Book - The Early Embryology of the Chick - References

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Patten BM. The Early Embryology of the Chick. (1920) Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son and Co.

Online Editor 
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This historic 1920 paper by Bradley Patten described the understanding of chicken development. If like me you are interested in development, then these historic embryology textbooks are fascinating in the detail and interpretation of embryology at that given point in time. As with all historic texts, terminology and developmental descriptions may differ from our current understanding. There may also be errors in transcription or interpretation from the original text. Currently only the text has been made available online, figures will be added at a later date. My thanks to the Internet Archive for making the original scanned book available.

By the same author: Patten BM. Developmental defects at the foramen ovale. (1938) Am J Pathol. 14(2):135-162. PMID 19970381

Those interested in historic chicken development should also see the earlier text The Elements of Embryology (1883).

Foster M. Balfour FM. Sedgwick A. and Heape W. The Elements of Embryology (1883) Vol. 1. (2nd ed.). London: Macmillan and Co.



Modern Notes

chicken

The Early Embryology of the Chick: Introduction | Gametes and Fertilization | Segmentation | Entoderm | Primitive Streak and Mesoderm | Primitive Streak to Somites | 24 Hours | 24 to 33 Hours | 33 to 39 Hours | 40 to 50 Hours | Extra-embryonic Membranes | 50 to 55 Hours | Day 3 to 4 | References | Figures

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


Appendix

References for Collateral Reading

For a comprehensive Bibliography of the subject reference should be made to Minot (1893) and to Lillie (1908). The references given here have been selected as representative of the original work which has been done in various parts of the field. By placing before the student references to a few of the more readily accessible articles it is hoped to encourage him to do collateral reading of original papers on subjects which arouse his interest.

General Development of the Chick

Duval, M., 1889. Atlas d'embryologie. Masson, Paris. 116 pp., 40 plates.

Foster, M., and Balfour, F. M., 1883. The Elements of Embryology, Part I. The History of the Chick. Macmillan, London and New York. Second Edition, xiv + 486 pp.

Hertwig, O., 1901-1907. Handbuch der Vergleichenden und Experimentellen Entwickelungslehre der Wirbeltiere. (Edited by Hertwig, written by numerous collaborators.) Fischer, Jena.

Kaupp, B. F., 1918. The Anatomy of the Domestic Fowl. Saunders, Philadelphia and London, 373 pp.

Keibel, F., and Abraham, K., 1900. Normaltafeln zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Huhnes (Gallus domesticus). Fischer, Jena. 132 pp., 3 plates.

Kellicott, W. E., 1913. Outlines of Chordate Development. Holt, New York. V + 471 pp.

Kerr, J. G., 1919. Textbook of Embryology. Vol. II. Vertebrata with the Exception of Mammalia. Macmillan, London and New York, xii + 591 pp.

Lillie, F. R., 1908. The Development of the Chick. Holt, New York. Second Etiition, 1919. xi + 472 pp.

Marshall, A. M,, 1893. Vertebrate Embryology. (Chap. IV, The Development of the Chick.) Putnam, New York and London, xxiii + 640 pp.

Minot, C. S., 1893. A Bibliography of Vertebrate Embryology. Memoirs, Boston Soc. Nat. History, Vol. IV, Number XI, pp. 487-614.

Minot, C. S., 1903. Laboratory Text Book of Embryology. Blakiston's Son, Philadelphia. Second Edition, 191 1. xii + 402 pp.

Waite, F. C, and Patten, B. M., 1918. An Outline of Laboratory Work in Vertebrate Embryology. Part I. The Chick. Judson, Cleveland. 27 pp.


Gametogenesis and Fertilization

Bartelme^, G. W., 191 2. The Bilaterality of the Pigeon's Egg. A Study in Egg Organization from the First Growth Period of the Oocyte to the Beginning of Cleavage. Jour, of Morph., Vol. 23, pp. 269-328.

Firket, Jean, 1920. On the Origin of Germ-cells in Higher Vertebrates, Anat. Rec, Vol. 18, No. 3.

Guyer, M., 1909. The Spermatogenesis of the Domestic Chicken. Ant. Anz., Bd. 34, pp. 573-580.

Harper, E. H., 1904. The Fertilization and Early Development of the Pigeon's Egg. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. Ill, pp. 349-386.

Kellicott, W. E., 1913. A Text-book of General Embryology. Holt, New York. V + 376 pp.

Marshall, F. H. A., 19 10. The Physiology of Reproduction. Longmans, Green, London, xvii + 706 pp.

Pearl R., and Curtis, M. R., 191 2. Studies on the Physiology of Reproduction in the Domestic Fowl. V. Data Regarding the Physiology of the Oviduct. Jour. Exp. ZooL, Vol. 12, pp. 99-132.

Riddle, O., 1911. On the Formation, Significance and Chemistry of the White and Yellow Yolk of Ova. Jour. Morph., Vol. 22, pp. 455-492.

Swift, C. H., 1914. Origin and Early History of the Primordial Germ-cells in the Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 15, pp. 483-516.

Swift, C. H., 191 5. Origin of the Definitive Sex-cells in the Female Chick and Their Relation to the Primordial Germ-cells. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 18, pp. 441-470.

Swift, C. H., 1916. Origin of the Sex-cords and Definitive Spermatogonia in the Male Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 20, pp. 375-410.


Cleavage, Gastnilation, Genn-layer Formation, and the Early Differentiation of the Embryo

Bartelmez, G. W., 191 8. The Relation of the Embryo to the Principal Axis of Symmetry in the Bird's Egg. Biol. Bull., Vol. 35, pp. 319-361.

Blount, M., 1907. The Early Development of the Pigeon's Egg, with Especial Reference to the Supernumerary Sperm Nuclei, the Periblast, and the Germ- wall. Biol. Bull., Vol. Xni, pp. 231-250.

Edwards, C. L., 1902. The Physiological Zero and the Index of Development for the Egg of the Domestic Fowl. Am. Jour. Physiol., Vol. VI, pp. 351-397.

Eycleshymer, A. C, 1907. Some Observations and Experiments on the Natural and Artificial Incubation of the Egg of the Common Fowl. Biol. Bull., Vol. XIII, pp. 360-374.

Hubbard, M. E., 1908. Some Experiments on the Order of Succession of the Somites of the Chick. Am. Nat., Vol. 42, pp. 466-471.

Lewis, Warren H. and Lewis, Margaret R., 191 2. The Cultivation of Chick Tissues in Media of Known Chemical Constitution. Anat. Rec, Vol. 6, pp. 207-212.

McWhorter, J. E., and Whipple, A. C, 1912. The Development of the Blastoderm of the Chick in Vitrio. Anat. Rec, Vol. 6, pp. 1 21-140.

Patterson, J. T., 1907. The Order of Appearance of the Anterior Somites in the Chick. Biol. Bull., Vol. XIII, pp. 1 21-133.

Patterson, J. T., 1909. Gastnilation in the Pigeon's Egg; a Morphological and Experimental Study. Jour. Morph., Vol. 20, pp. 65-1 23.

Patterson, J. T., 1910. Studies on the Early Development of the Hen's Egg. I. History of the Early Cleavage and of the Accessory Cleavage. Jour, of Morph., Vol. 21, pp. 101-134.

Peebles, F., 1904. The Location of the Chick Embryo upon the Blastoderm. Jour. Exp. Zool., Vol. i, pp. 369-384.

Piatt, J. B., 1889. Studies on the Primitive Axial Segmentation of the Chick. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., Vol. 17.


The Nervous System and Sense Organs

Abel, W., 191 2. Further Observations on the Development of the Sympathetic Nervous System in the Chick, Jour. Anat. and Physiol., Vol. 47, pp. 35-72.

Beard, J., 1888. Morphological Studies, II. The Development of the Nervous System of Vertebrates, Pt. I. Elasmobranchs and Aves. Quar. Jour. Micr. Sc, Vol. XXIX, pp. 153-228.

Cajal, S. R. y., 1889. Sur la morphologie et les connexions des elements de la retine des oiseaux. Anat. Anz., Bd. IV, pp. 111-121.

Cajal, S. R. y., 1890. Sur I'origine et le ramifications des fibres nerveuses de la moelle embryonnaire. Anat. Anz., Bd. V, pp. 85-95 and 111-119.

Carpenter, F. W., 1906. The Development of the Oculomotor Nerve, the Ciliary Ganglion, and the Abducent Nerve in the Chick. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv., Vol. XL VIII.

Cohn, F., 1903. Zur entwickelungsgeschichte des Geruchsorgans des Hiinchens. Arch. mikr. Anat. u. Entw., Bd. LXI, pp. 133-150.

Cowdry. E. V., 1914. The Development of the Cytoplasmic Constituents of the Nerve Cells of the Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 15, pp. 389-430.

Hill, C, 1900. Developmental History of the Primary Segments of the Vertebrate Head. Zool. Jahrbiicher, Abth. Anat., Bd. XIII.

KupflFer, K. v., 1905. Die Morphogenie des Central nervensystems. Hertwig's Handbuch, etc., Bd. II, Teil 3, K. VIII.

Lewis, W. H., 1903. Wandering Pigmented Cells Arising from the Epithelium of the Optic Cup, with Observations on the Origin of the M. Sphincter Pupillae in the Chick. Am, Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 405-416.

Marshall, A. M., 1878. The Development of the Cranial Nerves in the Chick. Quar. Jour. Micr. Sc, Vol. XVIII.

Retzius, G., 1881-1884. Das Gehororgan der Wirbelthiere. II. Theil, Reptilien, Vogel, Sanger. Stockholm.

Weysse, A. W., and Burgess, W. S., 1906. Histogenesis of the Retina. Am. Naturahst, Vol. XL, pp. 611-638.


The Circulatory System

Boas, J. E. v., 1887. Ueber die Arterienbogen . der Wirbeltiere. Morph. Jahrb., Bd. XIII, pp. 11 5-1 18.

Chapman, W. B., 191 8. The Effect of the Heart-beat upon the Development of the Vascular System in the Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 23, pp. 175-203.

Clark, Eleanor Linton, 191 5. Observations on the Lymph Flow and the Associated Morphological Changes in the Early Superficial Lymphatics of Chick Embryos. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 18, pp. 399-440.

Evans, H. M., 1909. On the Development of the Aortae, Cardinal and Umbilical Veins and other Blood-vessels of Vertebrate Embryos from Capillaries. Anat. Record, Vol. 3, pp. 498-518.

Greil, A., 1903. Beitrage zur vergleichenden Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Herzens und des Truncus arteriosus der Wirbelthiere. Morph. Jahrb., Vol. 31, pp. 123-310.

Hochstetter, F., 1906. Die Entwickelung des Blutgefasssystems. Hertwig's Handbuch, etc., Bd. Ill, Teil 2.

Locy, W. A., 1906. The Fifth and Sixth Aortic Arches in Chick Embryos with Comments on the Condition of the Same Vessels in other Vertebrates. Anat. Anz., Bd. XXIX, pp. 287-300.

Mackay, J. Y., 1888. The Development of the Branchial Arterial Arches in Birds, with Special Reference to the Origin of the Subclavians and Carotids. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. 179, Ser. B, pp. 111-139.

Masius, J., 1889. Quelques notes sur le developpement du coeur chez le poulet. Arch. Biol., T. IX,pp.403-4i8.

Miller, A. M., 1903. The Development of the Postcaval Vein in Birds. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 2, pp. 283-298.

Miller, A. M., and McWhorter, J. E., 1914. Experiments on the Development of Blood Vessels in the Area Pellucida and Embryonic Body of the Chick Anat. Rec, Vol. 8, pp. 203-227.

Patterson, J. T., 1909. An Experimental Study on the Development of the Vascular Area of the Chick Blastoderm. Biol. Bull., Vol. 16, pp. 83-90.

Sabine, Florence R., 191 7. Preliminary Note on the Differentiation of Angioblasts and the Method by which they Produce Blood-vessels, Bloodplasma and Red Blood-cells as seen in the Living Chick. Anat. Rec, Vol. 13, pp. 199-204.

Stockard, C. R., 1915. An Experimental Analysis of the Origin of Blood and Vascular Endothelium. Memoirs Wistar Inst. No. 7, 174 pp.

Twining, Granville H., 1906. The Embryonic History of the Carotid Arteries in the Chick. Anat. Anz., Bd. XXIX, pp. 650-663.


The Digestive and Respiratory Systems and the Division of the Body Cavities

Boyden, Edward A., 191 8. Vestigial Gill P'ilaments in Chfck Embryos with a Note on Similar Structures in Reptiles. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol.23, pp. 205-235.

Brouha, M., 1898. Recherches sur le developpement du foie, du pancreas, de la cloison mesent^rique et des cavities hepato-enteriques chez les oiseaux. Jour, de I'anat. et phys., T. XXXIV.

Butler, G. W., 1889. On the Subdivisions of the Body-cavity in Lizards, Crocodiles, and Birds. Proc. Zool. Soc. London for 1889, pp. 452-474.

Hammar, G. A., 1897. Ueber einige Hauptziige der ersten embryonalen Leberentwickelung. Anat. Anz., Bd. XIII, pp. 233-247.

Lockward, C. B., 1888. The Early Development of the Pericardium, Diaphragm and Great Veins. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. CLXXIX, B,

PP- 365-384.

Locy, W. A., and Larsell, O., 1916. The Embryology of the Bird's Lung Based on Observations of the Domestic Fowl. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 19, pp. 447-504 and Vol. 20, pp. 1-44.

Mall, F. P., 1 891. Development of the Lesser Peritoneal Cavity in Birds and Mammals. Jour. Morph., Vol. V, pp. 165-179.

Minot, C. S., 1900. On the Solid Stage of the Large Intestine in the Chick. Jour. Bos. Soc. Med. Sc, Vol. IV.

Minot, C. S., 1900. On a Hitherto Unrecognized Form of Blood-circulation without Capillaries in the Organs of Vertebrata. Proc. Bos. Soc. of Nat. Hist., Vol. XXIX, pp. 185-215.

Ravn, E., 1899. Ueber die Entwickelung des Septum Transversum. Anat. Anz., Bd. XV, pp. 528-534.

Schreiner, K. E., 1900. Beitrage zur Hitologie und Embryologie des Vorderdarms der Vogel. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. LXVIII.


The Urinogenital System


Felix, u. Biihler., 1906. Die Entwickelung der Harn- und Geschlechts organe. Hertwig's Handbuch, etc., Bd. Ill, Teil I, K. II.

Firket, Jean, 1914. Recherches sur I'organogenese des glands sexuelles chez les oiseaux. Arch, de Biol., Tome 29, pp. 201-351.

Retterer, E., 1885. Contribution a I'etude du cloaque et de la bourse de Fabricius chez les oiseaux. Jour, de 1' anat. et de la phys. XXI, pp. 369-454.

Sedgwick, A., 1880. Development of the Kidney in its Relation to the Wolffian Body in the Chick. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sc, Vol. XX, pp. 146-166.

Sedgwick, A., 1881. On the Early Development of the Anterior Part of the Wolffian Duct and Body in the Chick Together with Some Remarks on the Excretory System of Vertebra ta. Quart. Jour. Micr. Sc, Vol. XXI, pp. 432-468.

Schreiner, K. E., 1902. Ueber die Entwickelung der Amniotenniere. Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. LXXI.


The Skeletal and Muscular Systems

Brachet, A., 1893. Etude sur la resorption de cartilage et le developpement des OS longs chez les cfiseaux. Internat. Monatschr. Anat. und Phys., Bd. X.

Engert, H., 1900. Die Entwickelung der ventralen Rumpfmuskulatur bei Vogeln. Morph. Jahrb., Bd. XXIX, pp. 169-185.

Isaacs, Raphael, 191 9. The Structure and Mechanics of Developing Connective Tissue. Anat. Rec, Vol. 17, pp. 243-270.

Johnson, Alice, 1883. On the Development of the Pelvic Girdle and Skeleton of the Hind Limb in the Chick. Quar, Jour. Micr. Sc, Vol. XXIIl.

Kingsbury, B. F., 1920. The Developmental Origin of the Notochord. Science, N. S., Vol. 51, pp. 190-193.

Parker, W. K., 1869. On the Structure and Development of the Skull of the Common Fowl (Gallus domesticus). Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London, Vol. CLIX, Part II, pp. 755-807.

Parker, W. K., 1888. On the Structure and Development of the Wing of the Common Fowl. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London, Vol. 179, Ser. B, pp. 385-398.

Paterson, A. M., 1888. On the Fate of the Muscle Plate and the Development of the Spinal Nerves and Limb Plexuses in Birds and Mammals. Quart. Jour. Mic Sci., Vol. 28, pp. 109-130.

Williams, L. W., 1910. The Somites of the Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. ii> PP- 55-100.


Extra -embryonic Membranes

DanchakojBf, Vera, 1917. The Position of the Respiratory Vascular Net in the Allantois of the Chick. Am. Jour. Anat., Vol. 21, pp. 407-420.

Duval, M., 1884. Etudes histologiques et morphologiques sur les annexes des embryon,s d'oiseaux. Jour, de I'anat. et de la phys., T. XX.

Lillie, F. R., 1903. Experimental Studies on the Development of the Organs in the Embryo of the Fowl (Gallus domesticus). i. Experiments on the Amnion and the Production of Anamiote Embryos of the Chick. Biol. Bull., Vol. V, pp. 92-124.

Popoff, D., 1894. Die Dottersackgefasse des Huhnes. Wiesbaden.

Shore, T. W., and Pickering, J. W., 1889. The Proamnion and Amnion in the Chick. Jour, of Anat. and Phys., Vol. XXIV, pp. 1-2 1.

Stuart, T. P. A., 1899. A Mode of Demonstrating the Developing Membranes in the Chick. Jour. Anat. and Phys., Vol. XXV, pp. 299-300.


The Ductless Glands

Atwell, W. J., and Sitler, Ida, 1918. The Early Appearance of the Anlagen of the Pars Tuberalis in the Hypophysis of the Chick, Anat. Rec, Vol. 15, pp. 181-187.

Poll, H., 1906. Die vergleichende Entwickelungsgeschichte der Neb'ennieren systeme der Wirbeltiere. Bd. Ill, Teil i, K. II, 2.

Soulie, A. H., 1903. Recherches sur le developpement des capsules surrenales chez les vertebres superieurs. Jour, de I'anat. et physiol., T. XXXIX, pp. 197-293.

Verdun, M. P., 1898. Sur les derives branchiaux du poulet. Comptes rendus Soc. Biol., Tom. V.


Anomalies

Alsop, Florence M., 1919. The Effect of Abnormal Temperatures upon the Developing Nervous System in the Chick Embryos. Anat. Rec, Vol. 15,

PP- 307-323 Glaser, O., 1913. On the Origin of Double-yolked Eggs. Biol. Bull., Vol. 24, pp. 175-186.

Mitchell, P. C, 1891. On a Double-chick Embryo. Jour, of Anat. and Physiol., Vol. 25, pp. 316-324.

Pohlman, A. G., 1920. A Consideration of the Branchial Arcades in Chick Based on the Anomalous Persistence of the Fourth Left Arch in a Sixteen-day Stage. Anat. Rec, Vol. 18, pp. 159-166.

O'Donoghue, C. H., 1910. Three Examples of Duplicity in Chick Embryos with a Case of Ovum in Ovo. Anat. Anz., Bd. 37, pp. 530-536.

Stockard, Charles R., 1914. The Artificial Production of Eye Abnormalities in the Chicken Embryo. Anat. Rec, Vol. 8, pp. 33-42.

Tannreuther, G. W., 1919. Partial and Complete Duplicity in Chick Embryos. Anat. Rec, Vol. 16, pp. 355-367.



The Early Embryology of the Chick: Introduction | Gametes and Fertilization | Segmentation | Entoderm | Primitive Streak and Mesoderm | Primitive Streak to Somites | 24 Hours | 24 to 33 Hours | 33 to 39 Hours | 40 to 50 Hours | Extra-embryonic Membranes | 50 to 55 Hours | Day 3 to 4 | References | Figures | Site links: Embryology History | Chicken Development


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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

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