Book - The brain of the tiger salamander 22

From Embryology
Embryology - 14 Oct 2019    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Herrick CJ. The Brain of the Tiger Salamander (1948) The University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Part I. General Description and Interpretation 1. Salamander Brains | 2. Form and Brain Subdivisions | 3. Histological Structure | 4. Regional Analysis | 5. Functional Analysis, Central and Peripheral | 6. Physiological Interpretations | VII. The Origin and Significance of Cerebral Cortex | VIII. General Principles of Morphogenesis Part 2. Survey of Internal Structure 9. Spinal Cord and Bulbo-spinal Junction | 10. Cranial Nerves | 11. Medulla Oblongata | 12. Cerebellum | 13. Isthmus | 14. Interpeduncular Nucleus | 15. Midbrain | 16. Optic and Visual-motor Systems | 17. Diencephalon | 18. Habenula and Connections | 19. Cerebral Hemispheres | 20. Systems of Fibers | 21. Commissures | Bibliography | Illustrations | salamander

Bibliography

This list includes only the works cited in the text. It is not a systematic bibliography of the amphibian nervous system. Additional references are cited in the author's papers, in the comprehensive work by Ariens Kappers, Huber, and Crosby ('36), and in numerous other publications.


Addens, J. L. 194(). The nucleus of Bellonci and adjacent cell groups in selachians. II, Proc. kon. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam, 49: 94-100. Also earlier papers cited.


Adelmann, H. B. 1929. Experimental studies on the development of the eye. I, J. Exper. Zool., 54:249-90.

  • 1936. The problem of cyclopia. Quart. Rev. Biol., 11: 161-82; 284-304.


Agar, W. E. 1943. A contribution to the theory of the living organism. Melbourne and London: Melbourne University Press and Oxford University Press.

Ariens Kappers, C. U. 1929. The evolution of the nervous system in invertebrates, vertebrates and man. Haarlem: Bohn.

Ariens Kappers, C. U.; Huber, G. Carl; and Crosby, E. C. 1936. The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates including man. New York: Macmillan Co.

Aronson, Lester R., and Noble, G. K. 1945. The sexual behavior of Anura. II. Neural mechanisms controlling mating in the male leopard frog, Rana pipiens, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 86:83-140, article 3.

Bagley, Charles, Jr., and Langworthy, O. R. 1926. The forebrain and midbrain of the alligator, etc., Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat., 16: lo4-66.


Bailey, P., and Bonin, G. von. 1946. Concerning cytoarchitectonics. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc, 71st Meeting. Pp. 89-93.

Bailey, P., and Davis, E. W. 1942. Effects of lesions of the periaqueductal gray matter in the cat, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med., 51:305-6.

  • 1942a. The syndrome of obstinate progression in the cat, ibid., p. 307.


Baker, R. C. 1927. The early development of the ventral part of the neural plate of Amblystoma, J. Comp. Neurol., 44:1-27.

Baker, R. C, and Graves, G. O. 1932. The development of the brain of Amblystoma (3 to 17 mm. body length), J. Comp. Neurol., 54:.501-59.

Barnard, J. W. 1936. A phylogenetic study of the visceral afferent areas, etc., J. Comp. Neurol., 65:. 503-602.

Bellonci, J. 1888. Ueber die centrale Endigung des Nervus opticus bei den Verte braten, Ztschr. f. wissensch. Zool., 47:1-46.

Benedetti, E. 1933. II cervello e i nervi cranici del Proteus anguineus Laur., Mem. 1st. ital. di speleologia, ser. biol., Mem. Ill, pp. 1-80.

Benzon, a. 1926. Die markhaltigen Faserziige im Vorderhirn von Cryptobranchus

japonicus, Ztschr. f. mikr.-anat. Forsch., 5:285-314. Beritoff, J. S. (ed.). 1943. Trans, of the J. Beritashvili Physiologica Institute, No.


5. Pp. xiv+532. Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgia, U.S.S.R. (with abstracts in English). BiNDEWALD, C. A. E. 1914. Das Vorderhirn von Amblystoma mexicanum, Arch. f.


mikr. Anat., Abt. 1, 84:1-74. Bishop, S. C. 1943. Handbook of salamanders: the salamanders of the United

States, of Canada and of Lower California. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Co. BoDiAN, D. 1937. The structure of the vertebrate synapse, J. Comp. Neurol., 68:117-59.


BoDiAN, D. 1942. Cytological aspects of synaptic function, Physiol. Rev., 22: 146-69. BoNiN, G. VON. 1945. The cortex of Galago; its relation to the pattern of the primitive cortex. Illinois Monog, M. Sc. Vol. 5, No. 3. Urbana: University of Illinois

Press. Brickner, Richard M. 1930. A new tract in Herrick's gustatory system in certain

teleosts, J. Comp. Neurol. 50:153-57. Brodal, a. 1940. Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber die olivo-cerebellare Lokali sation, Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol, u. Psychiat., 169:1-153. Brodal, A., and Jansen, J. 1946. The ponto-cerebellar projection in the rabbit

and cat, J. Comp. Neurol., 84:31-118. BucY, Paul C. (ed.). 1944. The precentral motor cortex. Illinois Monog. M. Sc,

Vol. 4, Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Burr, H. S. 1922. The early development of the cerebral hemispheres in Am blystoma, J. Comp. Neurol., 34:277-301. Calderon, Luis. 1928. Sur la structure du ganglion interpedonculaire, Trav. du

lab. de recherches biol. de I'Univ. de Madrid, 25:297-306. Campion, George G., and Smith, G. Elliot. 1934. The neural basis of thought.


New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. Chezar, H. H. 1930. Studies on the lateral-line system of Amphibia. II, J. Comp.


Neurol., 50:159-75. Child, C. M. 1941. Patterns and problems of development. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press. Clark, W. E. Le Gros. 1933. The medial geniculate body and the nucleus isthmi,

J. Anat., 67:536-48. . 1943. The anatomy of cortical vision, Tr. Ophth. Soc, 62:229-45 (for

1942). Coghill, G. E. 1902. The cranial nerves of Amblystoma tigrinum, J. Comp. Neurol.,

12:205-89. . 1913. The primary ventral roots and somatic motor column of Amblystoma,

ibid., 23:121-43.


1914-36. Correlated anatomical and physiological studies of the growth of


the nervous system of Amphibia, Papers I-XII, ibid.. Vols. 24^64.


1929. Anatomy and the problem of behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge


University Press.


1930. The structural basis of the integration of behavior, Proc. Nat. Acad.



Sc, 16:637-43. . 1933. The neuro-embryological study of behavior: principles, perspective


and aim, Science, 78:131-38.


1936. Integration and motivation of behavior as problems of growth.



J. Genet. Psychol., 48:3-19.


1940. Early embryonic somatic movements in birds and in mammals other


than man. Monog. Soc. Research in Child Development, Vol. 5, No. 2. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.


1943. Flexion spasms and mass reflexes in relation to the ontogenetic


development of behavior, J. Comp. Neurol., 79:463-86. CoNEL, J. LeRoy. 1929. The development of the brain of Bdellostoma stouti.


I. External growth changes, J. Comp. Neurol., 47:343-403. . 1931. The development of the brain of Bdellostoma stouti. II. Internal

growth changes, ibid., 52:365-499. CoRBiN, K. B. 1940. Observations on the peripheral distribution of fibers arising

in the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth cranial nerve, J. Comp. Neurol., 73:

153-77.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 309

Craigie, E. Horne. 1938. The vascularization of the hypophysis in tailed amphibians, Tr. Roy. Soe. Canada, ser. 3, 32:43-50.


. 1938a. The blood vessels of the brain substance in some amphibians, Proc.


Am.Phil.Soc, 78:615-49.


1939. Vascularity in the brains of tailed amphibians. I. Amblystoma


tigrinum (Green), ibid., 81: "21-27. . 1940. The cerebral cortex in palaeognathine and neognathine birds, J. Comp.



Neurol., 73:179-234. . 1945. The architecture of the cerebral capillary bed, Biol. Rev., 20:133


46. Crosby, Elizabeth C. 1917. The forebrain of Alligator mississippiensis, J. Comp.


Neurol., 27:325-402. Crosby, Elizabeth C, and Woodburne, R. T. 1938. Certain major trends in the

development of the efferent systems of the brain and the spinal cord, Univ.


Hosp. Bull., Ann Arbor, Mich., 4:125-28. . 1940. The comparative anatomy of the preoptic area and the hypothalamus,

A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc, 20: 52-169. CusHiNG, H. 1903. The taste fibers and their independence of the n. trigeminus,

Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 14:71-78. Dempster, W. T. 1930. The morphology of the amphibian endolymphatic organ,

J. Morphol., 50:71-126. Detwiler, S. R. 1945. The results of unilateral and bilateral extirpation of the

forebrain of Amblystoma, J. Exper. Zool., 100:103-17. . 1946. Experiments upon the midbrain of Amblystoma embryos. Am. J.


Anat., 78:115-38. Dewey, John. 1896. The reflex arc concept in psychology, Psychol. Rev., 3:357 70. See also Dewey's later statement in J. Phil., 9:664-68, 1912, especially the

footnote on p. 667. Dow, R. S. 1942. The evolution and anatomy of the cerebellum, Biol. Rev., 17:

179-220. EcoNOMO, C. 1926. Ein Koeffizient fUr die Organizationshohe der Grosshirnrinde,

Klin. Wchnschr., 5 Jhrg., I Halbjahres, pp. 593-95. . 1929. The cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex. Translated by S. Parker. Oxford University Press. Edinger, L. 1911. Vorlesungen iiber den Bau der nervosen Zentralorgane, Vol 1.


8th ed. Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel. Emerson, Alfred E. 1942. The modern naturalist. Bull. Transylvania Coll., 15:

71-77.


, 1943. Ecology, evolution and society. Am. Nat., 77:97-118.


Est ABLE, C. 1924. Terminaisons nerveuses branchiales de larve du Pleurodeles

waltlii et certaines donnees sur Kinnervation gustative, Trav. du lab. de re cherches biol. de I'Univ. de Madrid, 22:369-84. Evans, F. Gaynor. 1944. The morphological status of the modern Amphibia

among the Tetropoda, J. Morphol., 74:43-100. Ferraro, a., and Barrera, S. E. 1935. Posterior column fibers and their termination in Macacus rhesus, J. Comp. Neurol., 62:507-30. FoREL, A. 1877. Untersuchimgen iiber die Haubenregion u.s.w.. Arch. f. Psychiat.,

7:393-495. Fox, C. A. 1941. The mammillary peduncle and ventral tegmental nucleus in the

cat. J. Comp. Neurol. 75:411-25. Francis, E. T. B. 1934. The anatomy of the salamander. Oxford University Press.


Frey, Eugen. 1938. Studien liber die hypothalamische Opticuswurzel der Am phibien. II. Proteus anguineus, Proc. kon. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam,

41:1015-21. Fulton, J. F. 1943. Physiology of the nervous system. 2d ed. Oxford Univ. Press. Ganser, S. 1882. Vergleichend-anatomische Studien liber das Gehirn des Maul wurfs, Morphol. Jahrb., 7:.591-72o. Gaupp, E. 1899. Anatomie des Frosches, Abt. 2, Auf. 2. Braunschweig. Gehuchten, a. van. 1894. Contribution a I'etude du systeme nerveux des tele osteens, Cellule, 10:255-95. . 1895. Le faisceau longitudinal posterieur, Bull. Acad. roy. de med. de

Belgique, 9:1-40.


1897. La moelle epiniere des larves des batraciens (Salamandra maculosa),


Arch, de biol., 15:251 . 1897a. Le ganglion basal et la commissure habenulaire dans I'encephale de

la salamandre, Bull. Acad. roy. de Belgique, ser. 3, 34:38-07.


1900. Anatomic du systeme nerveux de Thomme. 2 vols. Louvain.



Geiringer, Martha. 1938. Die Beziehungen der basalen Optikuswurzel zur

Hypophyse und ihre Bedeutung fur den Farbwechsel der Amphibien, Anat.


Anz., 86: 202-7. Gesell, Robert, and Hansen, E. T. 1945. Anticholinesterase activity of acid as a

biological instrument of nervous integration. Am. J. Physiol., 144:120-63. GiLLiLAN, LoiB A. 1941. The connections of the basal optic root (posterior accessory

optic tract) and its nucleus in various mammals, J. Comp. Neurol., 74:367 408. Glasser, Otto (ed.). 1944/ Medical physics. Chicago: Year Book Publishers. Gregory, William K. 1943. Environment and locomotion in mammals. Nat.


Hist., 51:222-27. Griggs, L. 1910. Early stages in the development of the central nervous system of

Amblystoma punctatum, J. Morphol., 21:425-83. GuDDEN, B. VON. 1881. Mitteilung liber das Ganglion interpedunculare. Arch. f.


Psychiat., 11:424-27. Hamburger, V., and Keefe, E. L. 1944. The effects of peripheral factors on the

proliferation and differentiation in the spinal cord of chick embryos, J. Exper.


Zool., 96:223-42. Herrick, C. Judson. 1899. The cranial and first spinal nerves of Menidia: a contribution upon the nerve components of the bony fishes, J. Comp. Neurol., 9:

153-455. . 1900. A contribution upon the cranial nerves of the cod fish, il)id., 10:

265-310. . 1903. The organ and sense of taste in fishes, Bull. U.S. Fish Com., 22:237


(2.


1903a. On the morphological and physiological classification of the cu


taneous sense organs of fishes. Am. Nat., 37:313-18.


-. 1903fc. On the phylogeny and morphological position of the terminal buds


of fishes, J. Comp. Neurol., 13:121-38. . 1905. The central gustatory paths in the brains of bony fishes, ibid., 15:


375-456.



-. 1908. The morphological subdivision of the brain, ibid., 18:393-408.


. 1909. The nervus terminalis (nerve of Pinkus) in the frog, ibid., 19:175-90.


. 1910. The morphology of the forebrain in Amphibia and Reptilia, ibid.,

20:413-547.


1913. Brain, anatomy of the, in Reference handbook of the medical sciences.



2:274-342. 3d ed. New York: William Wood & Co.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 311

Herrick, C. Judson. U)13a. Some reflections on the origin and significance of tlie

cerebral cortex, J. Anim. Behavior, 3:222-36. 1914. The cereVieUum of Necturus and otlier urodcle Anipliihia, J. ('omp.


Neurol., 24: 1-29.


1914a. The medulla oblongata of larval Amblystoma, ibid., pp. 343-427.


1917. The internal structure of the midbrain and thalamus of Necturus,


ibid., 28:215-348.


19^20. Irreversible dift'erentiation and orthogenesis. Science, 51:()21-2o.


\ 1921. A sketch of the origin of the cerebral hemispheres, J. Comp. Neurol.



32:429-54. 1921a. The connections of the vomeronasal nerve, accessory oltactory


bulb and amygdala in Amphibia, ibid., 33:213-80.


. 1922. What are viscera? J. Anat., 56: 167-76.


. 1922a. Functional factors in the morphology of the forebrain of fishes,

Libro en honor de D. Santiago Ramon y Cajal, 1:143-204. Madrid. . 19226. Some factors in the development of the amphibian nervous system.



Anat. Rec, 23:291-305. , . t, u- . . 1924. Origin and evolution of the cerebellum. Arch. Neurol. & 1 sychiat.,


11:621-52. , ^ ^ ^

1924a. The amphibian forebrain. I. Amblystoma, external form, J. C.omp.



Neurol., 37:361-71. , „ . . ,, .


-. 19246. The amphibian forebrain. II. The olfactory bulb of Amblystoma,


ibid., pp. 273-396. ^. , XT . 1924c. Neurological foundations of animal behavior. New lork: Henry


Holt & Co. ^ ^ ^^ , . 1924(/. The nucleus olfactorius anterior of the opossum, J. Lomp. Neurol.,


37' 317—59.


1925. The amphibian forebrain. III. Tlie optic tracts and centers of Am


blystoma and the frog, ibid., 39:433-89. ' 1925a. Morphogenic factors in the differentiation of the nervous system,


Physiol. Rev., 5:112 30. . 19256. The innervation of palatal taste buds and teeth of Amblystoma, J.



Comp. Neurol., 38:389-97.


1926. Brains of rats and men. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


1927. The amphibian forebrain. IV. The cerebral hemispheres of Ambly


stoma, J. Comp. Neurol., 43:231-325.


. 1929. Anatomical patterns and behavior patterns, Physiol. Zool., 2:439-48.


. 1930. The medulla oblongata of Necturus, J. Comp. Neurol., 50: 1-96.


. 1930a. Localization of function in the nervous system, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc,


16:643-50,

1931. The amphibian forebrain. V. The olfactory bulb of Necturus, J.



Comp. Neurol., 53:55-69. . 1931a. An introduction to neurology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders


. 1933. The functions of the olfactory parts of the cerebral cortex, Proc. Nat.



Acad. Sc, 19:7-14.


. 1933a. Morphogenesis of the brain, J. Morphol., 54:233-58.


. 19336. The amphibian forebrain. VI. Necturus, J. Comp. Neurol., 58: 1-288.


1933c. The amphibian forebrain. VH. The architectural plan of the brain.



ibid., pp. 481-505. . mvsd. The evolution of cerebral localization patterns, Science, 78:439-44.


Herrick, C. Judson. 1933^. The amphibian forebrain. VHI. Cerebral hemispheres

and palhal primordia, J. Comp. Neurol., 58:737-59. . 1934. The amphibian forebrain. IX. Neuropil and other interstitial nervous

tissue, ibid., 59:93-116.


1934a. The amphibian forebrain. X. Localized functions and integrating


functions, ibid., pp. 239-66.


. 19346. The hypothalamus of Necturus, ibid., pp. 375-429.


. 1934c. The interpeduncular nucleus of the brain of Necturus, ibid., 60: 111


35. . 1934rf. The endocranial blood vascular system of Amblystoma, Ztschr. f.



mikr.-anat. Forsch., 36:540-44. . 1935. The membranous parts of the brain, meninges and their blood vessel'


in Amblystoma, J. Comp. Neurol., 61:297-346.


1935a. A topographic analysis of the thalamus and midbrain of Ambly


stoma, ibid., 62:239-61.


. 1936. Conduction pathways in the cerebral peduncle of Amblystoma, ibid.,

63:293-352.


1937. Development of the brain of Amblystoma in early functional stages.



ibid., 67:381-422.


1938. Development of the cerebrum of Amblystoma during early swimming


stages, ibid., 68:203-41.


1938a. Development of the brain of Amblystoma punctatum from early


swimming to feeding stages, ibid., 69:13-30.


-. 19386. The brains of Amblystoma punctatum and A. tigrinum in early


feeding stages, ibid., pp. 391-426. . 1939. Internal structure of the thalamus and midbrain of early feeding


larvae of Amblystoma, ibid., 70:89-135. . 1939a. The cerebrum of Amblystoma tigrinum in midlarval stages, ibid.



pp. 249-66. . 19396. Cerebral fiber tracts of Amblystoma tigrinum in midlarval stages,


ibid., 71:511-612.


. 1941. Development of the optic nerves of Amblystoma, ibid., 74:473-534.


-. 1941a. Optic and postoptic systems of fibers in the brain of Necturus, ibid..



75:487-544.


. 19416. The eyes and optic paths of the catfish, Ameiurus, ibid., 75:255-86.


1942. Optic and postoptic systems in the brain of Amblystoma tigrinum.



ibid., 77:191-353. . 1943. The cranial nerves: a review of fifty years, Denison Univ. Bull., J.



Sc. Lab., 38:41-51.


. 1944. The incentives of science, Scient. Monthly, 58, 462-66.


1944a. Apparatus of optic and visceral correlation in the brain of Ambly


stoma, J. Comp. Psychol., 37:97-105. . 19446. The fasciculus solitarius and its connections in amphibians and


fishes, J. Comp. Neurol., 81:307-31. . 1947. The proprioceptive nervous system, J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., 106:


355-58.


-. 1948. George Ellett Coghill, naturalist and philosopher. To be published by


University of Chicago Press. Hoagland, H. 1933. Electrical responses from the lateral-line nerves ot catfish.


I, J. Gen. Physiol., 16: 695-714. . 19336. Quantitative analysis of responses from lateral-line nerves of fishes.



II, ibid., pp. 715-31.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 313

Holmgren, Nils. 1922. Points of view concerning forebrain morphology in lower

vertebrates, J. Comp. Neurol., 34:391-459.


. 1946. On two embryos of Myxine glutinosa, Acta Zool., 27:1-90.


Holmgren, Nils, and van der Horst, C.J. 1925. Contribution to the morphology

of the brain of Ceratodus, Acta Zool., 6:59-165. Holtfreter, J. 1945. Differential inhibition of growth and differentiation by

mechanical and chemical means, Anat. Rec, 93:59-74. Hooker, Davenport. 1944. The origin of overt behavior. Ann Arbor: University

of Michigan Press. Howell, A. Brazier. 1944, Speed in animals, their specialization for running and

leaping. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. HuBER, G. C, and Crosby, Elizabeth C. 1933. A phylogenetic consideration

of the optic tectum. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc, 19: 15-22. . 1934. The influences of afferent paths on the cytoarchitectonic structure of

the submammalian optic tectum, Psychiat. en Neurol. Bl, pp. 459-74. . 1943. A comparison of the mammalian and reptilian tecta, J. Comp.


Neurol., 78:133-68. Humphrey, Tryphena. 1944. Primitive neurons in the embryonic human central

nervous system, J. Comp. Neurol., 81: 1-45. Jacobsohn-Lask. 1924. Die Kreuzung der Nervenbahnen und die bilaterale

Symmetric des tierschen Korpers. Berlin: S. Karger. Jansen, Jan. 1930. The brain of Myxine glutinosa, J. Comp. Neurol., 49:359-507. Jeserich, Marguerite W. 1945. The nuclear pattern and the fiber connections of

certain non-cortical areas of the telencephalon of the mink (Mustek vison),

J. Comp. Neurol., 83:173-211. Johnston, J. B. 1901. The brain of Acipenser, Zool. Jahrb., 15:59-260.


. 1902. The brain of Petromyzon, J. Comp. Neurol., 12:1-86.


. 1916. Evidence of a motor pallium in the forebrain of reptiles, ibid., 26:

475-79 Jones, D. S. 1945. The origin of the ciliary ganglia in the chick embryo, Anat. Rec,

92:441-47. Kabat, H. 1936. Electrical stimulation of points in the forebrain and midbrain: the

resultant alterations in respiration, J. Comp. Neurol., 64:187-208. Kato, G. 1934. The microphysiology of nerve. Tokyo: Maruzen Co., Ltd. Kingsbury, B. F., 1895. On the brain of Necturus maculatus, J. Comp. Neurol.,

5:139-205. . 1930. The developmental significance of the floor-plate of the brain and

spinal cord, ibid., 50:177-207. KoDAMA, S. 1929. Ueber die sogenannten Basalganglien. B. Ueber die Faserver bindungen den Basalganglien u.s.w., Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol, u. Psychiat.,

23:179-265. KosTiR, W. J. 1924. An analysis of the cranial ganglia of an embryo salamander,

Amblystoma jeffersonianum (Green), Ohio J. Sc, 24:230-63. Kreht, Hans. 1930. Ueber die Faserzuge im Zentralnervensystem von Salamandra

maculosa L., Ztschr. f. mikr.-anat. Forsch., 23:239-320. . 1931. Ueber die Faserzuge im Zentralnervensystem von Proteus anguineus

Laur., ibid., 25:376-427. Kuhlenbeck, H. 1921. Zur Morphologic des Urodelenvorderhirns, Jenaische

Ztschr. f. Naturwissensch., 57, N.F., 50:463-90.


. 1922. Zur Morphologic des Gymnophionengehirns, ibid., 58:453-84.


KuPFFER, C. VON. 1906. Die Morphogenie des Zentralnervensystems, Hertwig's

Handb. f. Entw. d. Wirbeltiere, 2, Teil 3, 1-272. Jena.



Landacre, F. L. 1921. The fate of the neural crest in the head of the urodeles, J. Comp. Neurol., 33:1-43.


. 1926. The primitive lines of Amblystoma jettersonianum, ibid.. 40:471-9.5.


Larsell, O. 1920. The cerebellum of Amblystoma, J. Comp. Neurol., 31:259-82.


. 1923. The cerebellum of the frog, ibid., 36:89-112.


. 1924. The nucleus isthmi of the frog, ibid., 36:309-22.


. 1925. The development of the cerebellum in the frog (Hyla regilla) in relation to the vestibular and lateral-line systems, ibid., 39:249-89.


. 1929. The nerve terminations in the lateral-line organs of Amblystoma,

ibid., 48:465-70.


. 1931. The cerebellum of Triturus torosus, ibid., 53: 1-54.


. 1932. The development of the cerebellum in Amblystoma, ibid., 54:357


435.


1934. The differentiation of the peripheral and central acoustic apparatus


in the frog, ibid., 60:473-527.


1934a. Morphogenesis and evolution of the cerebellum, Arch. Neurol. &


Psychiat., 31:373-95.


. 1937. The cerebellum: a review and interpretation, ibid., 38:580-607.


. 1945. Comparative neurology and present knowledge of the cerebellum,

Bull. Minnesota M. Foundation, 5:73-85.


1947. The cerebellum of myxinoids and petromyzonts, including develop


mental stages in the lampreys, J. Comp. Neurol., 86:395-445.


1947a. The nucleus of the IV nerve in petromyzonts, ibid., pp. 447


Lashley, K. S. 1934. The mechanism of vision. VII, J. Comp. Neurol., 59:341-73.


. 1934a. The mechanism of vision. VIII, ibid., 60:57-79.


. 1941. Thalamo-cortical connections of the rat's brain, ibid., 75:67-121.


Lashley, K. S., and Clark, George. 1946. The cytoarchitecture of the cerebral

cortex of Ateles: a critical examination of architectonic studies, J. Comp. Neurol.,

85: 223-305. Liggett, J. R. 1928. An experimental study of the olfactory sensitivity of the white

rat. Genet. Psychol. Monog., 3: 1-64. Lillie, Ralph S. 1945. General biology and philosophy of organism. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press. Loo, Y. T. 1931. The forebrain of the opossum, Didelphis virginiana. II, J. Comp.


Neurol., 52:1-148. McKiBBEN, Paul S. 1911. The nervus terminalis in urodele Amphibia, J. Comp.


Neurol., 21:261-309.


. 1913. The eye-muscle nerves in Necturus, ibid., 23:153-72.


Magoun, H. W. 1944. Bulbar inhibition and facilitation of motor activity. Science,

100:549-50. Marburg, O. 1944. The structure and fiber connections of the human habenula.


J. Comp. Neurol., 80:211-33. Mettler, Fred A. 1945. Fiber connections of the corpus striatum of the monkey

and baboon, J. Comp. Neurol., 82:169-204. Mettler, Fred A., and Mettler, Cecilia C. 1941. Role of the neostriatum.


Am. J. Physiol., 133:594-601. MoNCRiEFF, R. W. 1944. The chemical senses. London: Leonard Hill, Ltd. Murphy, J. P., and Gellhorn, E. 1945. Multiplicity of representation versus punctate localization in the motor cortex. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat., 54:256-273. Neimanis, Emma. 1931. Individual variation of form of the brain of Triton cristatus

Laur. and its relation to the specific variation of the brain of Urodela, Bull. Soc.


biol. de Lettonie, 2:67-92.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 315

Noble, G. Kingsley. 1931. The biology of the Amphibia. New York: McGrawHill Book Co. O'Neill, H. M. 1898. Hirn- und Ruckenmarkshiillen bei Amphibien, Morphol.


Arb., Sehwalbe, 8:47-6-1. OsBORN, H. F. 1888. A contribution to the internal structure of the amphibian

brain, J. Morphol., 2:51-96. Palay, S. L. 1944. The histology of the meninges of the toad (Bufo), Anat. Rec,

88:257-70. . 1945. Neurosecretion. VII. The preoptico-hypophysial pathway m fishes.


J. Comp. Neurol., 82:129-43. Papez, James W. 1936. Evolution of the medial geniculate body. J. Comp. Neurol.,

64:41-61. . 1944. Structures and mechanisms underlying the cerebral functions. Am. J.


Psychol., 57:291-316. Parker, G. H. 1912. The relation of smell, taste, and the common chemical sense

in vertebrates, J. Philadelphia Acad. Nat. Sc, ser. 2, 15: 219-34. . 1918. A critical survey of the sense of hearing in fishes, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc,

57:1-30. . 1922. Smell, taste and allied senses in the vertebrates, Philadelphia: J. B.


Lippincott Co. Parker, G. H., and van Heusen, A. P. 1917. The reception of mechanical stimuli

by the skin, lateral-line organs and ears in fishes, especially in Amiurus, Am. J.


Physiol, 44:463-89. Pearse, a. S. (ed.). 1936. Zoological names: a list of phyla, classes and orders.


Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. Pearson, A. A. 1945. Further observations on the intramedullary sensory type

neurons along the hypoglossal nerve, J. Comp. Neurol., 82: 93-100. Piatt, Jean. 1945. Origin of the mesencephalic V root cells in Amblystoma, J. Comp.


Neurol., 82:35-53. . 1946. The influence of the peripheral field on the development of the mesencephalic V nucleus in Amblystoma, J. Exper. Zool., 102:109-41. PoLYAK, S. L. 1941. The retina. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ramon y Cajal, P. 1922. El cerebro de los batracios. Libro en Honor de D. S.


Ramon y Cajal, 1:13-150. Madrid. Ramon y Cajal, S. 1911. Histologic du systeme nerveux de I'homme et des verte bres. Vol. 2. Paris. Rasmussen, G. L. 1946. The olivary peduncle and other fiber projections of the

superior olivary complex, J. Comp. Neurol., 84:141-219. Reiser, Oliver L. 1946. The world sensorium. New York: Avalon Press. RoTHiG, Paul. 1911. Zellanordnungen und Faserzuge im Vorderhirn von Siren

lacertina, Abh. kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wissensch., Anhang, pp. 1-23. . 1911a. Beitrage zum Studium des Zentralnervensysteins der Wirbeltiere.


IV. Die marklialtigen Faserzuge im Vorderhirn von Necturus maculatus, Arch. f.


Anat. (u. Physiol.), pp. 48-56. . 1912. Beitrage V. Die Zellanordnungen im Vorderhirn der Amphibien,

Verhandl. Kon. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam, sec. 2, Deel 17, pp. 1-23. 1923. Beitrage VIII. Ueber das Zwischenhirn der Amphibien, Arch. f.


mikr. anat., 98:616-45. . 1924. Beitrage IX. Ueber die Faserzuge im Zwischenhirn der Uro delen, Ztzchr. f. mikr .-anat. Forsch., 1:5-40. . 1927. Beitrage XI. Ueber die Faserzuge im Mittelhirn, Kleinhirn und

der Medulla oblongata der Urodelen und Anuren, ibid., 10:381-472.


RoMER, A. S. 1946. The early evolution of fishes, Quart. Rev. Biol., 21:33-69.


RooFE, P. G. 1935. The endocranial blood vessels of Amblystoma tigrinum, J. Comp. Neurol., 61:257-93.


. 1937. The morphology of the hypophysis of Amblystoma. J. Morphol.,

61:485-94.


. 1938. The blood vascular system of the hypophysis of Amblystoma tigrinum,

J. Comp. Neurol., 69:249-54.


RuDEBECK, BiRGER. 1945. Contributions to forebrain morphology in Dipnoi, ActaZool., 26:9-156.


ScHARRER, E. 1932. Experiments on the function of the lateral-line organs in the larvae of Amblystoma punetatum, J. Exper. Zool., 61:109-14.


ScHARRER, E., and ScHARRER, B. 1940. Secretory cells within the hypothalamus, A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis. Proc, 20:170-94.


ScHARRER, E.; Smith, S. W.; and Palay, S. L. 1947. Chemical sense and taste in the fishes, Prionotus and Trichogaster, J. Comp. Neurol., 86:183-98.


ScHRiEVER, H. 1935. Aktionspotentiale des N. lateralis bei Reizung der Seitenorganie von Fischen, Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., 235:771-84.


Shanklin, W. M. 1933. The comparative neurology of the nucleus opticus tegmenti with special reference to Chameleon vulgaris. Acta Zool., 14: 163-84.


Sheldon, R. E. 1909. The reactions of the dogfish to chemical stimuli, J. Comp. Neurol., 19:273-311.


Sherrington, C. S. 1906. The integrative action of the nervous system. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.


SoDERBERG, Gertie. 1922. Contributions to the forebrain morphology in amphibians, Acta Zool., 3:65-121.


SosA, Julio Maria. 1945. Collateral nerve fibers within septum dorsale of the spinal cord and medulla oblongata and their connections, J. Comp. Neurol., 83: 157-71.


Speidel, C. C. 1946. Prolonged histories of vagus nerve regeneration patterns, sterile distal stumps, and sheath cell outgrowths (abstr.), Anat. Rec, 94:499.


Sperry, R. W. 1943. Effect of 180 degree rotation of the retinal field on visuomotor coordination, J. Exper. Zool., 92:263-79.


. 1944. Optic nerve regeneration with return of vision in anurans, J. Neuro physiol., 7:57-70.


. 1945. Restoration of vision after crossing of optic nerves and after contralateral transplantation of eye, ibid., 8: 15-28.


. 1945a. Centripetal regeneration of the 8th cranial nerve root with systematic restoration of vestibular reflexes, Am. J. Physiol., 144:735-41.


. 19456. The problem of central nervous reorganization after nerve regeneration and muscle transposition, Quart. Rev. Biol., 20:311-69.


Stensio, E. a. 1927. The Downtonian and Devonian vertebrates of Spitsbergen. I. Family Cephalaspidae. Det Norske Vidensk.-Akad. i Oslo.


Stone, L. S. 1922. Experiments on the development of the cranial ganglia and the lateral-line sense organs in Amblystoma punetatum, J. Exper. Zool., 35:421-96.


. 1926. Further experiments on the extirpation and transplantation of mesec toderm in Amblystoma punetatum, ibid., 44: 95-131.


1944. Functional polarization in retinal development and its reestablish


ment in regenerating retinae of rotated grafted eyes, Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol.


Med., 57:13-14. Stone, L. S., and Ellison, F. S. 1945. Return of vision in eyes exchanged between

adult salamanders of different species, J. Exper. Zool., 100:217-27. Stone, L. S., and Zaur, I. S. 1940. Reimplantation and transplantation of adult

eyes in the salamander (Triturus viridescens) with return of vision, J. Exper.


ZooL, 85:243-69.



BIBLIOGRAPHY 317

Stroer, W. F. H. 1939. Ueber den Faserverlauf in den optischen Bahnen bei

Amphibien, Proc. kon. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam, 42:649-56. . 1939a. Zur vergleichenden Anatomie des primaren optischen Systems bei

Wirbeltieren, Ztschr. f. Anat. u. Entwcklngsgesch., 110:301-21. . 1940. Das optische System beim Wassermolch (Triturus taeniatus), Acta

neerl. morphol., 3:178-95. Strong, O. S. 1895. The cranial nerves of the Amphibia, J. Morphol., 10: 101-230. SuMi, R. 1926. Ueber die Morphogenese des Gehirns von Hynobius nebulosus,

Folia Anat. Japon., 4: 171-270. , 1926a. Ueber die Sulci und Eminentiae des Hirnventrikels von Diemictylus

pyrrhogaster, ibid., pp. 375-88. Taylor, A. C. 1944. Development of the innervation pattern in the limb bud of the

frog, Anat. Rec, 87:379-413. Thompson, d'Arcy Wentworth. 1944. On growth and form. New York: Mac millan Co. Thompson, Elizabeth L. 1942. The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus in Didelphis vir giniana, J. Comp. Neurol., 76:239-81. TuGE, H. 1932. Somatic motor mechanisms in the midbrain and medulla oblongata

of Chrysemys elegans (Wied), J. Comp. Neurol., 55:185-271. Wallenberg, A. 1931. B,eitrage zur vergleichenden Anatomie des Hirnstammes, Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh., Vols. 117, 118, 119, pp. 677-98.

Warren, John. 1905. The development of the paraphysis and the pineal regipn in Necturus maculatus. Am. J. Anat., 5: 1-27.

Weiss, Paul. 1936. Selectivity controlling the central -peripheral relations in the nervous system, Biol. Rev., 11:494-531.


. 1939. Principles of development. New York: Henry Holt & Co.


. 1941. Self-differentiation of the basic patterns of coordination, Comp.


Psychol. Monog., 17, No. 4, 1-96. Whitman, C. O. 1892. The metamerism of Clepsine, Festschr. f. Rudolf Leuck harts, pp. 384-95. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann. . 1899. Animal behavior. Biological lectures from the Marine Biological

Laboratory, Woods Hole, for 1898, pp. 285-338. Boston. Woodburne, R. T. 1936. A phylogenetic consideration of the primary and secondary centers and connections of the trigeminal complex in a series of vertebrates,

J. Comp. Neurol., 65:403-501. . 1939. Certain phylogenetic anatomical relations of localizing significance

for the mammalian central nervous system, ibid., 71:215-57. Yntema, C. L. 1937. An experimental study of the origin of the cells which constitute the Vllth and Vlllth cranial ganglia and ner-ves in the embryo of Am blystoma punctatum, J. Exper. Zool., 75:75-101. . 1943. An experimental study on the origin of the sensory neurones and

sheath cells of the IXth and Xth cranial nerves in Amblystoma punctatum,

ibid., 92:93-119. . 1943a. Deficient efferent innervation of the extremities following removal

of neural crest in Amblystoma, ibid., 94:319-49. Youngstrom, K. a. 1938. Studies on the developing behavior of Anura, J. Comp. Neurol., 68:351-79.


. 1940. A primary and a secondary somatic motor innervation in Amblystoma, ibid., 73:139-51.

. 1944. Intramedullary sensory type ganglion cells in the spinal cord of human embryos, ibid., 81:47-53.