Category:Carnegie Stage 11

From Embryology

Carnegie Stage 11

This Embryology category shows pages and media related to human embryonic development in week 4, 23 - 26 days, GA week 6-7. The embryos have a crown rump length (CRL) of 2.5 - 4.5 mm and somite number 13 - 20 pairs.


There is also a specific Carnegie stage 11 resource page.


Stage 11 Links: Week 4 | Somitogenesis | Placodes | Lecture - Mesoderm | Lecture - Ectoderm | Lecture - Early Vascular | Science Practical | Carnegie Embryos | Category:Carnegie Stage 11 | Next Stage 12
  Historic Papers: 1908 | 1920 | 1923 somites 20 | 1927 Heart | 1928 somites 17-23 | 1959 stage 11 | 1964 dysraphism


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Carnegie Collection - Stage 11 
Serial No. Pairs of somites Size (mm) Grade Fixative Embedding Medium Plane Thinness (µm) Stain Year Notes
12 14 E, 2.1 Ch, 13 Poor P Transverse 10 Al. carm. 1893
164 18 E, 3.5 Ch, 14 Good Formol P Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1913
318 13/14 E, 2.5 Ch, 16 Good P Transverse 25 Al. carm. 1905
470 17 E, 4.3 Ch, 16 Good Formol P Transverse 10 Al. carm. . 1910
779 14 E, 2.75 Good C Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1913 Dysraphism. Noted by Dekaban (1964)[1]
1182b E, 3 Ch, 15x12x5 Good Formol  ? Transverse 20 Al. carm. 1915
2053 20 E, 3.1 Ch, 12 Exc. Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1918 Most advanced in group. Ag added to slide 2
Monographs by Davis (1923)[2] and Congdon (1922)[3]
4315 17 E, 4.7 Ch, 23x10.4X11 Excellent  ? C-P Transverse 10 I.H. & E. 1923 Univ. Chicago No. 951. Wen (1928)[4]
4529 14 E, 2.4 Ch, 21 Excellent Formol P Transverse 10 Al. coch, or. G. 1924 Heuser (1930)[5]
4783 13 E, 2.3 Fair  ?  ? Transverse 5 I.H. 1924 Wallin (1913)[6]
4877 13 E, 2 Ch, 15 Good Formol P Transverse 15 Al. coch. 1925
5072 17 E, 3 Good Formol P Transverse 10 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1925 Tubal Type specimen. Atwell (1930)[7]
6050 19/21 E.,3 Ch, 10 Good Formol C-P Coronal 10 Al. coch. 1930 Advanced
6344 13 E, 2.5 Ch, 17 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 Al. coch. 1931 Least advanced in group
6784 17 E, 5 Ch, 16 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 6 I.H, or. G. 1933
7358 16 E, ? Ch, 15 Poor Alc, formol p Oblique 25 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1936
7611 16 E., 2.4 Ch., 12 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1938
7665 19 E., 4.36 Excellent  ? C-P Transverse 6 1939 Univ. Chicago No. H 1516
7702 17 E, 3.7 Ch., 14 Good Formol C-P Transverse 10 Al. coch. 1940 Returned to B M Patten
7851 13 E., 4.3 Ch, 18 Excellent Formol C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1940 Slightly injured
8005 16/17 E, 3 Excellent Bouin C-P Transverse 8 (Stain - Haematoxylin Eosin) 1942 Tubal
8116 17 E, 14 Ch.. 17 Good Formol p Sagittal 8 Azan 1953
8962 15 E, 1.55 Good  ? * Sagittal  ?  ? 1952 Tubal Univ. Chicago No. H 810
Abbreviations
  • Size - E. is the greatest length of the embryo and Ch. is the mean diameter of the chorion.
  • Grade - total grade of the specimen and includes both its original quality and the condition of the mounted sections.
  • Embedding medium - paraffin (P) or a combination of celloidin and paraffin (C-P).
  • Fixative - formalin (Formol), alcohol and formalin (Alc, formol), Bouin (Bouin solution)
  •  ? - unknown or not determined.
References
  1. Dekaban AS. and Bartelmez GW. Complete Dysraphism in 14 Somite Human Embryo. (1964) A Contribution To Normal And Abnormal Morphogenesis. Am. J. Anat. 115: 27-38. PMID 14199785
  2. Davis CL. Description of a human embryo having twenty paired somites. (1923) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 332, Contrib. Embryol., 15: 1-51.
  3. Congdon ED. Transformation of the aortic-arch system during the development of the human embryo. (1922) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ 277, 14:47-110.
  4. Wen IC. The anatomy of human embryos with seventeen to twenty-three pairs of somites (1928) J. Comp. Neural., 45: 301-376.
  5. Heuser CH. A human embryo with 14 pairs of somites. (1930) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ. 414, Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. 22:135-153.
  6. Wallin IE. A human embryo of thirteen somites. (1913) Amer. J Anat. 15(3): 319-331.
  7. Atwell WJ. A human embryo with seventeen pairs of somites. (1930) Contrib. Embryol., Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 407, 21: 1-24.

Embryo Examples

Based on O'Rahilly and Müller (1987).[1]

  • Harvard Collection No. 714 described by Bremer, J. L. 1906. Description of a 4-mm Human Embryo. Amer. J. Anat., 5, 459-480 (probably Stage 12)
  • Pfannenstiel III - (14 somites) Pfannenstiel III (Professor Pfannenstiel of Griefswald) described by Keibel, F., and Elze, C. 1908. Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wirbeltiere.(Normal Plates for Evolution of Vertebrates) 8. Heft Normentafeln zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen. (Vol. 8. Normal Plates of the Development of the Human Embryo) Fisher, Jena., Germany. Shown as Embryo No.6 (Plate 1 fig. Vr. and Plate 2 fig. Vv.).
    • described also by Low, A.[2]
    • Plastic models available of - external form, central nervous system, digestive system, heart and large vessels.
    • two pharyngeal arches, clearly marked.
    • neural lips are closed rostrally as far as the collicular region.
    • Named after Professor Pfannenstiel of Griefswald.
  • 15 somite human embryo described by Mizoguti H. (1989)[3]
  • 13–14 somites, University of Chicago collection, No. H 8. A macerated and damaged specimen. Described by Bartelmez (1922) and also included in the study by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 13–14 somites, No. 121, Department of Anatomy, Tohoku University, Sendai. Distribution of alkaline phosphatase studied by Mori (1959b).
  • 14 somites, Carnegie No. 12. A pioneer specimen sectioned under poor technical facilities. Described by Mall (1897).
  • 14 somites, Pfannenstiel III, Giessen. Described as embryo No. 6 in the Normentafeln by Keibel and Elze (1908). Representative sections schematically shown in text figure 6, a–w. External form of embryo pictured on plate 5 as figures Vr. and Vv. Embryo described in monograph form by Low (1908). Plastic models are shown by him of external form, central nervous system, digestive system, heart and large vessels. The specimen has two pharyngeal arches, clearly marked. The neural lips are closed rostrally as far as the collicular region.
  • 14 somites, Carnegie No. 4529. A well-preserved specimen, well described by Heuser (1930). More monographs of this standard are needed.
  • 14 somites, embryo von Bulle, Anatomical Collection, Basel. Described by Kollman (1889). Also pictured by Kollman in his Handatlas (1907). Described in the Keibel and Elze Normentafeln as No. 5, and external form pictured on plate 1 as figure IV. Kollman originally reported that there were 13 somites, but his figures show 14 distinct elevations. The closure of the neural tube was probably further rostralward than is shown.
  • 14 somites, Cano embryo, Madrid. Described by Orts-Llorca, Lopez Rodriguez, and Cano Monasterio (1958). Histological condition only fair.
  • 14 somites, Carnegie No. 779. This highly abnormal embryo is included because of the detailed account that has been published of its complete dysraphia (Dekaban, 1963; Dekaban and Bartelmez, 1964).
  • Approximately 15 somites, collection of First Anatomical Institute of Vienna, embryo Hal. 2. Heart described by Tandler and pharynx by Grosser in Keibel and Mall (1912). Embryo reported as swollen and not suited for cytological studies (Politzer, 1928a).
  • 15 somites, von Spee collection. No 52, Kiel. Camera lucida drawing by Graf Spee before treatment with alcohol,showing right profile of embryo, umbilical vesicle, and connecting stalk. There are 15 discernible somites (Doderlein, 1915, fig. 37). Sections reveal good histological condition of tissues. Used by Evans in Keibel and Mall (1912, fig. 411).
  • 15 somites, University of Chicago collection, No. H 810 (Carnegie No. 8962). Series incomplete, histology fair. Described by Dorland and Bartelmez (1922).
  • 17 somites, Carnegie No. 470. Description, chiefly of central nervous system, published by Bartelmez and Evans (1926).
  • 17 somites, Carnegie No. 4315 (University of Chicago No. H951). Described by Wen (1928) with particular reference to the nervous system. Possibly 18 somites but probably not (Arey, 1938).
  • 17 somites, Carnegie No. 5072. Monographic description, based on three-dimensional reconstructions in addition to the study of the serial sections, published by Atwell (1930).
  • 17 and 19 somites, twins, Toronto collection, No. V and No. VI. Described by Watt (1915).
  • 18 somites, Giglio-Tos, embryo A. Description published by Giglio-Tos (1902). Embryo reported to have 15 segments, but from other evidence it is probably more advanced. The author notes that the caudal neuropore is open, and the reader must infer that the rostral neuropore is closed. The otic invagination appears to be well advanced, although still open. There should therefore be 18 or more somites. The cytological description of the neural tube indicates good preservation. There are no drawings to portray the form of the embryo and the status of organogenesis.
  • 18 somites, Embryological Institute, Vienna, embryo B. Described in part by Sternberg (1927) in a study of the closure of the rostral neuropore. A monographic description of this embryo was published by Politzer (1928a), which establishes it as one of the best representatives of this stage. Unfortunately destroyed.
  • 18 somites, von Spee, Kiel. Only drawings of the external form, right profile and dorsal views, and a sketch showing perforation of the oropharyngeal membrane, are available. The rostral neuropore appears closed. These drawings seem to have been made by Graf Spee and constitute figures 38, 39, and 42 in Döderlein's Handbuch (1915). Apparently the embryo has never been sectioned or studied in detail.
  • 20 somites, Embryological Laboratory of Geneva, embryo Eternod-Delaf. Described in monographic form by Bujard (1913-1914). A well-preserved normal embryo. Description given of its external form. Carefully made plastic and graphic reconstructions reveal the form of the central nervous system, digestive system, coelom, vascular system, and somites. The rostral neuropore is almost closed; there are two pharyngeal arches. It is probable, therefore, that the somitic count is correct.
  • 20 somites, Carnegie No. 2053 A notable description of this embryo was published by Davis (1923). Because of its histological excellence and the care with which it has been studied, this specimen deserves a position of distinction.


References

  1. O'Rahilly, R. and Müller, F. Developmental Stages in Human Embryos. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 637 (1987).
  2. Low A. Description of a human embryo of 13-14 mesodermic somites. (1908) J Anat Physiol. 42(3): 237-51. PMID 17232769 | PMC1289161
  3. <pubmed>2610025</pubmed>

Pages in category ‘Carnegie Stage 11’

The following 64 pages are in this category, out of 64 total.

Media in category ‘Carnegie Stage 11’

The following 191 files are in this category, out of 191 total.