes whether regular or irregular. W.e may however mention the following as the principal works on the normal structure and functions of the whole vascular system ; SÅ“mmerring, Lehre vom Baue des menschlichen KÅ“rpcrs, vol. iv. — Bichat, General Anatomy, Irans, by Hayward, vol. i.— Bedard, General Anatomy, trans. by Togno, p. 237. For the properties of this system see Haller, Mémoire sur la nature sensible et irritable desparties, Lausanne, 1756, sect, xi., and in Op. min., vol. i. nos. 13, 14, 15. — Verschuir, De


OF THE VASCULAR SYSTEM.


93


three principal parts, of which two, the arteries {arteries) and the veins {venÅ“), contain perfectly formed blood, which is carried by the former to the organs, while the latter takes it back from them. These two systems of vessels meet in a common 'centre, the heart, a hollow organ with thick muscular parietes, from which the arteries originate, and where all the veins empty themselves. The third principal part is the lymphatic or absorbent system, {systema lymphaticwn, vusa absorbentia ;) its vessels do not carry blood, but are filled with the product of digestion, the chyle, or Avith the residue of the processes of nutrition, the lymph. In several respects this system is only an appendage of the venous system.

§61. The arteries, the veins, and the heart itself, are also divided into two separate systems. The veins of the one, called for this reason the veins of the body, carry back all the blood from the organs ; and, as the lymphatics terminate in this system, to which they are only appended, they carry the chyle and the lymph to the right or anterior portion of the heart. The different veins of this system unite in three trunks, the upper and lower venæ cavæ and the large coronary vein of the heart ; these open separately into the right auricle. From this cavity the blood passes into the right ventricle, thence into the pidmonary artery, which carries it into the lungs, where it "is subjected to the influence of the atmospheric air.

The ramifications of this artery carry it to the pidmonary veins, whence it passes to the left auricle of the heart, then into the left ventricle, and it is afterwards conveyed to all the organs. Harvey, in 1619,(1) first demonstrated the complete circulation of the blood, which had already been discovered in some parts by Servet, Colombo, Levasseur, and Cesalpin. As this fluid has peculiar qualities in the veins of the body, in the right portion of the heart, and in the pulmonary artery ; as it also possesses properties equally peculiar in the pulmonary veins, the left portion of the heart, and the arteries of the body^

arteriarum et venarum vi irritahili et inde oriunda sanguinis directione abnormi,, Groningen, 1776. On the motion of the blood consult Harvey, Exercitatio de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, Oxford, 1628. — Haller, Expérimenta de motu cordis a stimula nato ; De motu sanguinis sermo, quo expérimenta continentur ; De motu sanguinis sermo, quo corollaria experimentorum tradantur, in Op. min. vol. i. p. 60-241. — Spallanzani, De' ifenomeni della circolazione osserxata nel giro universale de' vasi, iN'lodena, 1777. For the morbid alterations of different parts of the vascular system, although they are treated of very imperfectly, see Baillie's Morbid Anatomy, § 1, 2, 3. — Voigtei, Handbuch der pathologischen Anatomie, vol. i. — Baillie, Of uncommon appearances of disease in blood-vessels, in the Trans, of a soc. for the improvement of med. and surg. knowledge, London, 1793, vol. i. no. 9.— Sandifort, De rarissimo cordis vitio, in Obs. anat. pathol., book i. no. 1 . ; De cordis et valvularum aortas nonnullis vitiis. ibid., no. 2. ; De notabil. vasor. aberrationibus, ibid., lib. iv. no. 8. — Corvisart, Essai sur les maladies organiques du cÅ“ur et des gros vaisseaux, Paris. 1806. Burns, Observations on some of the most frequent diseases of the heart, Edinburgh, 1800. These last works, however, treat only of the sanguineous system. The Anatomie Alédicale of Portal, vol. iii., art. Angiologie, gives a complete history of the whole vascular system, both in a healthy and diseased state.

(1) Harvey, Exercitatio de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, Francfort, 1628. — G. Kerr has recently denied the reality of the circulation, {Observations on the Harveian doctrine of the circulation oj the blood, London, 1819,) but all his objections are easily refuted.


while its qualities in all parts of these two opposite systems are the same ; finally, as the structure is similar, and differs only in an analogous manner in the corresponding portions of each in relation to the functions they fulfil, we may with Bichat consider both of them as separate systems, of which the first is that of black blood, and the second of red blood ; even as two circulations were long since admitted,, viz., the great circulation, performed by the latter system, and the small, of which the first is the agent. Each of these two systems is composed of a central part, the corresponding half of the heart, of a second portion, through which the blood passes to arrive at the first, and of a third, through which it passes after leaving the heart. These two halves of the heart belong, in situation, connections, and structure, the auricle to the carrying system, and the ventricle to the bringing system.

The three principal parts of the vascular system, the arteries, veins, and lymphatics, present peculiarities of structure which distinguish them from each other ; but they have also certain common characters, which identify them as belonging to one and the same system.