Book - Human Embryology (1893)

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A personal message from Dr Mark Hill (May 2020)  
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I have decided to take early retirement in September 2020. During the many years online I have received wonderful feedback from many readers, researchers and students interested in human embryology. I especially thank my research collaborators and contributors to the site. The good news is Embryology will remain online and I will continue my association with UNSW Australia. I look forward to updating and including the many exciting new discoveries in Embryology!

Bandler SW. Uterine and Tubal Gestation (1893) William Wood & Company, New York.

  1993 Uterine and Tubal Gestation: 1 Uterine Gestation | 2 Tubal Gestation | 3 Ovarian and Placental Secretion

Online Editor  
Mark Hill.jpg If like me you are interested in development, then these historic embryology textbooks are fascinating in the detail and interpretation of embryology at that given point in time.

Important Note - As with all historic texts, terminology and developmental descriptions may differ from our current understanding. There may also be errors in transcription or interpretation from the original text. Currently only the text and figures are available online, all figures will have legends added at a later date.

Note that there are within the online text, references to specific pages that are relevant only in the original hardcopy text.

Samuel Wyllis Bandler (1869-1932)

Samuel Wyllis Bandler, M.D., 39 West 85 Street, New York City; graduated in medicine from the College of Physicians and Surgeons,New York City, in 1894; elected a Fellow of the Academy November 7, 1901; died, July 31, 1932. Dr. Bandler was a Fellow of the American Medical Associa- tion, a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, a member of the County and State Medical Societies, a member of the American Obstetrical Society, a member of the Association of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Abdom- inal Surgery, and Consulting Gynecologist to the Post-Graduate Hospital.

Selections from the library of the late Dr. Samuel Wyllis Bandler

Internet Archive

See also by this author - The Endocrines (1921)

Historic Embryology Textbooks
Modern Notes: ectopic pregnancy

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
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Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Uterine and Tubal Gestation

A Study Of The Embedding And Development Of The Human Ovum, The Early Growth Of The Embryo, And The Development Of The Syncytium And Placental Gland


Samuel Wyllis Bandler, M.D. (1869-1932)

Instructor in Gynecology, N. Y. Post-Graduate Medical School

Illustrated By Ninety-Three Drawings

Dr. Francis Huber 209 E. 17th St. N. Y. City

New York William Wood & Company MDCCCCIII

Copyrighted, 1903, BY SAMUEL WYLLIS HANDLER.

PRESS OF Stettiner Brothers, 62-58 Duane St., NEW YORK.

Dedicated to Ferdinand Graf von Spee, Professor of Anatomy in the University of Kiel.,

In Admiration Of His Most Valuable Contributions To Our Scientific Knowledge And In Gratitude For Personal Kindnesses.


Many of these pages appeared in The American Journal op Obstetrics and Gynecology under the title, ' ' On the Etiology, Histology, and Usual Course of Ectopic Gestation." Enough has been added to make the processes antedating and accompanying uterine gestation fairly complete and up to date. The essential features in this channel, as regards the earliest stages, are to be credited to Spee. Attempt has been made to aid in the decision concerning several doubtful problems, particularly as to the origin of the syncytium. Attention has been paid to the decided probability that the placenta is a gland with potentials of great importance from the standpoint of secretion. Some personal views concerning the formation of villi and the bloodforming function of the trophoblast have been brought forward with a full realization that criticism and further observations are to prove them correct or otherwise. In spite of the great labors of gifted investigators, final decision is yet to be given on many points, so changeable are the processes at various stages and so probable is it that many ova are pathological.

To Minot, Mall, v. Spee, and others we are greatly indebted for pioneer work on allied questions. The subject of chorioma, or chorio-epithelioma, has been introduced, because in its microscopical character it so closely reproduces many normal conditions.

I am under great personal obligation to Dr. A. Brothers for the gross specimens which furnished the material for Part II and a portion of Part III. He placed all of his large material and histories at my disposal, for which kindnesses I here express my sincerest thanks.

Samuel Wyllis Bandler.


Part I. The Essentials Of Uterine Gestation

I. The Processes Antedating Uterine Gestation

A. The Trophic Influence of the Ovary

B. Constitutional Changes Dependent on the Ovary

C. Menstruation

D. The Action of Ovarian Secretion on the Endometrium.

E. The Relation of Ovulation and Menstruation

F. Ovulation

II. The Embedding of the Ovum in the Guinea-Pig

A. Uterus of the Guinea-Pig

B. The Embedding of the Guinea-Pig's Ovum

III. The Embedding of the Human Ovum

A. The Uterus

Decidua Menstrualis

Decidua Graviditatis in the First Week

Decidua Graviditatis

B. The Embedding of the Human Ovum

Ovum in the Earliest Stages


The Enveloping Zone

IV. The Early Development of the Human Ovum

Division into Embryonal and Extra-Embyronal Areas

V. The Trophoblast in the Ova of Animals

The Earliest Development of the Ectoblastic Extra-Embryonal Area

VI. The Trophoblast of the Human Ovum

The Earliest Development of the Ectoblastic Extra-Embryonal Area of the Ovum


The Primary Intervillous Space

VII. The Further Development of the Human Ovum

The Early Development of the Embryonal Area

VIII. The Chorionic Villi

A. Early Development

B. In the Fourth Week of Uterine Gestation

IX. The Membrana Chorii

X. The Blood-Forming Function of the Trophoblast

XI. The Further Development of the Uterine Placenta

XII. The Placenta

XIII. The Umbilical Vessels and Cord

A. The Umbilical Vessels

B. The Umbilical Cord

C. The Amnion

XIV. Gross Anatomy of the Placenta

Part II. The Essentials of Tubal Gestation

I. Processes Antedating Gestation in the Tube


II. Varying Views Concerning the Histology of Tubal Gestation

The Decidua

Embedding of the Ovum, the Reflexa or Capsularis

Intervillous Space




III. Embedding of the Ovum and the Development of Extra-Embryonal structures

I. The Columnar Type of Tubal Gestation

II. The Intercolumnar Type of Tubal Gestation

III. The Centrifugal Type of Tubal Gestation


IV. The Usual Course of Tubal Gestation

Part III. Ovarian and Placental Secretion

The Relation of the Chorionic Epithelium to Chorio-Epithe lioma 145

Chorio-Epithelioma or Chorioma 151

List of Illustrations

1. Uterine horn ( Spee) 18

2. Compact zone of uterine lining (Spee) 19

3. Ovum free in uterine cavity ( Spee) 20

3a. Ovum adherent to uterine epithelium (Spee) 21

4. Ovum partially embedded ( Spee) 22

5. Further stage of embedding (Spee) 23

6. Partially embedded ovum ( Spee) 24

7. Ovum surrounded by symplasma ( Spee) 25

8. Almost embedded ovum ( Spee) 26

9. Ovum entirely under uterine epithelium (Spee) 27

10. Demarkation of symplasma (Spee) 28

11. Embedded ovum ( Spee) 29

12. Completely embedded, growing ovum (Spee) 30

13. Rapidly-growing ovum (Spee) 32


14. Menstrual decidua (Abel) 34

14c. Decidua in the second month (Abel) 35

146. Gland in the decidua graviditatis 36

15. Schematic; embedding human ovum (Peters) 37

16. Schematic; embedded human ovum (Peters) 38


17. Schematic; ovum with ectoblast and entoblast 40

17c. Schematic ; ovum with amnion 40

176. Schematic; ovum with separating amnion 41

17c. Schematic; ovum with ectoblast, entoblast, amnion, germinal plate, but no mesoblast 41

18. Schematic; ovum with beginning growth of mesoblast 42

18c. Schematic; ovum with three germinal layers 42

19. Ovum with three germinal layers ( Peters) 43

19c. Schematic; ovum with mesoblastic periembryonal slit 45


20. Trophoblast, etc., of three-day ovum (Peters) 50

21. Central portion of trophoblast layer (Peters) 51

22. Trophoblast infiltrated with blood lacunse (Peters) 52

23. Change of trophoblast to syncytium (Peters) 53

24. Scheme of earliest stage of placenta (Peters) 54


25. Ovum v. H. of Spee 57

26. Longitudinal section through 25 5&

27. Fig. 26 enlarged 58

28. Germinal plate of ovum v. H. of Spee 59

29. Ventral curve in the germinal plate . . 69

29a. Embryo Gle of Spee 60

296. Embryo Gle of Spee 61

30. Three layers of a human embryo (Keibel) 62

30a. The forming of the intestine (Kollman) 63

30o. Human embryo 2-4 mm. long (His) 63

30c. Caudal end of embryo 3 mm. long (Keibel) 64

30a. Schematic; embryo with ventral surface toward the abdominal pedicle 64

30e. Schematic; embryonal formation (Waldeyer) 65


31. Schematic; later stage of placental development (Peters) 67

31a. A well-developed villus 68

31&. An outgrowth on the membrana chorii 69

32. Villus composed of trophoblast cells 70

32a. Villus with protoplasmatic trophoblast cells 70

33. Villus with beginning centre of mesoderm 71

34. Older villus 71

35. Villus in various stages 72

35a. Cell group with invading syncytium 72

35&. Further stage of 35a 73

35c. Further stage of 35& 73


36. Membrana chorii of five-weeks ovum 78

37. Vacuoles in membrana chorii 79

38. Membrana chorii of tubal ovum 85


39. Uterus and fetal sac of seventh week 89

40. Decidua vera 90

41. Cell groups invading the serotina 91

42. Syncytial cells invading the serotina 91


43. Uterus and placenta at full term 95

44. Utero-placenta junction at full term 95

45. Invading fetal cells 96

46. Placental villi 96


46a. Young embryo, with amnion 101

466. Schematic; umbilical cord 102

46c. Scheme of placenta 104


47. Columnar type of tubal gestation 121

47a. Ovum 47, magnified 122

48. Tubal ovum 47 123

49. A more peripheral section of 47 123

50. A still more peripheral section of 47 124

51. Most peripheral section of 4 7 125

52. Change of trophoblast to syncytium 126

53. Inter columnar Type of Tubal Gestation 127

54. Serotinal area of 53 128

54a. Typical area of 54 128

55. Serotinal area of 53 129

55a. Area of Fig. 55 130

56. Tubal gestation sac with fetus — Centrifugal Type of Tubal Gestation 131

56a. Tubal ovum with capsularis 132

57. Capsularis and tube wall of 56a 133

58. Advancing trophoblast cells of 57 134

59. Serotinal area of 56a 135


60. Typical form of chorioma 152

61. Fig. 60 magnified 153

62. Fig. 61 magnified 154

63. Fig. 60 magnified 155

64. Atypical form of chorioma 156