Endocrine - Thymus Development
|Embryology - 23 Aug 2017 Expand to Translate|
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The thymus has two origins for the lymphoid thymocytes and the thymic epithelial cells. The thymic epithelium begins as two flask-shape endodermal diverticula that form from the third pharyngeal pouch and extend lateralward and backward into the surrounding mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme in front of the ventral aorta. The immune system T cells are essential for responses against infections and much research concerns the postnatal development of T cells within the thymus.
Stieda in 1881 was the ﬁrst to observe that the thymus gland originated from a visceral (pharyngeal) pouch (endoderm).
This current page relates to the endocrine role of the thymus, for more detailed description of this organ development see Thymus Development.
Lecture - Head Development
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Some Recent Findings
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This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
A Kulaber, G Kerimoğlu, Ş Ersöz, S Çolakoğlu, E Odacı Alterations of thymic morphology and antioxidant biomarkers in 60-day-old male rats following exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field during adolescence. Biotech Histochem: 2017;1-7 PubMed 28598680
B J Bałan, S Lewicki, A K Siwicki, M Stelmasiak, P Skopiński, E Skopińska-Różewska, A Wasiutyński, R Zdanowski Morphometric abnormalities in spleen and kidney of the progeny of mice fed American cranberry extract (Vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation. Pol J Vet Sci: 2017, 20(1);57-65 PubMed 28525344
Kun-Zhi Jia, Shu-Lei Jin, Chun Yao, Rong Rong, Chong Wang, Pan Du, Wen-Hui Jiang, Xiao-Feng Huang, Qin-Gang Hu, Deng-Shun Miao, Zi-Chun Hua Absence of PTHrP nuclear localization and C-terminus sequences leads to abnormal development of T cells. Biochimie: 2017; PubMed 28408247
Xuan Wu, Jie Li, Hengwei Zhang, Hui Wang, Guoyong Yin, Dengshun Miao Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Am J Transl Res: 2017, 9(3);1230-1242 PubMed 28386349
Frauke Seemann, Drew Ryan Peterson, Michael Wai Lun Chiang, Doris Wai Ting Au The development of cellular immune defence in marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol.: 2017; PubMed 28347744
Thymus produces self-hormones
- thymus humoral factor
- Endoderm - third pharyngeal pouch
- Week 6 - diverticulum elongates, hollow then solid, ventral cell proliferation
- Thymic primordia - surrounded by neural crest mesenchyme, epithelia/mesenchyme interaction
- Thymus - bone-marrow lymphocyte precursors become thymocytes, and subsequently mature into T lymphocytes (T cells)
- Thymus hormones - thymosins stimulate the development and differentiation of T lymphocytes
|B2 Pharyngeal Arch Pouches 3 and 4 (stage 13)||D1 Developing Human Thymus (stage 22)|
A postnatal process defined as a decrease in the size, weight and activity of the gland with advancing age. In a recent review, thymic involution was described as a result of high levels of circulating sex hormones, in particular during puberty, and a lower population of precursor cells from the bone marrow and finally changes in the thymic microenvironment.
- Stieda L (1881) Untersuchungen über die Entwickelung der Glandular Thymus, Glandular Thyreoidea, und Glandular carotidica. Leipzig, Engelmann p38.
- Zhijie Liu, Alison Farley, Lizhen Chen, Beth J Kirby, Christopher S Kovacs, C Clare Blackburn, Nancy R Manley Thymus-associated parathyroid hormone has two cellular origins with distinct endocrine and immunological functions. PLoS Genet.: 2010, 6(12);e1001251 PubMed 21203493 | PLoS Genet.
- Renáta Mikušová, Veronika Mešťanová, Štefan Polák, Ivan Varga What do we know about the structure of human Thymic Hassall's corpuscles? A histochemical, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic study. Ann. Anat.: 2017; PubMed 28279759
- Alison M Farley, Lucy X Morris, Eric Vroegindeweij, Marianne L G Depreter, Harsh Vaidya, Frances H Stenhouse, Simon R Tomlinson, Richard A Anderson, Tom Cupedo, Jan J Cornelissen, C Clare Blackburn Dynamics of thymus organogenesis and colonization in early human development. Development: 2013, 140(9);2015-26 PubMed 23571219
- Andrea C Carpenter, Rémy Bosselut Decision checkpoints in the thymus. Nat. Immunol.: 2010, 11(8);666-73 PubMed 20644572
- Victor Appay, Delphine Sauce, Martina Prelog The role of the thymus in immunosenescence: lessons from the study of thymectomized individuals. Aging (Albany NY): 2010, 2(2);78-81 PubMed 20354268
Graham Anderson, Eric J Jenkinson, Hans-Reimer Rodewald A roadmap for thymic epithelial cell development. Eur. J. Immunol.: 2009, 39(7);1694-9 PubMed 19582736
Hans-Reimer Rodewald Thymus organogenesis. Annu. Rev. Immunol.: 2008, 26;355-88 PubMed 18304000
Craig S Nowell, Alison M Farley, C Clare Blackburn Thymus organogenesis and development of the thymic stroma. Methods Mol. Biol.: 2007, 380;125-62 PubMed 17876091
Georg Holländer, Jason Gill, Saulius Zuklys, Norimasa Iwanami, Cunlan Liu, Yousuke Takahama Cellular and molecular events during early thymus development. Immunol. Rev.: 2006, 209;28-46 PubMed 16448532
Manami Itoi, Noriyuki Tsukamoto, Hisahiro Yoshida, Takashi Amagai Mesenchymal cells are required for functional development of thymic epithelial cells. Int. Immunol.: 2007, 19(8);953-64 PubMed 17625108
C Clare Blackburn, Nancy R Manley Developing a new paradigm for thymus organogenesis. Nat. Rev. Immunol.: 2004, 4(4);278-89 PubMed 15057786
H R Rodewald, S Paul, C Haller, H Bluethmann, C Blum Thymus medulla consisting of epithelial islets each derived from a single progenitor. Nature: 2001, 414(6865);763-8 PubMed 11742403
Search Pubmed: thymus development
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|Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)|
Sudler, MT. The Development of the Nose and of the Pharynx and its Derivatives in Man. (1902) Amer. J. Anat 1:391–416. Thymus Gland
- Hassall's corpuscle - thymic corpuscle.
- Thymic corpuscle (=Hassall's corpuscle) a mass of concentric epithelioreticular cells found in the thymus. The number present and size tend to increase with thymus age. (see classical description of Hammar, J. A. 1903 Zur Histogenese und Involution der Thymusdriise. Anat. Anz., 27: 1909 Fiinfzig Jahre Thymusforschung. Ergebn. Anat. Entwickl-gesch. 19: 1-274.)
- thymic epitheliocytes - reticular cells located in the thymus cortex that ensheathe the cortical capillaries, creating and maintain the microenvironment necessary for the development of T-lymphocytes in the cortex.
- T lymphocyte (cell) - named after thymus, where they develop, the active cell is responsible for cell-mediated immunity. (More? Electron micrographs of nonactivate and activated lymphocytes)
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. 2017 Embryology Endocrine - Thymus Development. Retrieved August 23, 2017, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Endocrine_-_Thymus_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2017, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G