Book - Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution No.42

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Essick CR. Formation of macrophages by the cells lining the subarachnoid cavity in response to the stimulus of particulate matter. (1920) Carnegie Instn. Wash. Publ., Contrib. Embryol., 42: .

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Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Formation Of Macrophages By The Cells Lining The Subarachnoid Cavity In Response To The Stimulus Of Particulate Matter

By Charles R. Essick,

Captain, Medical Corpx, U.S. Army, Army Neuro-surgical Laboratory, Baltimore.

With one plate.

Introduction

In the course of a study of the processes involved in the localization of an infection within a focus in the nervous system, certain physiological reactions of the cells lining the subarachnoid space have been noted. When active or inert particles of matter are injected into the subarachnoid cavity of a hving animal, the cells lining the space hypertrophy, lose their normal attachments, and engage in removing the debris. The importance of such a formation of free-living cells from fixed elements in any process involving destruction and repair in the meninges (infection, hemorrhage, etc.) becomes apparent. The control of cell-reaction promises much in the ultimate therapy of such conditions.


Physiological activity of cells has always been an attractive study, two functions of which may be readily demonstrated in fixed preparations, — i. e., phagocytosis and amoeboid wandering. We are accustomed to think of cells as peculiarly fitted to the specialized work in which they are normally engaged ; for example, the peritoneal and pleural surfaces are membranes of cells specifically adapted to the free movement of viscera; endothelium of blood-vessels forms a closed tube for conducting the various chemicals used in tissue economy; connective tissue furnishes a supporting framework, and so on. As a corollary to this idea we have to employ a special set of unattached cells to remove products formed during the normal wear and tear of the tissues, and to overcome and remove any noxious stimulants.


The kaleidoscopic changes which take place in inflammation have attracted many observers to the role played by the so-called fixed cells and have given rise to a large number of conflicting views. It seems unnecessary, for a clear understanding of this paper, to go into these conceptions in detail. Accumulated evidence leaves little doubt that, under certain conditions, the normal specialized function becomes a secondary characteristic and the more primitive attributes of the unicellular organism become the predominant features. In other words, unless a cell has become too highly specialized the primitive functions of free amoeboid movement and phagocj-tosis may be elicited by the proper type of stimulation in cells which normally are regarded as sessile or fixed elements. The connective tissues have furnished Maximow with a host of cells (polyblasts) , normally sessile and in fact almost indistinguishable from their neighbors; such polyblasts under stimulation become amoeboid and phagocytic. At times even the fibroblasts may round up and behave toward irritants in the same way that the polyblasts do. Schott (1909), confirmed by Goldmann (1912), showed that the mesothehal Uning of the pleural and peritoneal cavity could furnish free-moving phagocytic cells. In exactly the same way, when the destruction of brain tissue occurs, neuroglia cells pull in their protoplasmic processes and become globular and phagocytic (Alzheimer, 1910). The endothelium of blood vessels has been recognized for a long time as furnishing large phagocytic cells in areas of inflammation. Evans (1915), by offering trypan-blue to the endothelium of the liver, lymph glands, and spleen, has observed the formation of a new circulating mononuclear blood element (macrophage) which buds off the lining of the vessel lumen, but only after prolonged irritation.



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Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic Textbook" and "Historic Embryology" appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms and interpretations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2019, October 21) Embryology Book - Contributions to Embryology Carnegie Institution No.42. Retrieved from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Book_-_Contributions_to_Embryology_Carnegie_Institution_No.42

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© Dr Mark Hill 2019, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G