Lecture - 2017 Course Introduction
|Embryology - 4 Jun 2020 Expand to Translate|
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|A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)|
|contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!|
|This first lecture will be a general introduction to the course and the subject of Embryology (the lecture content is not assessable).
We like our lectures to be interactive, so please ask questions and we will also be asking you questions!
|Dr Mark Hill||Dr Annemiek Beverdam||Lecture - Print PDF|
- Understand the course objectives and assessment.
- Introduce the course contributors.
- Brief understanding of the historic background of embryology.
- Broad overview of human development.
Here is the whole course in One Minute.
|Fertilization||Embryonic Development (week 1 - 8)||Birth (week 37)|
Understand the Course
|The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (10th edn)|
UNSW Students have online access to the current 10th edn. through the UNSW Library subscription (with student Zpass log-in).
Course Research Experts
Dr Steven Fleming Fertility and IVF Specialist
Dr Fabien deleRue Transgenic Mouse Models
Dr Rob Gilchrist Oocyte Biology Research Unit
Dr Vashe Chandrakanthan Cardiac and Vascular Development
Dr Tennille Sibbritt Head development
Dr Hongjun Shi Somitogenesis/Vertebral Malformation
Dr Stephen Palmer Abnormalities of Muscle and Brain
Dr Kim Beaumont Melanocyte Development and Abnormalities
17-18C Braune - The Position of the Uterus and Fetus at Term (1872)
|Human Embryo Collections|
Wilhelm His (1831-1904)
His's Normentafel (Normal Table)
Franz Keibel (1861 - 1929)
Franz Keibel and Curt Elze (1908) Normal Plates of the Development of the Human Embryo
Franklin Mall (1862-1917)
|Begun by Dr. Hideo Nishimura (1912–1995)
Developed by Kohei Shiota and currently curated by Shigehito Yamada.
|Fly Development - The fruitfly (drosophila) was and is the traditional geneticist's tool. It has been transformed to an magnificent embryologist's tool, with developmental mechanisms being uncovered in this system combined with homolgy gene searches in other species. The fly genome was one of the first to be been completely sequenced. In early development nurse cells sacrifice their cytoplasmic contents to allow egg growth and early pattern formation is through the localization of maternal messenger RNAs (mRNAs).|
|Worm Development - Early embryological studies of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans (C.Elegans, so called because of its "elegant" curving movement) characterized the fate of each and every cell in the worm through all stages of development. This worm has recently had its entire genome sequenced.|
|Zebrafish Development - Zebrafish are seen as the latest and greatest "model' for embryological development studies. They can be easily genetically altered and develop as practically "see through" embryos, all internal development can be clearly observed from the outside in the living embryo.|
|In Vitro Fertilization||Stem Cells||Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer||Induced Stem Cells||Molecular Development|
21 July 2016 the resident population of Australia was projected to be: 24,135,202.
|Australia’s mothers and babies (2013)||Assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand (2010)|
|Average maternal age in 2013 was 30.1 years, the same as 2009 but still more than the earlier years (2000, 29.0 years; 2002, 29.4 years). Birth number was 309,489 babies in 2013, an increase of 20% from 256,925 in 2003.||Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) was used by 3.8% (2009, 3.6%) of women who gave birth.|
|Victoria - 10 most reported birth anomalies|
|Based upon statistics from the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection Unit in Victoria between 2003-2004.|
|hypospadias (More? External Genital Male Development Movie)|
|Obstructive Defects of the Renal Pelvis (obstructive defects of the renal pelvis, uteropelvic junction obstruction, pelvo-uterero junction obstruction) Term describing a developmental renal abnormality due to partial or complete blockage of the drainage of the kidney pelvis requiring surgical correction. The blockage can also have several causes including: unusual ureter twisting or bending, ureter compression by a blood vessel, malformations of the muscular wall. The blockage leads to an accumulation of urine in the affected region, with several potential effects: nephron damage from compression (hydronephrosis); decreased urine output leading to lack of amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios); respiratory development effects due to the lack of amniotic fluid.
|ventricular septal defect (More? ventricular septal defect)
Heart Development Timeline (see Basic Cardiac Embryology)
|Developmental dysplasia of the hip or Congenital Dislocated Hip
(Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), congenital hip dislocation, congenital hip dysplasia) Term describes a spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders of hip instability due either to the femoral head being able to move outside the acetabulum (luxation or dislocation), or abnormally within the acetabulum (subluxation or partial dislocation). This includes presentation following a normal examination of the hips in the newborn period (Ortolani and Barlow tests). When detected can be managed with splinting (Denis-Browne splint) allows the hip joint to develop normally and does not require surgery. If undetected and left untreated, the hip joint develops abnormally and surgical reduction is required. (More? Pelvis Development)
|Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome - The most common genetic abnormality. (More? Trisomy 21)|
|hydrocephalus rapid increase in head circumference or an unusually large head size due to excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain.(More? hydrocephalus | Neural Abnormalities | NINDS - Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet | Hydrocephalus Support Association | USA National Hydrocephalus Foundation)|
|cleft palate - The palate separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity, the abnormality has many different causes, and occurs more frequently in females (57%) than in males (43%). (More? cleft palate)|
|Trisomy 18 or Edward Syndrome - multiple abnormalities of the heart, diaphragm, lungs, kidneys, ureters and palate 86% discontinued (More? Trisomy 18)|
|Renal Agenesis/Dysgenesis - reduction in neonatal death and stillbirth since 1993 may be due to the more severe cases being identified in utero and being represented amongst the increased proportion of terminations (approximately 31%). (More? Renal Abnormalities - Renal Agenesis)|
|cleft lip and palate - occur with another defect in 33.7% of cases.(More? cleft lip and palate)|
|Links: Human Abnormal Development | Australian Statistics | Victoria 2004 | USA 2006 | Europe 2010|